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The Traumatic Experiences as the Hindrance of Charlie’s Personality Development in Stephen Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower, A Psychosocial Analysis.


Academic year: 2017

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Sarjana S ENG FA Y matic Expe onality Dev s of Being a

al Fulfillme Sastra Degr GLISH LITE ACULTY O YOGYAKA eriences as velopment i a Wallflowe A Thes

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Written Tria Nur A

10211144 ERATURE OF LANGU ARTA STA 2016 the Hindra in Stephen er, A Psych

sis Requirement sh Languag by: Arista 4024



ance of Cha Chbosky’s osocial Ana

s for the At

ge and Litera



This thesis is dedicated to my greatest family, my SUPER

parents, my sister and brother, who always give their

never-ending love.



“The wound is the place where the Light enters you.” Jallaludin Rumi

“When is the help of Allah?” Unquestionably, the help of Allah is near.

(Surah Al-Baqarah, Verse 214)

“Indeed, with hardship will be ease.” (Surah Ash-Sharh, Verse




TITLE ... i





MOTTOS ... vi




ABSTRACT ... xiii


A.Background of the Problem ... 1

B.Research Focus ... 5

C.Research Question ... 6

D.Significance of the Research ... 6


A.Literature and Psychology ... 8

B.Erikson’s Psychosocial Development ... 11

1. The Stages of Psychosocial Development ... 17

a. Trust vs. Mistrust ... 17


c. Initiative vs. Guilt ... 18

d. Industry vs. Inferiority ... 19

e. Identity vs. Identity Confusion ... 20

f. Intimacy vs. Isolation ... 20

g. Generativity vs. Stagnation ... 21

h. Integrity vs. Despair ... 21

2. Identity Crisis in Adolescence: Identity vs. Identity Confusion ... 23

a. Identity Diffusion ... 25

b. Identity Foreclosure ... 25

c. Negative Identity ... 26

C.Background of The Novel ... 26

1. The Author ... 26

2. The Perks of Being a Wallflower ... 28

D.Previous Research Findings ... 29

E. Conceptual Framework ... 31


A.Research Design ... 33

B.The Data and Sources of the Data ... 33

C.Research Instruments ... 34

D.The Technique of Data Collection ... 35

E. The Data Analysis ... 37

F. Trustworthiness ... 38



A.Charlie’s Failure in the Fifth Stage ... 41

1. Identity Diffusion ... 43

a. Acute upset ... 44

b. Inability to concentrate ... 45

c. Excessive Self-Awareness ... 48

d. Inability to make decision ... 48

2. Identity Foreclosure ... 52

a. The excessive involvement of parents ... 53

b. Interruption of self-potential ... 55

c. The premature establishment of sense of self ... 56

3. Negative Identity ... 56

a. Performance of undesirable choice of an action to gain an acceptable identity ... 57

b. A denial action toward the rule in family. ... 59

B.Charlie’s Failure toward Charlie’s Personality in the Sixth Stage ... 61

1. Intimacy ... 62

a. Participation in groups ... 63

b. Encouragement in a worthless relationship ... 64

2. Isolation ... 68

a. The feeling of loneliness ... 69

b. Alienation ... 70



Figure 1 : The Psychosocial Development Stages…... 17

Figure 2 : Conceptual Framework ... 22




By Tria Nur Arista 10211144024


This research aims to identify how traumatic experiences become the hindrance for the main character of The Perks of Being a Wallflower to handle the fifth stage of psychosocial development, and to explain the impact of this failure to his personality in the sixth stage. To answer the objectives, this research employs the psychosocial theory by Erikson.

This research used a qualitative research with content analysis method. The main source of this research was a novel entitled The Perks of being a Wallflower. The data were in the form of expressions used to convey the psychosocial development of the main character in the fifth and sixth stage proposed in Erikson’s theory. The researcher became the primary instrument of this research, while the secondary instruments were the data sheets. The research analysis was conducted through five steps: reading and re-reading, classifying and categorizing, interpreting and scrutinizing the meaning of the data, checking the measure of worthiness by triangulation, and making conclusions based on the results of the analysis.

The results show two important points. Firstly, a psychosocial crisis occurs in the main character’s life based on Erikson’s psychosocial development theory i.e. Identity vs. Role Confusion. In this stage, the result shows that the main character experiences traumatic experiences, which make him suffer from three major problems of identity confusion in his adolescence period: identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, and negative identity. The failure brings impact on his personality in the later stage: intimacy crisis and isolation. It can be seen through his inability to make an intimate relationship with others, which makes him feel lonely and suffer from depression.


A. Background of the Study

Every human being does not possess innately their personality when they were born. Freist (2008: 8) says that, “personality is a pattern of relatively permanent traits and unique characteristics that give both consistency and

individuality to a person’s behavior.” It means that personality is about the way individuals behave and it can be the sign to determine what kind of people they

are. According to Santrock (2002: 16), there are classifications of developmental periods, infants, childhood, adolescence, and adulthood development. Each stage has its own roles and has significant influences for the next stage in shaping

human personality.

The consistency of human personality will grow to be an identity. Every

human being must achieve their self-identity in life, no matter a good one or a bad one. Based on James (in Erikson, 1968: 19), self-identity is when individuals intensely feel their life and know who they really are and how they fit in the

society. The process of gaining self-identity occurs through the lifespan, so that the experience in the childhood will significantly contribute to the personality in

adulthood stage. In addition, individuals’ response to the social phenomenon around them can determine the identity they will gain.

The environment around individuals has a big role in guiding them to achieve


situation will gain unhealthy personality. In fact, traumatic experience can be

considered as a conflicting situation since it strongly influences human psychological development. Individuals with traumatic experience have pressure

in their life because the traumatic events that ever happened to them are really hurting. Bloom (2003: 2) states that,

a traumatic experience impacts the entire person. The way we think, the way we learn, the way we remember things, the way we feel about ourselves, the way we feel about other people, and the way we make sense of the world are all profoundly altered by traumatic experience.

