A THESIS Presented as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Magister Humaniora (M.Hum.) Degree in English Language Studies

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Presented as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements

to Obtain the

Magister Humaniora (M.Hum.)

Degree in

English Language Studies


09 6332 007









Presented as a Partial Fulfillment of theRequireents

to Obtain the

Magister Humaniora(M.Hum.)

Degree in English Language Studies


09 6332007












Student number 09 6332 007

Approved by

Dr. B.B. Dwijatmoko, M.A










Student number 09 6332 007

Defended before the Thesis Committee

and Declared Acceptable


Chair person : ………….. _______________

Secretary : ………….. _______________

Members : 1. ………. _______________

2. ………_______________

Yogyakarta, August 15, 2012 The Graduate Program Director

Sanata Dharma University




This work is dedicated

to God The Almighty,

in His hands, my path was clear and smooth,

to M Silalahi,

a man, who God created me for,

to Joshua,

who unfailingly encouraged me with his laughter and love since you were born,

to my students,




This is to certify that all ideas, phrases, sentences, unless otherwise stated,

are the ideas, phrases, and sentences of the thesis writer. The writer understands

the full concequences including degree cancellation if she took other somebody’s

ideas, phrases, or sentences without proper references.

Yogyakarta, August 15, 2012





Yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini, saya mahasiswi Universitas Sanata dharma :

Nama : S. Tri Budiyati

No mahasiswa : 09 6332 007

Demi perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan, saya memberikan kepada Perpustakaan

Universitas Sanata Dharma karya ilmiah saya yang berjudul:


beserta perangkat yang diperlukan (bila ada). Dengan demikian saya memberikan

kepada Perpustakaan Universitas Sanata dharma hak untuk menyimpan,

mengalihkan data dalam bentuk lain, mengelolanya dalam bentuk pangkalan data,

mendistribusikan secara terbatas, dan mempublikasikannya di internet atau media

lain untuk kepentingan akademis tanpa meminta ijin dari saya maupun

memberikan royalti kepada saya selama tetap mencantumkan nama saya sebagai


Demikian pernyataan ini saya buat dengan sebenarnya.

Yogyakarta, August 15,2012

Yang menyatakan




I bend my knees down deeply on the ground and look up to the highest

peak of the sky to offer a very great gratitude to my Lord, Jesus Christ, for

without His participation everything is nothing, without His hands I could not

finish this study.

I would like to express my sincerest gratitude to Dr. B.B. Dwijatmoko,

M.A. as my advisor who helped me very much on planting the seed for this initial

idea of this study and played a very big role on bringing it to fruition. Thank you

very much for your guidance, patience, valuable suggestions and wisdom.

My deepest gratitude also goes to the participants of the research, the

group of Junior High School English teachers of the Lesson Study, for their

kindness and permission for me to conduct the research. I am so grateful to have

them for their willingness to share their personal experience.

I would also like to express my deep gratitude to F.X. Mukarto, Ph.D.for

his wonderful class on SLA. It always reminds me on the way a language is


My deep appreciation also goes to Dr. J. Bismoko for his philosophycal

words such as “How to be more meaningful for others”. I always remember the


This following gratitude goes to my beloved lecturer, Dr. Novita Dewi,

M.S., M.A. (Hons). From her lecture I learnt that words have many colours and

must be seen from different angles. It energized and empowered me very much.



In particular, I am very greatful for the help and guidance given by my

great fellows friends of evening class 2009; Bu Aris, Bu Yanti, Bu Dian, Bu

Woro, Pak Kongko and Dik Iwan who have been directly involved in the

development of my knowledge and skills during I attended the lectures.

Last but not the least, my greatest gratitude is offered to my beloved

husband, M Silalahi, and son, Joshua, for their great love and endless prayer.




TITLE PAGE………..……..…..i

APPROVAL PAGE ……….…..…ii







LIST OF TABLES ………...xii

LIST OF FIGURES………...………..xiii


ABSTRACT ……….………xv

ABSTRAK ……….……….xvi CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the research……….………..1

B. ProblemIdentification …………...5

C. Problemformulation…..………...6

D. Research Objectives………...6

E. Research Benefits ……….……….7

CHAPTERII LITERATURE REVIEW A. Theoretical Review……….………...…..8

1. Professional Development………...……….…………..8

. 2. Professional Teachers………...…..11

a. Teachers’ Competence………..…….….11

b. The Implementation of Teachers’ Competence………...…...15

3. An Overview of Lesson Study……….……….……….19

4. The Implementation of Lesson Study………….……….………..20



B. Review of Related Study………,,……,.…..28

C. Theoretical Framework………,……….…..30


B. Nature and Sources of Data……….37

C. Instruments………...…………...39

D. Data Gathering Techniques……….44

E. Research Procedure ………...……….46

F. Data Processing………...………48

CHAPTER IV RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS A. Results of Data Analysis……….…….……..51

