THE EFFECT OF CHARACTER EDUCATION IMPLEMENTATION TOWARD IMPROVEMENT OF STUDENTS CURIOSITY AND
CRITICAL THINKING ABILITY USING INQUIRY LEARNING MODEL AT JUNIOR
By: Nurul Hasanah
Physics Bilingual Education Study Program
Submitted to fulfill the requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
Alhamdulillah, praise and thanks to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, for all the graces and blessings that provide health and wisdom to writer so that this thesis can be done. Shalawat and Salam to Rasulullah Shallallahu Alaihi wa Salam, hopefully His syafa’at will be abundant in days later.
Thesis entitled "The Effect of Character Education Implementation toward Improvement of Students Curiosity and Critical Thinking Ability using Inquiry Learning Model at Junior High School”, prepared to obtain a Bachelor's degree Physical Education, Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science in State University of Medan.
In this occasion, let me say thanks to Mr Dr. Ridwan Abdullah Sani, M.Si. as Thesis Advisor who has provided guidance and suggestions to writer since the beginning of the study until the completion of this thesis writing. Thanks also to Dr. Derlina, M.Si., Drs. Eidi Sihombing, MS, and Alkhafi Maas Siregar ,S.Si, M.Si., who have provided input and suggestions from the research plan to complete the preparation of this thesis. Thanks also presented to Prof. Drs.Motlan, M.Sc, Ph.D, as the Academic Supervisor and also the entire Lecturer and Staff in Physics Department FMIPA UNIMED who have helped the writer. Appreciation were also presented to Headmaster and Physics teacher in SMP Swasta Muhammadiyah 1 Medan who have helped me and also staff employee who have provided the opportunity and aid during this research was taken place.
iii education implementation toward improvement of students curiosity and critical thinking ability in Physics (Newton Laws).The research method was quasi experimental. The population were all of students grade VIII SMP Swasta Muhammadiyah I Medan and 80 students became sample of this research. The sample divided into two classes, experimental and control classes. The treatment given was the implementation of character education in class VIII-C use inquiry learning, and without the implementation of character education in class VIII-B. Data obtained by direct observation for the students curiosity and test of critical thinking ability after learning that the treatment given. Data analysis technique used is the chi-square.
To get data of curiosity variable using observation sheet that suitable indicator of person that has curiosity, while to get data of critical thinking using essay test. Instrument validation of this research tested by using content validation. Data analysis technique used two way ANOVA and processed by SPSS 16.0.Then significant level that used α = 0.05.
Validation Sheet i
Curriculum Vitae ii
Figure List ix
Table List x
Appendix List xii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1
1.1. Background 1 1.2. Identification of Problems 6
1.3. Limitation of Problem 6
1.4. Formulation of Problems 6
1.5. Research Objective 7
1.6. Benefit of Research 7
CHAPTER II THEORITICAL REVIEW 8
2.1. Theoretical Framework 8
2.1.1. Integration of Character Education 8
18.104.22.168. Definition of Character Education 8
22.214.171.124. Dimension of Character Education 10
126.96.36.199. Stages of Character Education 13
188.8.131.52. Integration of Character Education 15
184.108.40.206. Integration of Character Education in Learning Science 18
220.127.116.11. Character Assessment 19
18.104.22.168. Definition of Inquiry Learning 20
22.214.171.124. Principles of Inquiry Learning 22
126.96.36.199. Implementation of Inquiry Learning 24
188.8.131.52. Advantages and disadvantages of Inquiry Learning 26
2.1.3. Integrating Character Education with Inquiry Learning 27
184.108.40.206. Integration of Character Education by Inquiry Learning 27
220.127.116.11. Improvement of Curiosity Values through Inquiry Learning 28
18.104.22.168. Critical Thinking 31
2.1.4. Subject Matter 34
22.214.171.124. Newton Laws 34
2.2. Conceptual Framework 37