The above statement means that traumatic experience can disturb the whole

person’s personality and characterization, and it will happen for a long-term. Traumatic experience is an event that can make anyone feel insecure caused by physically or emotionally harmful treatment they receive in their life. A traumatic

event usually leads the victim to feel a long-term anxiety and it will disturb individuals’ emotional stability. The examples of such events that commonly

happen in the reality are accidents, sexual assault, and the sudden death of a loved one. Actually, the main point about trauma is whether individuals can overwhelm their hurting experience or not. It is about individuals’ ability in dealing with their

bad experience related to their psychological condition. As stated by Giller (1999: 1), trauma in everyday language is a highly stressful event, but it is actually

referring to extreme stress that overwhelms a person’s ability to cope. Therefore, the word trauma here is not about the worst experience, whether physical or emotional harm that they have received, but about how individuals have the


The human personality development that is influenced by the environment

around individuals is in accordance with Erikson’s psychosocial theory. Erikson believes that human personality development is highly influenced by the social

and historical factor. Therefore, the social condition around individuals and the experience in the past they once witness is very influential for their personality development. Erikson’s theory intends to say that individuals have to pass eight

stages of personality development which occurs throughout the life span. Each stage has different crisis, and the way individuals deal with the problem in the

early stage will influence the result of their personality condition in the following stage.

From all crises of Erikson’s psychosocial theory, he emphasizes that the most

crucial period is the fifth stage, which happens in adolescence. Erikson (1980: 94) mentions that this period is the time when the childhood ends and the youth begins. This is the time for individuals to enlarge their social interaction and

connect with more people, who come from various background cultures. Individuals who succeed to solve the crisis at this stage will achieve the sense of

identity. The achievement of individuals in earlier stage will highly contribute to them in handling the crisis in this period. The result whether individuals’ personality grows healthy or not depends on how they handle each crisis of

psychosocial development.

In The Perks of Being a Wallflower written by Stephen Chbosky, there is a


an environment that does not help him to deal with his traumatic experiences and

does not support his psychosocial development. In addition, the fact shows that Charlie is sexually assaulted by his beloved Aunt when he was a child. Then, he

also has to face the sudden death of his Aunt and his best friend after experiencing many conflicts in his mind. These conditions lead him to have a difficulty to interact with the society, and even he is called as “a wallflower” by his friends.

Charlie’s traumatic experiences that occur in his childhood have great influence to his psychological condition. He is really hurt by what his Aunt has

done to him. His memory in the past always haunts him and disturbs his emotional stability. As the consequence, he has low self-esteem and difficulties to express his feeling like what the common teenagers do. This issue often happens

in the real society, where the case of sexual assault as a traumatic experience toward children is increasing and it influences their later ability in dealing with issues or problems in the real society. Therefore, The Perks of Being a Wallflower

reflects the facts that really happen in society.

From the description above, it is desirable to discuss the effects of the

traumatic experience toward individuals’ psychosocial development. The Perks of Being a Wallflower is a novel that brings the issue about the traumatic experience and the effects toward the psychosocial development of the character. Charlie is

the main character in the novel, and it is indicated that he fails to pass the crisis in the fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development. The traumatic experience


of Identity vs. Role confusion. As the consequence, he also fails to deal with the

crisis in the following stage.

B. The Focus of the Research

Based on the previous explanation, the researcher wants to reveal the psychosocial development of the main character in the novel The Perks of Being a

Wallflower. The novel portrays the life of a teenage boy named Charlie who has some traumatic experiences, and the worst one is that he is sexually assaulted by

his Aunt when he was a child. It becomes so hard for Charlie since his Aunt is the one whom he cares and loves. Moreover, he has two more traumatic experiences that influence his psychosocial development; those are the sudden death of his

Aunt and his best friend. His traumatic experiences make him fail to solve the problem in the fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development. As the consequence, he grows to be a really quiet, shy, and pervert boy. In addition, he

has difficulties in communicating with others and giving responds toward the social phenomenon around him. His failure in the identity vs. role confusion stage

gives impacts toward the way he deals with the crisis in the following stage. As a result, he also fails to achieve the balance outcome in the intimacy vs. isolation stage.

The researcher employs psychosocial theory by Erikson to conduct the research focusing on how the traumatic experiences make Charlie fail to pass


development, and in the novel the stages are experienced by Charlie. Therefore,

Erikson’s theory is applied to analyze Charlie’s psychosocial development.

C. The Formulation of the Problems

The problems of the research are formulated as follows.

1. How do Charlie’s traumatic experiences make him fail to accomplish the

basic strength in the fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development? 2. How does the failure affect his personality in the sixth stage?

D. The Significance of the Research

1. Academically, this research reveals some points about the traumatic

experience and the effects of it upon the personality development of individuals. Significantly, it is important to know about the traumatic experience since there are many people who are not aware of the effects of it

toward a person’s personality development. Thus, this research will give comprehension to people about how traumatic experience influences a

person’s personality development.

2. Practically, this research will be an encouragement to others about the effects of traumatic experience that can be the hindrance for individuals’ to pass the

personality development runs successfully. The understanding about the personality development that is influenced by social and historical factors will


condition around them. Thus, this research will give insight for people about

the factors that influence someone’s improper personality development, which results in their deviant behavior. This research will also be a warning


The relationship between literature and psychology is not directly seen by

common people, but those two terms have a great influence for each other. In

understanding the relationship between literature and psychology, it is needed to

explain the definition about literature and psychology itself. Literature has many

definitions since many professionals have different opinions in defining the meaning

of literature. According to Eagleton (1996: 2), literature is not only about fiction or

non-fiction, but also about how people deliver their thought and their imagination

through peculiar ways of communicating into literary works or writings. However,

most of the literary works depict human condition in real life or represent the life

experience of the author. Whereas literature is the representation of human behavior

in literary works or writings, psychology is the scientific study of human behavior,

which includes attitudes, thoughts, and physical changes, as well as emotional

changes in real life (McMahon, 1990: 5).

Nowadays, psychology can be applied to analyze literature because the

characters in literature can be studied like real people. Therefore, there is an indirect

relationship between literature and psychology because both of them are studying

about human condition. The difference is that psychology studies human in reality,

while literature learns human activity that is created by the author to represent the real


understand what the author intends to say about human psyche phenomenon through

their works that might possibly happen in real life. According to Wellek (1942: 81),

psychology of literature is psychological study of the writer, as type and as individual, or the study of the creative process, or the study of the psychological types and laws presents within works of literature, or, finally, the effects of literature upon its readers (audience psychology).