1. The Cycles of Lesson Study………..51

a. The First Cycle ………52

b. The Second Cycle ………53

2. Teachers’ Activities and Actions………53

a. Working All Together on a Lesson Preparation …….……….…...55

b. Teaching Practice ……….…...59

c. Observation ……….……62

d. Evaluation and Reflection.……….…..63

3. Students’ Point of View………,……..65

B. The Distinctions from other Lesson Study……….…….68

C. Teacher’s Professional Development……….…….69

1. Planning………...……….…...70

2. Implementation……..………....…76

3. Observation ……..……….……80

4. Evaluation and Reflection.……….…...….81






A. The Process of the Lesson Study…….……….……..93

B. Observation Sheets in the Classroom……….…….…...104

C. Teachers’ Interview Guidelines ……….……….….110

D. Students’ Questionnaire ….……….……….111

E. Transcript of the interview……….…….,………..115

1. Transcript of the Interview with Mrs.Yunda ……….….…….…115

2. Transcript of the Interview with Mrs. Dinda ………...………123




Table 2.1 Blueprint Pre-figured Themes of Teachers’ Activities………...35

Table 3.1 Teacher’s Interview Guidelines ……….….40

Table 3.2 Observation Sheet in the Classroom ……….…..42

Table 3.3 Sample of Students’ Questionnaire ……….…44

Table 3.4 The Preocedure of the Research ……….…47

Table 3.5 Qualitative Table ………50

Table 4.1 Themes ………...54

Table 4.2 Observation sheet on the Lesson Plan ………56

Table 4.3 The Results of Students’ Questionnaire ……….……66







S K = Standar Kompetensi

K D = Kompetensi Dasar

BKOF = Building Knowledge of the Field

MOT = Modeling of Text

JCOT = Joint Construction of Text

ICOT = Independence Construction of Text

S K L = Standar Kompetensi lulusan




S.Tri Budiyati. 2012. English Teachers’ Professional Development through Lesson Study. Yogyakarta: The Graduate Program, English Language Studies, Sanata Dharma University.

Nowadays, teachers’ professionalism has become a hot issue. People blame teachers as the culprits behind the failure of education. For that reason, teachers need to always update their competence. It is not only to cover the goal of the curriculum but also to catch up with the development of science and technology. Lesson Study is a Japanese form of professional development that centers on collaborative study of live classroom lessons (Lewis 2006). In Indonesia, Lesson Study for mathematics has been applied in Malang, Yogyakarta, and Bandung. The purpose of this study was to describe how English teachers developed their professionalism through Lesson Study.

This study implemented a qualitative method. The qualitative method addresses the questions directed toward a deeper understanding of social phenomena (Creswell 2007). According to Creswell (2007) a phenomenological study describes the meaning for several individuals of their lived experiences of a phenomenon. The data of this study were gathered by actually seeing the teachers behave and act within the issue and talking directly to the participants experienced the issue under this study in the field. The instruments used in collecting the data were observation, in-depth interview, and questionnaire. A group of four junior high school English teachers participated in Lesson Study were as the participants of this research. The observation was done to the lesson study group on conducting a lesson study. The first interview was done to a Junior high school English teachers supervisor. The second interview was done to a teacher who implemented a lesson plan in a school where she did not teach. The questionnaires were given to the students where the teachers conducted the lesson study.

The findings shows some activities in the lesson study which develop teacher’s professionalism. The activities were planning a lesson, implementing the lesson plan, observing the lesson, and evaluating the lesson. On planning a lesson the teachers worked together and shared their knowledge to design a lesson plan. They decided the goal of the lesson, arranged the steps to achieve the goal, developed the instructional material, and decided the teaching media and evaluation instruments. On the implementation of the lesson plan the model teachers improved their teaching skills and their self-confidence. They built new interaction with different students. On being the observers to other teachers teaching, the teachers learnt from the way other teachers teaching. In the evaluation process the teachers evaluated the strengths and weaknesses of the lesson plan and its implementation. The process of lesson study built good communication and relationship among the members of the group.




S. Tri Budiyati. 2012. English Teachers’ Professional Development through Lesson Study. Yogyakarta: Program Pasca Sarjana, Kajian Bahasa Inggris, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Saat ini, profesionalisme guru menjadi hal yang sedang hangat diperbincangkan. Kesalahan akan ditimpakan pada guru sebagai aktor utama jika terjadi kegagalan di dunia pendidikan. Untuk itu, guru perlu selalu memperbarui kompetensi mereka agar tidak tertinggal oleh perkembangan ilmu pengetahuan dan teknologi yang berkembang dengan pesat. Berdasarkan Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Republik Indonesia, Nomor 16 Tahun 2007 tentang Kompetensi Guru dan Standar Kualifikasi Akademik, guru sebagai agen pendidikan harus memiliki empat kompetensi utama yaitu kompetensi pedagogi, kepribadian, sosial, dan akademik. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menggambarkan aktifitas yang dilakukan sekelompok guru Bahasa Inggris dalam mengembangkan profesionalisme mereka sebagai guru melalui kegiatan Lesson Study.

Metodologi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah penelitian kualitatif. Instrumen yang digunakan dalam pengumpulan data adalah observasi, wawancara, dan kuesioner. Sekelompok guru Bahasa Inggris SMP yang sedang melakukan kegiatan Lesson Study menjadi partisipan dari penelitian ini. Para guru tersebut diamati selama mereka melakukan kegiatan lesson study mereka dalam merencanakan pembelajaran (Plan), melaksanakan rencana pembelajaran dalam kelas (Do), dan mengevaluasi pelaksanaan pembelajaran (See). Wawancara pertama dilakukan pada seorang pengawas guru bahasa Inggris SMP yang juga merupakan anggota dari tim lesson study tersebut. Wawancara kedua dilakukan pada seorang guru yang menjadi guru model dalam melaksanakan lesson study di sekolah dimana ia tidak mengajar. Kuesioner diberikan pada siswa dimana kelompok guru tersebut melakukan lesson study.

Dalam melakukan lesson study mereka melakukan empat kegiatan pokok yaitu; perencanaan, pelaksanaan, obervasi, dan evaluasi. Kegiatan yang menunjang pengembangan profesional merekayang dilakukan di dalam tahap perencanaan adalah menyusun rencana pelaksanaan pembelajaran (RPP) secara bersama-sama. Pada tahap pelaksanaan, aktifitas yang menunjang pengembangan profesi mereka adalah dengan menjadi guru model dan menjadi pengamat pada proses kegiatan belajar mengajar dari RPP yang telah disusun mereka bersama sebelumnya. Pada tahap evaluasi mereka mengevaluasi pelaksanaan dari RPP mereka dan melakukan revisi atas kelemahan yang mereka temukan dalam proses belajar mengajar.





This chapter presents the background information related to the research

problem. Thepurpose is to provide a framework for the study so that readers know

the importance of the issue under study. The chapter contains six major sections,

namely (a) background, (b) problem identification, (c) problem formulation, (d)

research objectives, and (e) research benefits.

A. Background

In order to improve the quality of education our government released

Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008 about teachersin which it is

very important for teachers to see and understand their responsibilities as the main

characters on education.Stated in the regulation that teachers are educators with

the primary tasks of educating, teaching, guiding, directing, coaching, assessing

and evaluating learners (article 1). Teachers are the agents of learning who have

the function to improve the quality of national education (article 4). Teachers

should have four competences which include pedagogy, personality, social, and

academic competences (article10). In executing their duties they have to: (a) plan

the lesson, implement the lesson plan, and assess and evaluate the learning

outcomes; (b) enhance and develop academic qualifications and competence on an

ongoing basis in line with the development of science, technology, and art (article

20 a -b).


People see the main culprits behind the reason of why the quality of our education

is low are teachers.They judge that teachers are not qualified enough for teaching.

They have low competences. The reasons are that teachers are not motivated to

develop their professionalism; they are not encouraged to update their knowledge

and skills. Some of them are reluctant to join such kind of teachers‟ professional development programs; seminars, workshops or in-service training programs,

because most of the programs need money to join.

The government pays attention to this issue very much.Our government

thinksthat it is very important to always support and facilitate teachers to develop

their professionalism. One of the government‟s efforts is releasing certification program. A teacher who can fulfill certain qualification will be given an

educator-certificate. The educator-certificate is an indication that the teacher is a

professional person. As stated in Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74,

2008 about Teachers that there are 10 components should be completed by

teachers for certification program; (1) academic qualification, (2) training and

workshops, (3) teaching experience, (4) teaching program, (5) official judgment,

(6) academic prestige, (7) professional development, (8) scientific meeting, (9)

organizational experience on education and social, and (10) relevant award. This

program is very challenging for teachers, for the teachers who fulfill the

qualification will get an incentive reward.

Teachers need to update their knowledge and skills to catch up with the

curriculum which changes from time to time. The curriculum of education in our

country has changed many times. It changed in such aspects, as its approach,


movement of the needs and the development of the society and technology.

Directly it has some effects on how teachers implement the curriculum especially

in the teaching and learning process. They have to find the suitable way of their

teaching. They need to change their strategy, method or approach in order to

achieve the goal of the curriculum. As what happened in the latest curriculum,

curriculum 2006, it is a competency based curriculum. It contains standard

competences and basic competences. In this curriculum teachers are free to decide

the instructional design based on the situation and condition of the school where

they are teaching. This condition requires teachers to be more creative and

professional on being able to adjust themselves on fulfilling the target of the


Teachers rarely discuss about teaching problems, students‟ development,

or teaching improvement together. We rarely see teachers sharing their teaching

experiences in the teachers‟ office. It is common that teaching is a private activity.

A teacher is the master in the classroom. Whatever happens in the classroom is

closed. It is within the teacher and the students only. How far the teacher does a

reflection on what and how the teaching and learning process becomes the

teacher‟s autonomy.

Teachers need professional development. It is not only to cover the goal

and material of the curriculum but also to catch up with the development of the

technology and science. Teachers need to learn more to acquire the new

technology and science and then transfer them to the students. The world outside

the classroom develops very fast. It will be wiser if the teachers do not step behind


activities such as attending seminar, workshop, study groups, peer collaboration,

mentoring, etc.

Lesson study is a Japanese form of professional development that centers

on collaborative study of live classroom lessons (Lewis 2006).Lesson study is a

direct translation from the Japanese word jugyokenkyuwhich is composed of two words: jugyo which means lesson, and kenkyu which means research. In doing lesson study some teachers, usually 4 to 6 teachers make a group of leson study.

They are planning a lesson together. One of the teachers implements the lesson

plan in the classroom. During the lesson the other teachers are as observers. And

then they make a reflection to see what should be revised and improved.

In Indonesia, lesson study for mathematics has been applied in three

regions (Malang, Yogyakarta, and Bandung) since 2006 through a scheme

Strengthening In-Service Teacher Training of Mathematics and Science

(SISTTEMS) (Susilo 2007). Lesson study is a process by which teachers and

teacher educators work together to critically improve the quality of classroom

practice through a planning, observation and reflection cycle. Their activities are

based on the principles of collegiality and mutual – learning to develop a learning community (Suratno and Cock 2009).

Professional development is very valuable for teachers in the process of

teaching and learning. Lesson Study offers teachers to develop their

professionalism. From that reason the purpose of this study is to give description

and interpretation on how English teachers develop their professionalism through

lesson study. This study is based on a research on one cycle of lesson study done


lesson study consists of the three phases activities of lesson study: Plan, Do, and


B. Problem identification

Most teachers are concerned about their professional development,

although they do it as the positive impacts of certification program from the

government. Because of the certification program there are large numbers of

teachers attending various professional development programs, such as continuing

their study to S1, S2, or S3, attending conferences, taking part in seminars,

workshops and short courses. The positive impacts of what have been done by the

teachers are that the teachers have better knowledge, skills and experience which

isneeded to the improvement of their classroom practice and learning experience

of their students.

Teachers need to update their knowledge and skills to be able to

implement the new curriculum. Based on the new curriculum teachers should be

able to design the lesson plan which will be implemented in the classroom.After

the implementation of the lesson plan in the classroom teachers should evaluate

whether the lesson plan is good or not on achieving the goals in the curricullum.

Can teachers understand every new curriculum by themselves?

From the background above there are some problems identified. There are

how teachers update their professionalism, how teachers develop their

competencies, how teachers improve their knowledge and skills, what teachers do

to keep up with the development of technology and science, and how teachers


C. Problem formulation

According to Guskey (2000), professional development is process and

activities designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes of

educators. “Development generally refers to general growth not focused on a

specific job” (Richards and Farrel 2005: 4)

Lesson study basically involves a group of teachers who do the planning,

implementation, and post-learning reflection together to form a synergistic

learning community. Teachers are working collaboratively. First, they analyze the

problem of learning, both from the aspect of teaching materials and teaching

methods. Furthermore, the teachers also collaboratively find solutions and design

student-centered learning. The next step is to apply the lesson plan in class by a

teacher, the others are as observers of student activities, and then it is followed by

a discussion after the lesson to reflect on it. This research will specifically address

a research question “How do English teachers develop their professionalism

through lesson study?”