Wellek’s statement above strengthens the fact that psychology and literature have

an indirect relationship. First, it can be said that literature is the product of human

mind formed by the psychological process of an individual. Then, Wellek believes

that the role of psychology in literature is to analyze the effects of literature or literary

works upon its readers or it can be called as audience psychology. The effect itself is

how literary works can give the reader enlightenment or acknowledgement about the

life experiences happening to many other people without directly experiencing it.

Also, a good literary work will take the reader to follow the imagination that has been

created by the author. That is how the psychology of the audience is formed while

they are enjoying literary works.

Psychoanalysis is a theory that is firstly introduced by Sigmund Freud in order to

analyze literary works from the psychological view. Therefore, Freud is known as the

founding father of psychoanalysis theory. Freud mentions that the human mind is

constructed of three elements; those are the id, ego, and superego. Freud’s

psychoanalysis is also famous with his exploration of the unconsciousness and theory

that human being is driven by something that they have little or no awareness (Jess


highly influenced by sexual activity in their childhood. According to Terry Eagleton

(1996: 133), “Sexuality for Freud is itself a 'perversion' – a 'swerving away 'of a

natural self-preservative instinct towards another goal.” This is knowingly called as

psychosexual developments, in which there are five stages of sexual activities in

childhood that should be passed by human beings through their development.

Freud’s theory becomes the most famous and influential theory for many

professionals who develop new psychological theories based on his basic beliefs

about human development. Erik Homberger Erikson (1902-1994) becomes the one

who agrees the basic theory of Freud. Although Erikson agrees Freud’s basic theory

of human development, he has a different opinion on some parts. Freud delivers his

theory about psychosexual as the stage of shaping human personality or behavior that

only happens in childhood. On the other hand, Erikson believes that human

personality development is influenced by social and historical around the people

itself. In addition, Erikson intends to say that the stage of human personality

development is faced in life-cycle; those are the childhood, adolescence, and

adulthood. This is as stated by Jeisst Freist (2008: 249) that:

Erikson regarded his post-Freudian theory as an extension of psychoanalysis, something Freud might have done in time. Although he used Freudian theory as the foundation for his life-cycle approach to personality, Erikson differed from Freud in several respects. In addition to elaborating on psychosexual stages beyond child-hood, Erikson placed more emphasis on both social and historical influences.

One most important thing that differentiates Erikson’s theory of human


ego as a dependent part of human mind, which only has a function to balance the

human’s id and human’s superego. It is because the focus in his theory is on human

desire or the Id. On the other hand, Erikson puts the ego as an independent part of the

human mind and plays the most important role in every stage of human

socio-emotional development. According to Erikson (1968: 46), “the ego, the individual

center of organized experience and reasonable planning, stood endangered by both

the anarchy of the primeval instincts and the lawlessness of the group spirit”.

Erikson’s statement convinces that the focus of his theory is about how the ego

organizes the life experience of human being and how the ego and the social

experiences work to build the human personality. Then, he expands his theory named

psychosocial theory, which is accepted as Post-Freudian theory or psychosocial

development theory with his eight stages of man’s concepts.

B. Erikson’s Psychosocial Development

Psychosocial is a branch of psychology that is concerned with social and

historical factors as the elements in forming individuals’ personality. Erikson is the

major figure who concerns on psychosocial development which believes that human

being should pass eight stages of human development throughout their life-cycle.

Each stage of the development will determine the people’s personality that might be

performed. Erikson believes that human personality is not only influenced by


brings up the individuals to develop their personalities in all stages of Erikson’s

theory based on the innate factors and social factors.

It is as true to say that babies control and bring up their families as it is to say the converse. A family can bring up a baby only by being brought up by him. His growth consists of a series of challenges to them to serve his newly developing potentialities for social in-teraction (Erikson, 1980: 57).

As said by Erikson above, family is the first place of individuals to be brought up

as their first time to try to interact with and learn to know the value of life. On the

other hand, the family also learns new things from the presence of the baby. The baby

always makes signs to the environment around, including the family, so it is required

sensitiveness in responding the existence of a baby. The family has a big

responsibility to guide the baby to grow up well. The result, whether the baby grows

up well or not, indirectly shows the quality of their family in guiding their baby

through interaction and communication. Therefore, in the process of development, the

role of family is the most important factor required in guiding the individuals during

their growth in order to prevent the failure that might happen to their personality. It is

because Erikson believes that social interaction is the key in determining the human

personality development, and it can be seen at first in the individuals’ relationship

with their family as the background.

Then, Erikson also mentions that human growth consists of a series of

challenges, which can be referred to the eight stages of psychosocial development. In

addition, it also means that human’s personality is not achieved instantly, but still



1). Epigenesis Principle is an idea developed by Erik Erikson that states that every organism is born with a certain purpose, and continues to develop how it was intended to in interrelation with its environment..

in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Erikson believes that each stage of human

development gives significant influences to the later stage. Thus, human development

is occurring throughout the lifespan and influenced by social factor, and the outcome

of each stage is not permanent but can be changed by later experience.

Erikson’s stages of personality development also refer to epigenesis principle1),

which mentions that one component arises out of another. It has its own time of

ascendancy, but it does not change the earlier component.

Somewhat generalized, this principle states that anything that grows has a ground plan, and that out of this ground plan the parts arise, each part having its time of special ascendancy, until all parts have arisen to form a functioning whole (Erikson, 1980: 53).

Each stage of development has its own crisis, and the task of the individual is to

find the solution at the last. Erikson (1968: 93) thought that “a mature organism is not

about developing a new organ but dispensing locomotor2), sensory3), and social

capacities4) that are described in the child development”. It means that Erikson

intends to say that human development is not only about the physical changes of

human beings, but also about the development of human’s skills in recognizing and

responding the phenomenon around them. For Erikson, psychoanalysis has a big role

to give understanding about how individuals achieve personality which is formed by

the experiences of inner conflicts and the manners toward the conflict that showed by

individuals. The experiences of the healthy individuals will lead them to achieve a

success in interacting with the environment around them. Meanwhile, there are many


personalities following to the culture where they belong to be. The proper guidance in

each stages or all epigenesis is important to guide them to have the proper

personalities. Therefore, personality will develop based on the steps that are

determined to the individuals’ readiness to be aware of and to interact with the larger


According to Jess Freist (2008: 255), each stage of Erikson’s psychosocial

development consists of two opposite interactions: a conflict between a syntonic

(harmonious) element and a dystonic (disruptive). This opposition is usually called as

contrary disposition. The word ‘syntonic’ refers to the positive disposition, and the

‘dystonic’ refers to the negative disposition. For example, the very first stage of

psychosocial development, trust (positive) is opposed to mistrust (negative). Erikson

uses the word ‘versus’or ‘vs’ in every crisis stage that consists of two opposing


The outcome of the contrary disposition is called as basic strength. The basic

strength is produced by the ego quality. Then, the outcome of the basic strength will

indicate whether human development is growing healthily or not. When human fails

to reach the balance opposition on each crisis stage or tend to be in one of the

dispositions, it will lead them to have mental problems. Erikson calls an extreme

tendency to the ‘syntonic’ as a ‘maladaption’, while the extreme tendency to the

‘dystonic’ is called as ‘malignancy’.