D. Research Objectives

In order to improve the quality of education the government released

Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008 about teachers. Article

number 10 states that teachers should have four competences. The four

competences include pedagogic, personal, social, and academic competences.

As previously stated above that this research will specifically address to a

question, ‟How do English teachers develop their professionalism through lesson

study?” In relation to the research question, the objective of this research is to


competences: (1) pedagogic, (2) personal, (3) social, and (4) academic

competences through lesson study.

E. Research benefits

This study would describe how English teachers developed the four

competences of teacher‟s professionalism through lesson study. They are

pedagogic, personal, social, and academic competence. The description is a kind

of information for English teachers, schools, government and teachers in all

subjects as well as any parties who are concerned with education.

Based on the description of this study teachers will acknowledge some

aspects of lesson study that are in line with teachers‟ professional

development.They will see the effectiveness of the lesson study on examining and

improving their lesson preparation and teaching practice. The description and

interpretation are also valuable for further research related to the use of lesson

study in other lines. In other words, the result of this study will give contribution





This chapter attempts to place this study in the context of English teachers‟

professional development through lesson study. It provides basic information

about some keywords in this study from some relevant literatures. It consists of

three major sections, namely, (a) theoretical review, (b) review of related study

and (c) theoretical framework.

A. Theoretical Review

This section will elaborate some keywords that are used in this study. It

will lead the subject being studied more closely and accurately. It will give more

comprehension to the construct of the object studied. There are four notions to be

explored, namely, (1) professional development, (2) professional teacher, (3)

lesson study, and (4) action research.

1. Professional Development

According to the thesaurus of the Educational Resources Information

Center data base (ncrel.org), professional development refers to some activities to

enhance the professional career growth. Such activities may include individual

development, continuing education, and in-service education, as well as

curriculum writing, peer collaboration, study groups, and peer coaching or

mentoring. There are some overviews given by Guskey, Richard and Farrel,

Rodrigues, Glatthorn, and Rasidas and Glassto see more deeply what professional


Guskey (2000) defines professional development as process and activities

designed to enhance the professional knowledge, skills, and attitudes of educators.

He also states that there are three characteristics of professional development.

First, professional development is a purposeful and intentional process. It is a

consciously design effort to bring about positive change and improvement to the

educators. Second, professional development is an ongoing process. The process

grows and develops continuously. Third, professional development is a systemic

process. It is a deliberate process, guided by a clear vision of purposes and

planned goals. These goals formed the criteria by which content and material are

selected, processes and procedures developed, and assessments and evaluation


Strategies for teacher development often involve documenting different kinds of teaching practices; reflective analysis of teaching practices, examining beliefs, values, and principles; conversation with peers on core issues; and collaborating with peers on classroom project. (Richards and Farrel 2005:4)

Professional development is a continuous process of individual and

collective examination and improvement of practice. It should empower

individual educators and communities of educators to make complex decisions; to

identify and solve problems; and to connect theory, practice, and student

outcomes. “Mutual sharing of knowledge and experience is a valuable source of

teachers‟ professional growth.” (Richards and Farrel 2005: 2). Professional

development also should enable teachers to offer students the learning

opportunities. Professional development should deepen and broaden knowledge of

content. It should provide a strong foundation in the pedagogy of particular


development should be rooted in and reflect the best available research. The

content of professional development should be aligned with the standards and

curriculum teachers‟ use. Professional development should contribute to

measurable improvement in student achievement. Professional development

should be intellectually engaging and address the complexity of teaching.

Professional development should provide sufficient time, support, and resources

to enable teachers to master new content and pedagogy and to integrate this

knowledge and skill into their practice. Professional development should be

designed by teachers in cooperation with experts in the field. Professional

development should take a variety of forms, including some we have not typically

considered. Rodrigues (2005) states that according to Tobin, Briscoe, and Holman

(1990) that personal reflection, the commitment to personal change and the

reconstruction of personal understanding of teaching and learning, and the

ultimately classroom practice have a significant role to play in teacher

professional development. ”Professional development has no fixed route if it is viewed as lifelong learning” (Rodrigues 2005: 4).

Professional development refers to knowledge and skills attained for both

personal development and career advancement. English teachers‟ professional development is that teachers enhance and nurture their knowledge of the subject

they are teaching and their teaching skills through evaluating or reflecting their

teaching experience. “Teacher‟s development is the professional growth a teacher

achieves as a result of gaining increased experience and examining his or her

teaching systematically” (Glatthorn 1995: 41). Teachers‟ professional


collaborate with peers, exchange ideas, and provide and receive peer feedback;

when they reflect critically on what they are doing; when they work on real-world,

challenging, authentic activities; when they work is constantly evaluated; and

when they are intrinsically motivated (Rasidas and Glass 2004)

2. Professional Teachers

Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008 about Teachers

states that teachers are professional educators. They should have: (a) an academic

qualification, (b) four competences, (c) an educator certificate, and (d) an ability

to achieve national education goal. They should be healthy inside and outside.

Their main tasks are to educate, to teach, to guide, to train, to assess, and to

evaluate the students. To do that a teacher should have a set of knowledge, skill,

and attitude that should be actualized in his professional on doing his work (article

3). He should posses the academic qualification which is suitable for the subject

he is teaching. It is also stated in Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74,

2008 about Teacher that teachers should have four competencies which include

pedagogy, personality, social, and academic competence and apply the four

competences in their real work.

a. Teacher‟s Competence

Based on The Regulation of National Education Minister of Republic of

Indonesia Number 16, 2007 on Teachers Competence and Academic Qualification

Standard, teachers are as the agents of education. They should have four main

teachers‟ competences, pedagogic, personal, social, and academic competences.