Erikson’s concept of the ego becomes one of the indicators that differentiate his


the concept of the id and the superego, but he has a different way in seeing the ego.

Here are the concept of the id, the ego, and the superego from Erikson’s theory:

1. The Id

According to Freud, the id is derived from the unconsciousness of the human

mind; it does not have contact with reality. The Id is famously known as the

pleasure principle since its function is to satisfy human desire and pleasure. In

addition, people are never aware of what the id wants or what the id says (Jess

Freist, 2008: 27). In this case, Erikson accepts Freud’s concept of the id.

2. The Ego

The ego’s concept of Erikson is different from Freud’s. Erikson puts the ego of

human being as the most important thing that plays roles in all stages of

psychosocial development. Erikson emphasizes that psychoanalysis today is

implementing the study of the ego, a concept denoting man's capacity to unify

his experience and his action in an adaptive manner (Erikson, 1950: 13).

Human’s ego is the inner factor that constitutes to the manner and then forms

the later personality of the individual. Erikson mentions that the ego is endowed

with some qualities, which emerge from critical periods of development. The

qualities are such as trust and hope, autonomy and will, industry and

competence, identity and role confusion, intimacy and love, generativity and

care, integrity and wisdom (Erikson 1950: 221). Different from Freud, Erikson

believes that the ego is influenced by historical and social factors. However,


balances the id and the superego and keeps it tuned to the reality. It is like what

he reveals in his book,

Between the id and the super-ego, then, the ego dwells. Consistently balancing and warding off the extreme ways of the other two, the ego keeps tuned to the reality of the historical day, testing perceptions, selecting memories, governing action, and otherwise integrating the individual's capacities of orientation and planning. (Erikson, 1963: 175)

Erikson says that besides balancing the id and the superego, the ego plays the

most important role in human mind. The ego take a biggest part of human mind

in governing almost all of the main concepts of human actions in life, such as:

making perception, selecting memories, integrating individuals’ ability of

orientation and planning.

3. The Superego

The superego represents the moral and ideal aspects of personality and is

guided by the moralistic and idealistic principles as opposed to the pleasure

principle of the id and the realistic principle of the ego (Freist, 2008: 30).

From the description above, it can be seen that the human ego is the most

important element in shaping human personality development. Therefore, Erikson’s

theory focuses on the development of human’s ego, which grows stronger through the

lifespan and form the identity of an individual. In addition, Erikson proposes eight

stages of psychosocial that individuals must pass in order gain what kind of identity


1. The Stages of Psychosocial Development

In describing human personality development, psychosocial development is the

most important element. Erikson believes that individuals should pass eight stages of

psychosocial development in order to gain their personality and a sense of identity.

a. Trust vs. Mistrust

Trust vs. Mistrust is the very first stage of psychosocial development that occurs

in infants, which is derived from the experiences in the first year of life (Erikson,

1980: 57). This first stage is the time for a person to interact with others and the most

significant relation to interact with the caregiver or the mother of the individual. In

addition, it is the first time for the infants to begin to trust others around them and

achieve social interaction. The infants learn basic trust when they realize that their

mother will feed them, and they give permits or respond to their mother comfortably

without any anxiety. It is the first time when the infants achieve social interaction.

Shortly, when the infants feel that they are cared by their mother or their family

consistently, they have some reasons to trust and they have learned basic trust. Then,

they will feel secure in their environment and it will lead them to have a widening


Basic mistrust is when the infants do not have confidence on the care or

treatment that they receive from their caregiver, mother, or family members. The

consequence of it lies in their wider interaction, in which the infants feel insecurities,

anxiety, and fear to interact. However, the infants must develop both trust and


Freist (2008: 258), too much trust makes them gullible and vulnerable to the

unpredictable world, whereas too little trust leads to frustration, anger, hostility,

cynicism, or depression.

b. Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt

This stage is the time when individuals begin to be more independent and explore

their abilities in handling their own problems. In addition, the individuals begin to

discover their skills and make their own choices. According to Erikson (1968: 70),

this stage becomes the time when individuals get ready to stand on his feet more

firmly and describe their world as “I” and “You”, “me” and “mine”. It is also the time

when they have ability to make decision about what they want to do and what they

are supposed to do. The parents should support them to handle their problems, but

still need to control their children in order to avoid failures, and then the individual

will succeed in adopting their autonomy. The self-confidence is one of the outcomes

of the positive disposition of this stage. On the other hand, if the parents do not allow

their children to explore their skill and encourage them with the environment that

they just begin, this makes them depend on others too much. As the consequence,

they will suffer from shame and doubt and lack of self-esteem.

c. Initiative vs. Guilt

This stage occurs in the age of pre-school, when the individuals begin to explore

more experience and build relationship with their school friends. Erikson (1968: 78)

says that in this stage, individuals begin to learn to move around more freely, improve


imagination. The individuals begin to require a sense of curiosity about many things

existing around them. During this stage, individual begin to plan activities and initiate

activities with others. If given this opportunity, individuals develop a sense of

initiative, and feel secure in their ability to lead others and make decisions.

If parents do not support their children’s curiosity or treat their question as if it is

such a nuisance or embarrassment, it will lead the individual to feel guilty. Too much

guilt in individuals will be the hindrance for them to cope with the society. In

addition, their ability to initiate is disturbed by the feeling of guilt. However, some of

guilt is necessary for the individuals in order to be self-controlled in doing their

activities in this period. There must be a balanced outcome between initiative and

guilt in order to lead them achieves the sense of purpose.

d. Industry vs. Inferiority

Industry is the period for individual to develop their competence and skills.