Pedagogic competence is teacher‟s competence on some aspects. The first

aspect is teacher‟s understanding on his students. On understanding students a

teacher should understand his students physically, morally, spiritually, socially,

culturally, emotionally, and intellectually. Teachers are able to identify students‟ potential on the subject being taught and to know the initial input of the students‟ competence. They have to understand students‟ difficulties on learning the subject. The second is applying various approaches, strategies, methods, and

techniques on teaching and learning. The third is developing curriculum. The

activities on developing curriculum are deciding learning objectives, developing

learning experience/activities, choosing learning material and developing

indicators and evaluation instruments. The fourth is managing an educational

learning. It includes designing comprehensible lesson plan, implementing the

lesson plan and applying learning media process and resources. The next aspect is

using information and technology in teaching and learning. A teacher should have

a competence on building interaction withlearners. The interaction with the

students should be built effectively, empathetically, and politely. The next aspect

is a teacher should carry out assessment and evaluation. This activity includes

determining theaspects of the assessment and evaluation, developing the

assessment and evaluation instruments, conducting and analysing the result of the

assessment and evaluation. The results of the assessment and evaluation are

usedto improve the learning such as designing remedial and enrichment program.

The last teacher„s competence on pedagogic competence is conducting reflective


In Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008, section 2,

pedagogic competence is a teacher‟s competence on designing, implementing, and evaluating teaching and learning process. This competence includes teacher‟s

ability on understanding students‟ characteristics. Different students‟ characteristics need different teacher‟s understanding on choosing the method and

strategy in the teaching and learning process.

Personal competence is teachers‟ competence on: (1) acting in accordance with the norms of religions, law, social, and Indonesian culture; (2) respecting

students‟ diversity; (3) presenting themselves as honest persons with noble

characters and as the model of their students; (4) showing them selves as mature,

wise, stable, and authoritative persons; (5) being proud of becoming teachers and

having high responsibilities and self-confidence.

In Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008, section 2, in

personality competence teachers must have a strong belief in God. They should

have mature honest sportive personality and character worthy of imitation. They

should have leadership and act wisely. There should be an ability to nurture each

student individually. They become the model of their students and the society

around them. Objectively they have to evaluate their own work. They need to

improve their competence by themselves progressively.

Social competence needs teachers‟ consideration for not discriminating

students‟ gender, religion, race, physical condition, socio economic status, and

family background. The teachers should be objective against the students,

colleagues, students‟ parents, and school environment. They should build


empathetically, and courteously. They should be able to adapt themselves to the

communities wherever they live. The students‟ parents and school environment are involved in the learning program. The teachers communicate new learning

innovation to the school communities.

Indonesian Government Regulation Number 74, 2008, section 2, states

that in social competence, teachers are expected to have an ability to communicate

effectively with students, fellow teachers, students‟ parents and the nearby

community. They can use communication and information technology on

developing students‟ competence. They can develop the collaborative principal with fellow teachers, students‟ parents and the nearby society.

Academic competence is teachers‟ competence on understanding the standard and basic competencies of the subject. Teachers should understand on

the objectives of the learning. Teachers are able to select the learning material

according to the level of the learners‟ development.Teachers develop their professional with sustainable reflective actions. Teachers should have an ability to

conduct classroom action research to develop their professional. They have to

update their knowledge and skills by learning from various resources and

media.The last competence on academic competence is the application of

information and communication technology for communication and professional


The academic competence in Indonesian Government Regulation Number

74, 2008, section 2, is that teachers should master the subjects to be taught to

students widely and comprehensively. They should understand the curriculum.


The Regulation of National Education Minister of Republic of Indonesia

Number 16, 2007 on Teachers Competence and Academic Qualification Standard

section 18.1. states that teachers of English in primary schools, junior high

schools, and senior high schools should have knowledge of various aspects of

language in English (linguistics, discourse, sociolinguistic, and strategic).They

have to master in English language spoken and written, receptive and productive

in all aspects of communication (linguistic, discourse, sociolinguistic, and


b. The Implementation of Teachers‟ Competence

The four competences, pedagogy, personal, social, and academic

competences, have a holistic characteristic. They support each other and cannot be

separated in their implementation. They are integrated in teachers‟ activities, on designing, implementing and evaluating teaching and learning process

(Government Regulation number 74, 2008).

To design teaching and learning is to plan the events that take place during

the instructional process. Instructional events include actions of both teacher and

students in sequence. According to The Regulation of National Education

Minister of Republic of Indonesia Number 41, 2007, on Standard of Process,

instructional design consists of syllabus and lesson plan. Both of them consist of

the identity of the subject, standard competence, basic competence, indicators of

the basic standard competence achievement, learning objectives, teaching

materials, time allocation, teaching method, learning activities, assessment of

learning outcomes, and learning media and resources. The syllabus is then


teaching and learning process from the beginning until the end of the lesson. The

procedure of the learning process should be arranged systematically in order to

create an interactive, inspirative, joyful, challenging, motivated and creative

learning process. The lesson plan is prepared for one basic competence which can

be implemented in one session or more.

In The Regulation of National Education Minister of Republic of

Indonesia Number 41, 2007, on Standard of Process, the components of a lesson

plan are : (1) the identity of the subject which includes educational unit, class,

semester, program, the number of the meetings; (2) competence standard, the

minimum qualification of the learner‟s achievement that describes the acquisition

of knowledge, skills and attitude to be achieved in each grade or semester of the

subject; (3) basic competence, a capability that must be mastered by the learners

and as a reference for achievement indicator in a lesson; (4) the achievement

indicators of basic competence, learners‟ behaviour that can be measured or

observed to demonstrate the achievement of certain basic competence and

formulated in operational verbs that can be measured for the knowledge, skills,

and attitudes; (5) learning objectives, describes learning process and learning

achievement that will be achieved by the learners; (6) learning materials; (7) time

allocation; (8) learning method, the atmosphere of teaching and learning process;

(9) learning activities, pre-whilst-post activity; (10) evaluation procedure and

instrument; (11) learning resources.

Some principals should be considered on designing the instructional. They

are: (a) the differences of students‟ characteristics; (b) the instructional learning is


actively; (d) the lesson plan provides feedback and follow up; and (e) applying

information and communication technology.

According to The Regulation of National Education Minister of Republic

of Indonesia Number 41, 2007, on Standard of Process, the implementation of

teaching and learning process is the implementation of lesson plan. Teacher

follows the procedure arranged in the learning activities in the lesson plan. It

includes pre-whilst-post activity. In pre-activity or introduction teacher prepares

students psychologically and physically to follow the learning process, asks

questions that lead to the prior knowledge of the material that will be studied. In

whilst or core activity, learning is developed to achieve the basic competence. The

process is interactive, inspirative, exciting, challenging, and motivating the

learners to participate actively. The activity provides enough space for learners‟ innovation, creativity, and independence. The process includes exploration,

elaboration and confirmation. In the exploration, learners are involved in seeking

a broader and deeper information about the topic/material, teachers use various

intructional approach, media and resources and facilitate learners to interact with

each other and with teacher. In the elaboration, teachers give tasks individually or

in group to triger new ideas, provide an opportunity to think, analize, act, and

solve problem without fear, facilitate learners with cooperative and colaborative

learning and to compete in a healthy way. In the confirmation, teachers give

feedback and reinforcement orally, written, or with gesture, help learners to solve

the difficulty. In post-activity, teacher with learners summary/conclude, reflect the

activity they have done. Teachers plan a follow-up activity in the form of remidial


In The Regulation of National Education Minister of Republic of

Indonesia Number 41, 2007, on Standard Process, classroom management

becomes one requirement in a lesson implementation. Teachers arrange the seats

based on the learners‟ characteristics and the learning activities to be performed.

Teacher‟s voice (volume and tone) and speech should be heard very well and can

be understood by the learners. Teachers create order, discipline, convenience,

safety, and regulation in performing the learning process. Teachers provide

reinforcement, response, reward, and feed back to the learners. Teachers clothes

are polite, clean and neat. Teachers begin and end the learning process due to the

time schedule

During or after a set of teaching and learning process, an evaluation is

done to see the students achievement of one or two basic competence. Patton

(1997) mentions that the future of evaluation is tied to the future effectiveness of

programs. Therefore, it provides ongoing feedback for improvements during

implementation. National Education Department (2004) also defines that

evaluation is an identification activity to see the achievement and efficiency of an

arranged program and whether it is valuable or not. The Regulation of National

Education Minister of Republic of Indonesia Number 41, 2007, on Standard of

Process, evaluation is conducted to measure the level of learners‟ achievement on the basic competence, see the learning progress, and improve the learning process.

The evaluation is carried out systematically using test-nontest orally or writen in


3. An Overview of Lesson Study

Lesson study is a Japanese form of professional development that centers

on collaborative study of live classroom lessons (Lewis 2006).In doing lesson

study some teachers, usually 4 to 6 teachers make a group of leson study. They

are planning a lesson together. One of the teachers implements the lesson plan in

the classroom. During the lesson the other teachers are as observers. And then

they make a reflection to see what should be revised and improved.

Fernandez (2004) defines the term lesson study as a direct translation of a

Japanese word jugyoukenkyuu which composed of two words, jugyou and

kenkyu.Jugyou means instruction or lesson and kenkyuu meansresearch or study. Lesson study is to describe a collaborative process in which teachers plan a

research lesson, teach and observe lesson, revise and reteach the lesson (Yoshida

1999). Fernandez (2004) also states that lesson study consists of the study or

examination of teaching practice. It is a form of teacher professional development

programme that engages teachers collaboratively in planning, implementing,

observing and reflecting on the lesson. The teachers progressively improve their

teaching methods by examining and giving critique one another‟s teaching

techniques. They can learn from and improve their practice by seeing other

teachers teach. “Lesson Study functions as a means of enabling teachers to

develop and study their own teaching practices” (Takuya 2007: 2). According to Stigler and Hiebert (1999), lesson study is the core form of professional

development, and it is often credited for the study improvement of Japanese


Richardson (2004) lesson study is different from lesson planning. Lesson

study focuses on what teachers want students to learn rather than on what teachers

plan to teach. Lesson planning is a part of lesson study planning. What are

studied, observed and evaluated, here are the lesson and the learning not the

teacher. Isoda (2006) indicates that lesson study usually begins by developing

lesson plan in which teachers solve and pose problems from students‟

perspectives. Teachers share their experiences with other teachers and lecturers.In

Japan, lesson study is initiated by teachers and may be sponsored by a variety of

organizations, including schools, districts, professional organizations, and

independent study groups (Lewis and Tsuchida 1998). It has evolved in tens of

thousands of sites across Japan. There have been in great variations in lesson

study goals, practices, norms and other dimensions. Isoda (2006) indicates the

specific objectives of lesson study are to develop instrument and equipment,

teaching method and model, teaching material, and teaching evaluation for

teaching and learning process.

4. The Implementation of Lesson Study

Lesson study involves groups of teachers meeting regularly over a period

of time ranging from several months to a year to work on the design,

implementation, testing, and improvement of one or several research lessons

(Stigler and Hiebert 1999). They collaborate and share ideas, opinions, and

conclusions regarding to the research lesson. There are eight steps given by

Stigler and Hiebert (1999): (1) defining and researching a problem, (2) planning

the lesson, (3) teaching and observing the lesson, (4) evaluating the lesson and


revised lesson, (7) evaluating and reflecting in the second time, and (8) sharing

the result.