Erikson (1968: 87) describes the stage as a sort of the entrance of life. The child

wants to be shown how to get busy with something and to be busy with others. The

individuals begin to go to school and have interaction with their teachers. Successful

resolution of crisis at this stage is depending from the result at earlier stages.

Therefore, teachers have an important role in guiding the individual to find their skills

and abilities in certain competence. Individuals who achieve initiative will feel

industrious and confidence in every step they will take for their future. On the other


inferiority and even doubt their own skills and abilities. It happens because they have

low self-esteem, which is reached in the previous stage when they feel guilty.

e. Identity vs. Identity confusion

Adolescence is the primary period when individuals transform from childhood to

adulthood. The teen years are indeed a time of identity crisis, or in Erikson’s terms is

a turning point of increased vulnerability and heightened potential (Erikson, 1968:

96). Therefore, it is the time for the young-adult to gain their identity, finding out

who they really like to be. With the advent of puberty, adolescents look for new roles

to help them discover their sexual, ideological, and occupational identities (Jess

Freist, 2008: 263). At this stage, adolescents will expand their social interaction in a

larger society or environment. Most of adolescents want to be recognized in the

society where they belong to. Therefore, if they feel that they have been recognized

by their society like what they have to be, it can indicate that they have been

successful in gaining self-identity. On the contrary, if they fail to recognize their own

identity, it could lead them to have identity role confusion. This ‘dystonic’ element

usually can be seen if the adolescents do not know what they want to be when they

grow up.

f. Intimacy vs. Isolation

Adulthood is the last phase after childhood and adolescence phases. The conflicts

for individuals in this stage grow more complicated.In addition, this stage is the time

when individuals begin to build an intimate relationship, such as a relationship with


and they should have certain purpose for their future life. It is the time for them to

build a family from their marriage couple. Nonetheless, it happens only after a

reasonable sense of identity has been established that real intimacy with the other sex

is possible (Erikson, 1963: 101). If individuals succeed in passing this stage of

intimacy, they will have a healthy and comfortable relationship. Meanwhile,

individuals will feel loneliness, isolation, and depression when they cannot complete

the stage of intimacy.

g. Generativity vs. Stagnation

During the middle adulthood, there are many wishes that should be accomplished

in individuals’ life. Careers, relationships, and families are being the concerns in this

life stage. However, the most important goal for adulthood in this stage is to establish

the next generation. According to Erikson (1980: 103), the pervasive development

underlying this wish is generativity. When adults fail to accomplish the wishes, they

will feel unproductive or stagnant.

h. Integrity vs. Despair

Adults will achieve integrity when they see that their wishes in life are

accomplished. In addition, a successful and a productive life also support them to

reach integrity. On the other hand, when they feel unproductive in their life and feel

guilty in the past, and think that they cannot accomplish their wishes, it will lead

them to despair or become desperate to face the life. Erikson (1980: 104) suggests

that despair expresses the feeling that the time is short, too short for the attempt to


Figure 1. Erikson Psychosocial Crisis Theory of Human Development based on Chapman (2006: par.13)


Psychosocial Stages Life Stage and Relationships

Basic Strength 1

(Trust vs. Mistrust)

Infant (0-2 year) / Mother

Hope and Drive


(Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt)

Toddler (2-3 years) / Parents

Willpower and Self-Control


(Initiative vs. Guilt)

Preschool (3-5 years) / Family

Purpose and Direction

4 (Industry vs.


Schoolchild (5-12 years) / School, teachers,


Competence and Method


(Identity vs. Role Confusion)

Adolescent (12-19 years) / peers, groups

Fidelity and Devotion

6 (Intimacy vs.


Young Adult (early 20’s) / Lovers, friends, work


Love and Affiliation


(Generativity vs. Stagnation)

Mid-Adult (20’s-50’s) / children, community

Care and Production


(Integrity vs. Despair)

Late Adult (after 50’s) / society, world, life

Wisdom and Renunciation

2. Identity Crisis in Adolescence: Identity vs. Identity Confusion

Each psychosocial crisis has a significant role in the growth of human

personality. However, from his description of all crises in each stage of human

development, the one that becomes the most crucial period is the Identity vs. Identity


grow up and develop to be young people followed by psychological development that

begins to create their social roles. Erikson (1980: 94) emphasized that this period is

the time when the childhood ends and the youth begins. This time, adolescents must

establish a good relationship to the world and share their skills of communicating to

the society. The achievement of adolescents in earlier stage will highly contribute for

them in handling the crisis in this period. The result whether individuals’ personality

grows healthy or not depends on how they handle each crisis of psychosocial

development. Individuals who cannot handle the crisis in this period will fail to

achieve the sense of identity. Consequently, those adolescents will be doubted in

making decisions in their life because they do not have self-confidence.

Individuals should make a balanced outcome in each crisis in order to get the

proper development of their personality. If they can manage it well during the crisis,

they will accomplish the ego strength or a sense of identity. On the other hand, if the

individuals cannot handle a problem in a certain stage, it will lead them to the failure

at the end of the stage. The failure in one stage will create more complicated

problems in later stage, which makes the individuals face more complex identity

crisis. Therefore, the final result of individual’s in handing the problem in the

childhood will determine the quality of identity crises in the adolescence stage.

Identity formation is the time when individuals have passed the identification

phase in their childhood and begin to explore more experiences as adolescents. It is

the beginning of individuals to identify themselves according to the society where


they are or the way they have to become (Erikson 1968: 159). Based on Erikson’s

description of identity formation, it can be said that social recognition is influential

for individual in order to gain the sense of identity. Individuals identify themselves

based on the society’s judgments about how they should be acted on their ways.

As the critical period of human development, adolescence is the time for

individuals to explore more about the value of life in order to gain their identity. In

this period, adolescents begin to ask “who they are” and “what they want to be in the

future”. The process of exploring a sense of identity in this stage is called

psychosocial moratorium. Erikson (1968: 156) mentions that psychosocial

moratorium is the time when individuals have experimentation to find out the way

they can fit in the society and being recognized as a part of them. However, there are

some problems that possibly occur during the psychosocial moratorium. Individuals

will achieve healthy personality if only they can overcome the problems in

psychosocial moratorium; the problems are identity diffusion, identity foreclosure

and negative identity.

a. Identity Diffusion

Identity diffusion is the inability of individuals in figuring out a sense of identity.

They never be sure to act or react as what they want to, also they might overthinking

on what they should take an action in certain occasion. According to Erikson (1968:

171), identity diffusion is usually accompanied by an acute upset in the sense of

workmanship, an inability to concentrate on required tasks or in a self-destructive


an abhorrence of competitiveness. In addition, adolescents who are suffering from

identity diffusion usually have a difficulty in making decisions in their life. Those

disruptions will make them feel difficult in forming relationship and having

emotional disorder.

b. Identity Foreclosure

Identity foreclosure is when individuals define the values of their life too early

without experiencing more about many other choices or opinions. It can be influenced

by the circumstances and the beliefs of their parents. According to Tung and Sandhu

(2005: 88),

“boys who prematurely commit themselves to life goals according to their parents’s expectation or according to the choices of other authority figures without realization of their true selves or without going through a decision-making process are more vulnerable to lesser psychological health.”

It means that individuals will define themselves based on how the majority

commonly judge on how they should to be in such society. The majority itself can

refer to people around individuals whom have a big influence to the individuals in

making decision, such friends, family members, and teachers. In fact, parent become

the ones who have authority and the most influential factor in leading their children to

define themselves. For example, individuals will be forced by their parents to be what

their parents want. Parents have their own opinion about how their children are

supposed to be, and their children must follow them although they do not want to do


circumstances. As the consequence, they will live with their self-image under the


c. Negative identity

According to Erikson (1980: 139), “negative identity is the loss of a sense of

identity which often is expressed in a scornful and snobbish hostility toward the roles

offered as proper and desirable by one’s family or immediate community”. Negative

identity is formed by the individual as an effort to be recognized by the society, but

they express it in the wrong way. Adolescents who form negative identity usually act

as the opposite of what their society demand them to do. This can be called as denial

action because an individual prefer to be a person who is not commonly acceptable in

the society roles. For example, a boy who has ever been raped by other boys will

choose to be a homosexual as the form of negative identity in order to release their

pain in the past.

C. Background of the Novel 1. The Author

Stephen Chbosky is an American novelist who is best known as the author of The

Perks of Being a Wallflower, which was first published in 1999. He also becomes the

screenwriter and the director of a film with the same title in 2006. It is his first book

that he delivers to teenagers, especially American teenagers. The book is popular

among teenagers and awarded as the best-selling book. Since his first book is


The story in his first book really depicts the life of adolescents that contains many

conflicts usually occurring to most of teenagers. Consequently, it becomes a

controversy since the book describes about sexuality and drug use as experienced by

adolescents. However, the book still can grab an attention from many people who

love the story and the positive messages of the book.

Chbosky’s inspiration in writing the book is from his own life experiences. There

are some parts in the story that is inspired from Chbosky’s life in his adolescence.

Many characters in the novel represent the people he has ever met in his life. For

example, the character of Charlie’s English teacher, named Bill, represents Chbosky’s

mentor who has big deal in his life. Besides, the story of the novel takes place in

Pittsburg, where Stephen Chbosky is growing up there too. However, Chbosky’s in

Beisch (2015: par. 4) admits that,

“in terms of it relating to my adolescence, I’ve always said that the book is very personal to me, but it isn’t necessarily autobiographical – not in the literal sense of the word anyway. I do relate to Charlie. But my life in high school was in many ways different."

Chbosky’s expression above tells that the character of Charlie is very personal to

him, but it does not need to be categorized as an autobiographical novel since he has

many ways different of life with Charlie. The character of Charlie is the

representation of Chbosky’s hope about a character that should exist in the real life.

Chbosky tries to focus on how people should struggle on their passion. In addition,

Chbosky intention in creating the story is to make the reader feel like it is a reflection


2. The Perks of Being a Wallflower

Charlie is a person who is in his transition from childhood to adolescence. He is a

fifteen year-old-boy, and just begins to be a senior high school student. This is a story

of what it is like to grow up in high school. Charlie always writes letters to someone

who he never knows. The letters are singular and unique, since it covers everyday life

of Charlie, his activities, his feelings, and his world. He observes everything around

him and notes it in his letter. Charlie is a calm boy who feels nervous every time he

meets new people in his life. Even, he only has one best friend named Michael, who

commits suicide. Several weeks after his best friend’s death, he meets new friends

named Sam and Patrick. Charlie’s relationship with his new friends begins to change

his whole world. It is the time for Charlie to explore the life in his transition period as

a way to identify who he really is.

Charlie lives in a family, which has a little interaction one to another. He does

not have a serious conflict with his family actually; he just does not have a good

communication with them. Charlie really loves his aunt, named Helen, the one who

always makes him comfortable to share with. However, she has died after she bought

him a birthday gift when actually Charlie was still in his childhood. After that, he is

really upset and feels guilty of his aunt’s death. He becomes taciturn and introverted

that makes his friends call him as a wallflower. During his adolescence period, with

his new friends, he sees the wild world of American teenagers. He begins to know


Charlie finds many conflicts during his new world; it is the conflict in his mind

actually. He has an unstable emotion; he has no confidence to build a relationship,

and he is introverted. His best friends try to change Charlie to live his life. Actually,

Charlie has tried his best to follow his friends, but deep inside his mind, he has

pressures that make him difficult to be like other common teenagers. He struggles to

overwhelm his anxiety and fear in which no one knows what the real problem on him

is. At the end chapter of the novel, it is revealed that Charlie has ever been sexually

assaulted by his beloved aunt. This fact is the reason that influences his personality to

grow unhealthy because of the feeling of fear and anxiety after the abuse.

Finally, Charlie is hospitalized for two months and treated by his psychiatrist. He

then stops writing letters to anonymous. His family has known his problem, and helps

Charlie to overcome his trauma. He feels excited to go to sophomore year high school

without any worry. He also realizes that it will be too busy for him to write letters,

because he prefers to participate than just observe.

D. Previous Research Findings

There are two records of literary researches that focus on psychosocial analysis,

socio emotional development and adolescence identity at study program of English

Language and Literature in Yogyakarta State University. The first thesis is entitled

The Psychological Effect of World War II on Ira Hayes & John Bradley’s Character

in James Bradley’s Flags of Our Fathers by Eka Setiawati (2011). The thesis focus


world war and how the character deal with the traumatic experience related to

Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. The results of the research show that

there is two psychosocial crises suffered by the main characters according to

Erikson’s psychosocial development; those are Intimacy vs. Isolation and

Generativity vs. Stagnation.