Figure 2.1 describes a lesson study cycle taken from Lewis, Perry, and

Murata (2006). In the initial goal-setting phase, teacher participants begin by

setting a goal for their students that they are aiming to address in their lesson. This

is often something that is difficult for the students to learn or difficult for the

teachers to teach. The goal setting leads to the decision for the best instructional

strategies that could be used to achieve the goal. Once the lesson is planned,

teacher teams decide who will implement the lesson. The lesson is taught and

observed, and then a detailed debriefing session and reflection takes place. This

debriefing period drives the continuation of the cycle as the next set of goals is

established. These final phases of the cycle – implementation / reflection / debrief

– should feel less like a final performance and more like a catalyst for further


Figure 2.1 Lesson Study Cycle (Lewis, Perry, and Murata 2006)

Lewis (2000) states that lesson study is conducted in all subject areas and

non-subject areas such as class meetings and special school-wide activities

designed to build community. Lewis (2002) describes that the members of one

Consider long-term goal for student learning

and development Study curriculum and standards identify topic


arranging the lesson plan and what they will observe in the lesson. One of the

teachers implement the lesson plan, while the others observe the teaching and

learning in a live classroom lesson. After the lesson they reflect on the lesson by

analysing the data they have collected during the lesson collaboratively to see the

achievement of their goal. And then they decide whether they will revise the

lesson plan and do the lesson study in other class or not.

According to Yoshida (1999), there are three main activities that make up

lesson study: (1) identifying a lesson study research theme; (2) conducting a small

number of research lessons that explore this theme; and (3) reflecting on the

process which includes producing the writing report.

The first activity, identifying a lesson study research theme, is the process

for setting the research theme/goal for a specific lesson study involves initial

discussions among all teachers of the group. This process is usually carried out at

the beginning of the lesson study process. A research theme is usually established

by identifying the gap between their students‟ state of learning and understanding and the teachers‟ aspirations for their students, which are based upon the available

data and reflecting on classroom practices. In addition, teachers discuss how they

want to close performance gaps. Through this exercise, the Japanese teachers

establish a research theme and use it as a focus of improvement to conduct their

lesson study activities. The research theme is also used to determine the success of

the lesson study.

In the second activity, a group of teachers jointly draws up a detailed plan

for the research lesson. This group usually consists of four to six people. They


teachers discuss the unit they are going to investigate and the specifics of the

research lesson they are developing. After the lesson is developed, a teacher from

the group teaches the research lesson in a real classroom while other members

observe. After the lesson, a debriefing session is held and the observers reflect and

discuss the lesson. Things they learn from the discussion are incorporated into the

revision of the research lesson and implemented in another classroom. Finally, the

lesson plans for the research lesson and thoughts from the discussions are

compiled into a written report.

The third main activity is reflecting and recording. In order to summarize

the lesson study group‟s activity and achievement and keep a record for future

use, the school compiles the research lesson plans developed throughout the

school year, observation data and notes, samples of students‟ work, discussion

notes, and the reflections on the lesson study activity into a final report. This

record becomes an important resource for teachers to improve their practice in the

future. In Japan, schools produce such lesson study reports and store them at the

school as well as the board of education and education centers. They are often

distributed at lesson study open houses and to important guests when they visit the


According to Fernandez (2004), the implementation of lesson study can be

different from the way it is implemented in Japan. It does not need to copy what

the Japanese do in details. The importance is the lesson study‟s substance. Its

substance is the principles of collaboration and collegiality on mutual – learning. Lesson study is defined as a model of professional development for educators by


the principles of collegiality and mutual learning to develop a learning community

among educators (Suratno and Cock 2009). Accordingly, Lesson Study involves a

group of educators in a Plan-Do-See cycle, that is, collaborative planning,

implementation and observation, and reflection of teaching and learning process.

The three stages of lesson study can be explained as follows. First, in the stage of

Plan, lesson study team collaboratively develops teaching and learning design based on students‟ needs and their learning demands. Second, in the stage of Do,

an appointed teacher who is called as model teacher implements the planned

lesson. The other team members observe the lesson. The observation is mainly at

students learning in terms of interaction among students, between students and the

model teacher, and students understanding of the content being taught. Third, the

reflection or post-class discussion (See) is conducted soon after the lesson. The appointed teacher model and observers discuss together, led by a moderator as to

share evidence resulted from observation, to map identified learning problems and

to find alternative solutions for the future lesson improvement (Suratno and Cock


Lesson study has three main activities: planning, implementing (teaching

and observing), and reflecting and revising (Sukirman 2006). In the

planningphase, the teacher participants first identify the problems found in the

classroom. The identification of the problem accompanied by the solution taken

are related to the teaching material, schedule, students‟ characteristic, class condition, teaching method, teaching media, experiment kits, and evaluation

toward the teaching process and result. They discuss the choice of teaching


be used. Additional discussion is also focused on the collection of data on the

observation sheet, especially about determining the indicator of good teaching – learning process seen from the aspect of teacher and students. Those indicators are

written based on the lesson plan and approaches used to reach out to students

during the teaching - learning process. Based on the identification andsolution of

the problems, it was carried out into a set of steps consisting of: lesson plan,

teaching guide, teaching media, evaluation sheet of teaching process result, and

observation sheet. Inthe implementation phase, one of the teacher participants

implements the lesson plan while other teachers and expert observe the process

using the prepared observation sheet. To support it, the observers videotape the

process of the teaching and learning process. In the reflection and revising phase,

the teacher who implement the lesson plan is given time to state his feeling during

the implementation. Next, time is given to observers, both expert and other

teachers, to share the data they collect on the students‟ activity during the implementation followed by showing of the video. The teacher of presentation,

then, is asked to respond the observers‟ comments. The important thing in reflection is to reconsider the lesson plan developed as the basis to make

improvements for the next teaching.

5. Lesson Study‟s Difference from ActionResearch

Lesson Study shares close similarities with Action research. Both

approach emphasize planning, implementation, the conduct of the action or the

lesson, and reflection (Hock 2010). However there are some differences.

Richards (2005) defines that action research refers to teacher-conducted


approach to carrying out investigations and collecting information that is designed

to illuminate an issue or problem and to improve classroom practice. The word

„action‟ refers to taking practical action to resolve classroom problems. Action research takes place during the process of the teacher‟s own regular classroom. It

can be carried out by an individual teacher or in collaboration with other teachers.