The second is entitled Identity Crisis of The Second Generation of Asian-Indian

Americans as Reflected in Lahiri’s The Namesake by Anestia Fiddin (2013). This

research focuses on identifying the identity crisis that experienced by the main

character in the novel and the impact of the crisis toward the character’s personality

development related to Erikson’s psychosocial development theory. The result of the

research is that there are three problems occurring on the main character in the novel,

those are identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, and negative identity. As the

consequences, there are three malignancies that happen on the character as the impact

of the identity crisis in adulthood stage; those are intimacy crisis, identity confusion,

and distantion.

The theory of the previous research finding is the same as the theory used in this

research that Erikson’s psychosocial development focuses on socio emotional

development. Conversely, this investigates The Perks of Being A Wallflower by

Stephen Chbosky. This research aimed to identify the failure in the process of

psychosocial development and the impact of the failure on the main character

personality in the novel as the effects of traumatic experiences using Erikson’s


research to show the causes and the impacts of the failure in the Erikson’s fifth stage

of development toward the character of Charlie. There has not been a previous study

on Chbosky’s The Perks of Being A Wallflower conducted by either students or

lecturers in the English Department of Yogyakarta State University.

E. Conceptual Framework

Stephen Chbosky, The Perks of Being a Wallflower shares to the readers about

the teenagers’ life in America. The main character in the novel is Charlie, who is in

his growing up period to find his identity. Charlie is a boy who faced so many

conflicts in his life, whether with his friends, family, or even himself. Charlie

experiences some traumatic experiences in his life such sexual assault from his

beloved aunt, the sudden death of his aunt and his best friend. Charlie is trying his

best to deal with those bad experiences, but he failed. The researcher identifies how

traumatic experiences fail Charlie to accomplish the basic strength in the fifth stage of

Erikson’s psychosocial development and the effect of the failure toward his

personality in the following stage.

The researcher applies Erikson’s psychosocial theory to answer the research

questions. This theory believes that each person experiences eight psychosocial crises

which help to define his growth and personality. Each stage consists of problem that

must be faced. The more an individual resolves the crisis successfully, the healthier of



Figure 2. Conceptual Framework

Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower (words, phrases, clauses,

sentences, discourse) Erikson’s Psychosocial


Eight Stages of Development: 1. Trust vs. Mistrust

2. Autonomy vs. Shame & Doubt

3. Initiative vs. Guilt 4. Industry vs. Inferiority 5. Identity vs. Role


6. Intimacy vs. Isolation 7. Generativity vs. Stagnation

Identity vs. Identity Confusion

Intimacy vs. Isolation

1. To reveal how traumatic experiences make Charlie fail to accomplish the basic strength in the fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial development.

2. To analyze how the failure affects Charlie’s personality in the sixth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial


This research was a qualitative research and the results of the research were data

in the form of expressions instead of numbers. Qualitative research aims to develop

an understanding about social phenomena in the world, such as identifying why

things are the way they are (Yorkshire, 2009: 7). The first step required in this

qualitative research was doing close reading to the given text and figuring out every

details in the text that supports the data of the research. Then, the researcher

interpreted the meaning of the text guided by the theory used in order to answer the

research questions.

The data of this research could not be measured numerically. Therefore, a

descriptive-qualitative method was employed to analyze the data of the research. The

data were used to describe the phenomena as the effects of traumatic experiences

toward adolescence’s psychosocial development as depicted in Chbosky’s The Perks

of Being a Wallflower. The descriptive-qualitative method helped the researcher

explain the complexity of the meaning of the data in order to make the readers

understand it.

B. The Data and Sources of Data

The primary source of this research was The Perks of being a Wallflower, a novel


parts excluding epilogue and the story is formed in letters. The researcher read and

scrutinized the script comprehensively. The novel tells the fictional story of a grown

up boy who experience identity crisis during his personality development. This novel

provides main data of the study in the form of sentences and expressions reflecting

the topic of traumatic experience and personality development. Furthermore, the data

taken helped the researcher to answer the research questions (1) how traumatic

experiences make Charlie fail to accomplish the basic strength in the fifth stage of

Erikson’s psychosocial development, (2) how does the failure give impact toward

Charlie’s personality in the sixth stage of Erikson’s theory.

C. Research Instruments

The research instrument of this research was the researcher herself, who played

an important role in analyzing the data on the novel. According to Creswell (2014:

185), the researcher as the key of the research instrument collects the data by

examining documents and observing behavior. A secondary instrument is also

possible to be used in collecting the data, but the researcher is the one who gather the

information. The researcher collected, categorized, and interpreted the data from the

novel to get meanings in accordance with the topic of the research. The interpretation

and analysis of the researcher on the data were highly needed in order to guide the

reader to get a deep understanding about the social phenomenon depicted in


A table sheet was also needed as the secondary instrument to make the researcher

easier in collecting the data during the research process. All of the data that could be

analyzed were recorded in the table sheet. The table sheet also helped the researcher

classify the data into categories.

D. The Technique of Data Collection

The research data were taken by reading the novel carefully and noticing every

detail that would be analyzed. In this research, the researcher was doing close reading

to Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower. The next step was re-reading the

novel comprehension and taking notes of the data from the novel. Then, the

researcher interpreted the data from the novel and categorized the data in order to

answer the research questions. The last, the researcher identified the data based on

each categorization. To answer the first research question, the data were categorized

into three parts of Charlie’s failure in the fifth stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial

Development; those were identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, and negative

identity. The second categorization was related to the effects of the failure to

Charlie’s personality in the later stage of the development; those were intimacy and


The researcher used a data sheet for facilitating the work during the process of

data collection. The data sheet helped the researcher to record all the data found in the


Table 1. The Table List of the Data for the Effects of Traumatic Experiences that Fail Charlie to Achieve the Basic Strength in the Fifth Stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial Development

Table 2. The Table List of the Data for the Effects of the Failure toward Charlie’s Personality in the Sixth Stage

No Category Data Indicators Explanation Page

1. Isolation The last time I had a friend over to dinner was Michael last year. We had tacos. The really great part was that Michael stayed over to sleep. We ended up sleeping very little. We mostly just talked about things like girls and movies and music. The one part I remember


feeling of loneliness

Michael is the only best friend Charlie ever had for a year. It shows that he does not have a good interaction with others so that he has no friends. Charlie lives without real friends for a year.