Collaborative action research may include as few as two teachers or a group of

several teachers and others interested in addressing a classroom or departement

issue (Ferrance 2000).

Action research is a reflective process with mainly the purpose of solving

a problem or improving the teaching and learning process. Reflection can be

defined as the act of critically exploring what you are doing, why you decided to

do it and what its effects have been (Mertler 2006). The main goal of action

research is to address local-level problems with anticipation of finding immediate

solutions. Most action research studies are cyclical. Mertler (2006) describes the

steps of the process on conducting action research: identifying and limit the topic,

review the related literature, develop a research plan, implement the plan and

collect the data, analyze the data, develop an action plan, share and communicate

the results, and reflect the research. according to Ferrance (2000) there are five

phases of inquiry: identification of problem area, collection and organization the

data, interpretation the data, action based on the data, and reflection. If the results

of one cycle are negative, the cycle may be started again until the results are


Lesson Study can be defined as action research conducted by teachers, in


teaching (Cheng 2011). One main difference is that while Action Research use

various research techniques in collecting the data, Lesson Study primarily on peer

observation as the main mode of data collection (Hock 2010). Lesson Study is

collaborative not individualistic, as stated by Elliot (2007) that Lesson Study is

carried out by a group of teachers of 3 – 8 members and also in Lewis (2002) that the members of one team of lesson study are 4 – 6 teachers. If lesson Study is not defined as action research, in each cycle a collaboratively planned lesson is taught

by different teacher in different class (Lewis 2002).

B. Review of Related Studies

Some reviews of related studies are presented here to present the

information of what, why and how they have studied their topics which are related

to lesson study. They discuss the reasons, the objectives and the findings of the


Widodo et al (2007) on their study analyses tshe impacts of lesson study –

based school experience program on the improvement of the preservice teachers‟

teaching competencies. The findings of their study are (1) the preservice teachers can perform most indicators of teachers teaching competencies, (2) the utilization

of teaching resources is still limited, (3) classroom emotional climate is quite

good, (4) the preservice teachers participated in lesson study – based school experience still show some weaknesses in their teaching, (5) during the reflection

session, the preservice teachers admitted that lesson study based school

experience program provided them with meaningful insights on how to improve


Saiful Prayogi, a graduate student of Sebelas Maret University of

Surakarta, on his thesis, The Effect of Implementation of Lesson Study and Learning Activities toward Learning Achievement in Student of Class XI Economics Laboratorium High School, State University of Malang, aimed to

determine; (1) the effects of students‟ perception on the implementation of lesson

study to the learning achievement on economic subject, (2) the effects of students

learning activities to the students‟ achievement on the economic subject, and (3)

the effects of lesson study and students‟ learning activities simultaneously towards the students‟ achievement on the economic subject. The conclusion of his research

are (1) lesson study improves learning achievement on the economic subject, (2)

learning activities are motivation to learning achievement, (3) lesson study and

learning activities simultaneously have significant influence on the economic


On their action research Taylor, Anderson, Meyer, Wagner and West

(2002) reports four teachers and one teacher educator used the Japanese lesson

study model of professional development for 15 months in rural Carniville,

Illinois. In March 2001, the group identified a goal to improve their students‟ understanding of two – step word problem in 2nd grade elementary mathematics. During 15 months the lesson study group completed three cycles of planning,

teaching, evaluating, and reflecting. Their study found that the teachers were

motivated and empowered, and lesson study is effective for professional

development in the rural setting.


Lesson Study”. The instruments she used to collect the data were observation and

in-depth interview. Two participants and one facilitator were interviewed. The

findings revealed that teachers‟ understanding on the concept and principle of

Lesson Study enriched their knowledge on teaching and learning practice;

teachers‟ view and action in Lesson Study activities changed their thinking;

Lesson Study shaped teachers to become professional and innovative; teachers‟

expectation indicated that the teachers realized the importance to implement

Lesson Study in every school.

The studies above relates to Lesson Study. They give knowledge,

motivation, and support to the bearing of this study. They show that lesson study

improves preservice teachers‟ teaching competencies, students‟ learning

achievement and teachers‟ knowledge on teaching and learning practice. Lesson study is also effective for professional development. It showed that lesson study

playeda very meaningful role on improving teaching and learning process. It

encouraged me to see its role more deeply. How English teachers develop their


C. Theoretical Framework

This section presents the framework used in this research. It is to connect

and lead the related theoretical review to the pre-understanding of the English

teachers‟ lived-experience on the phenomenon on how they develop their

professionalism through Lesson Study. It is also to state how the answer of the

research question is determined.

This study attempts to describe how English teachers develop their


Figure 2.2     Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………33

Figure 2.2

Conceptual Framework ……………………………………………33 p.14
Figure 2.1 describes a lesson study cycle taken from Lewis, Perry, and

Figure 2.1

describes a lesson study cycle taken from Lewis, Perry, and p.38
Figure 2.1 Lesson Study Cycle (Lewis, Perry, and Murata 2006)

Figure 2.1

Lesson Study Cycle (Lewis, Perry, and Murata 2006) p.39
Table 2.1 shows the blueprint of pre-figured themes of this study.It shows

Table 2.1

shows the blueprint of pre-figured themes of this study.It shows p.51
Table 2.1 Blueprint Pre – Figured Themes of Teachers‟ Activities

Table 2.1

Blueprint Pre – Figured Themes of Teachers‟ Activities p.52
Table 3.2 Observation Sheet in the Classroom

Table 3.2

Observation Sheet in the Classroom p.59
Table 3.3 Sample of Students‟ Questionnaire

Table 3.3

Sample of Students‟ Questionnaire p.61
Table 3.4 The Procedure of the Research.

Table 3.4

The Procedure of the Research. p.64
Field notes document/narrative text Table

Field notes

document/narrative text Table p.65
Table 4.3 Results of Students‟ Questionnaire

Table 4.3

Results of Students‟ Questionnaire p.83
table. They were a knife, some lemon fruits, a kettle, a
table. They were a knife, some lemon fruits, a kettle, a p.118


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