No Category Data Indicators Explanation Page

1. Identity


It started yesterday at home. I don't like my birthday. I don't like it at all. I went shopping with my mom and sister, and my mom was in a bad mood because of parking spaces and lines. And my sister was in a bad mood because she couldn’t buy her secret boy a present and hide it from Mom. She would have to come back herself later.

Acute Upset

Charlie does not think that his birthday is special, even he gets deep down and sad when he notices that his birthday is about to come. The possible reason for Charlie to hate his birthday is because he has unexpected memories of his birthday that makes him really regrets about it.


distinctly was walking around the neighborhood at night. My parents were asleep along with the rest of the houses. Michael looked into all the windows. It was dark and quiet.

E. The Data Analysis

In analyzing the data from Chbosky’s The Perks of Being a Wallflower, the

researcher employed a content analysis technique. As mention by Tesch via Wahyuni

(2012: 122), content analysis technique focuses on the characteristics of language as

communication with attention to the content or contextual meaning of the text. A

content analysis method was the most appropriate method used in this research in

order to help the researcher describe and interpret the data of the research.

The researcher needed to do several steps in analyzing the data from Chobsky’s

The Perks of being a Wallflower in order to get the data interpretation as well. The

steps are presented as follows.

1. Reading and re-reading Chobsky’s The Perks of being a Wallflower in order to

get a deep understanding of the data content.

2. Classifying the data, which were related to the research questions, namely about

traumatic experiences and the effects of traumatic experiences toward human


3. Interpreting and scrutinizing the meaning of the data in line with the topic

discussion in this research. The interpretation and analysis of the researcher were

important to achieve the research objectives.

4. Checking the measure of trustworthiness by triangulation process.

5. Making some conclusions based on the analysis that had been done to the data of

the research. The conclusion aimed to know whether the research objective is

really achieved or not.

F. Trustworthiness

According to Guba, via Shenton (2004: 63), the trustworthiness of the data is

important to be demonstrated during the research process in order to make sure that

the research is trusted. The criteria to check the trustworthiness are credibility,

dependability, transferability, and conformability. The credibility is aimed to measure

the intention of the research. The research is credible when the data of the findings

are in accordance with the research objectives. The dependability refers to the

instrument or the data itself, whether it can be used to multiple occasions or not.

Transferability is the prospect whether the research can be applied on the other same

phenomenon or not. Meanwhile, conformability is to make sure that the researcher is

neutral and the research is objective.

The researcher also applied triangulation to check the credibility of the data

whether the research is on the right line or not. In observing the credibility, the


friends who are the students of English Language and Literature to check the data. In

addition, the researcher also discussed her analysis with her first and second thesis

consultants to get suggestions and inputs related to the analysis.

G. Analytical Construct

Table 3. The Analytical Construct of the Data for Charlie’s Failure in the Fifth Stage of Erikson’s Psychosocial Development

Category Definition Indicators

Identity Diffusion

Identity diffusion is when an individual lack of self-definition and direction of life.

a. Acute Upset: Charlie suddenly feels

extreme regret on something he just done and it leads him to get deep sadness.

b. The inability to concentrate: Charlie loses his focus every time he remembers something that irritates his feeling.

c. The excessive of self-awareness:

Charlie evaluates and compares himself as a person who is not as good, as intelligent, and as attractive as other people.

d. The inability to make a decision:

Charlie cannot make a correct decision in facing many possible choices that must be choose in his life.

Identity Foreclosure

Identity foreclosure is when parents and society play the most important role to influence an individual in making decision in order to gain their self-identity. An individual also do not exploring more opinion while gaining their identity.

a. Interruption of exploring self-potential: Charlie does not consider himself as a potential person.

b. Premature establishment of a sense of identity: Charlie unconsciously giving and receiving judgment on himself which contributes to his definition of self.

c. Excessive involvement of parents:


his parents in making a choice in his life. Negative Identity Negative Identity

Negative identity is when an individual showing the opposite act or behavior that is not expected by his family and social rules.

a. Performance of undesirable choice of an action to gain an acceptable identity. b. A denial action toward the rule in



Table 2. The Analytical Construct of the Data for the Impacts of Charlie’s Failure toward His Personality

Category Definition Indicators

Intimacy Individuals’ readiness to engage with the society, build more intimate relationship, and productive in work.

a. Participation in groups: Charlie begins to share and join with larger interaction in groups.

b. Encouragement in a worthless relationship: Charlie establishes a relationship with others without true fusion.

Isolation Individual unable to

enjoy his/her responsibilities as adult

to play a part in society and cannot achieve an intimate relationship with other sex.

a. The feeling of loneliness: Charlie feels hopeless and unhappy because he does not connect with other people.

b. Alienation: Charlie separates himself from the environment around him in order to avoid problems in his life. c. Depression: Charlie is haunted by the




This research attempts to identify the failure of the psychosocial development

of an adolescent that is portrayed in Chbosky’s The Perks of being A Wallflower. Hence, the researcher only involves Charlie as the leading character that is assumed as an adolescent who experiences failures in his psychosocial

development. Erikson’s psychosocial development is employed to guide the researcher in answering the research objectives related to Charlie’s failures.

In this chapter, the researcher describes the findings of the research, which are divided into two sub-chapters. The first sub-chapter answers the first research objective that is about Charlie’s failure in the fifth stage of Erikson’s psychosocial

development. It is marked by three problems ascending in his psychosocial moratorium, which are identity diffusion, identity foreclosure, and negative

identity. The second sub-chapter answers the second research objective about the impacts of Charlie’s failure toward his personality in the sixth stage, Intimacy vs. Isolation. In addition, the researcher also provides one part that explains the

traumatic experience and other supporting factors as the causes of Charlie’s failure in achieving his proper personality development.

A. Charlie’s Failure in the Fifth Stage

Erikson with his psyc


Figure 1. Erikson Psychosocial Crisis Theory of Human Development based on Chapman (2006: par.13)
Figure 2. Conceptual Framework
Table 2. The Table List of the Data for the Effects of the Failure toward
Table 2. The Analytical Construct of the Data for the Impacts of Charlie’s Failure toward His Personality


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