2.3. Research Hypothesis 39
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY 40
3.1 Place and Time of Research 40
3.1.1. Place of Research 40
3.1.2. Time of Research 40
3.2. Population and Sample 40
3.2.1. Population 40
3.2.2. Sample 40
3.3. Research Design 40
3.4. Research Variable 41
3.5 Research Procedure 41
3.6 Research Instrument 44
3.6.1. Observation in Class 44
3.6.2. Test of Critical Thinking Ability 45
3.7. Data Collection Techniques 45
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH RESULT AND DISCUSSION 48
4.1 Research Implementation 48
4.1.1 Description of Research 48
4.2 Research Result and Discussion 48
4.2.1 Data of Observation in Class 48
4.2.2 Data of Pretest Score 51
4.2.3 Data of Posttest Score 52
4.3 Test of Analyze 54
4.3.1 Normality Test 54
4.3.2 Homogeneity Test 55
4.4 Hypothesis Test 56
4.4.1 Test of Hypothesis Pretest 56
4.4.2 Two way ANAVA Test 57
4.5 Discussion 58
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION 62
5.1 Conclusion 62
5.2 Suggestion 62
Table 2.1 Distribution of Values 17
Table 2.2 Techniques and Forms of Assessment Instruments 20
Table 2.3 Stages of Inquiry Learning 26
Table 3.1 Two Group Pretest-Posttest Design 41
Table 3.2 Research Design of ANAVA 41
Table 4.1 Data of Curiosity of Experiment and Control Class 49 Table 4.2 Recapitulation of High and Low Curiosity in Experiment and Control Class 50
Table 4.3 Recapitulation of Pretest Score of Critical Thinking in Experiment and Control Class 51
Table 4.4 Recapitulation of Posttest Critical Thinking in Experiment Experiment and Control Class 52 Table 4.5 Recapitulation of Critical Thinking with Low and High Curiosity 53
Table 4.6 Normality Test of Pretest and Posttest of Critical Thinking in Experiment and Control Class 55 Table 4.7 Normality Test of Low and High Curiosity in Experiment and Control Class 55 Table 4.8 Homogeneity Test of Pretest and Posttest of Critical Thinking In Experiment and Control Class 56
Figure 3.1 Research Procedure Design 43 Figure 4.1 Diagram of Average Score of Curiosity in Experiment and
Control Class 49 Figure 4.2 Diagram of Average of High and Low Curiosity in Experiment and Control Class 50 Figure 4.3 Diagram of Pretest Score of Critical Thinking Ability in
Experiment and Control Class 51 Figure 4.4 Diagram of Posttest Score of Critical Thinking Ability in
Experiment and Control Class 52 Figure 4.5 Diagram of Average Score of Critical Thinking Value with
Low and High Curiosity 54 Figure 4.6 Graph of no Interaction between Inquiry Learning with
Appendix 21. SPSS of Homogenity Test 108
Appendix 22. SPSS of t-Test 110
Appendix 23. SPSS of Two Way ANAVA Test 111
Appendix 24. Descriptor of Observation in Class 112
Appendix 25. Observation Result in Control Class 113
Appendix 26. Observation Result in Experiment Class 119
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
Based on the function and purpose of national education, it is clear that education at all levels; including junior high school (SMP) should be organized systematically in order to achieve that goal. This is related to the character formation of students so as to compete, ethical, moral, polite and interact with the community.
Based on research at Harvard University in the United States (Akbar, 2000), it turns out a person's success is not determined solely by the knowledge and technical skills (hard skills), but more by the ability to manage ourselves and others (soft skills). This research suggests that success is determined only about 20 percent by the hard skills and the remaining 80 percent of the soft skills. Even the most successful people in the world can succeed because the more widely supported than the ability of hard skills soft skills. This suggests that the qualities of education students are very important characters to be improved.
co-curricular activities , empowerment infrastructure, financing, and all citizens working ethos and the school environment.
According to Megawangi (2007), student character education is to form the characters through the proses knowing the good, loving the good, and acting the good. That is a process of education that involve cognitive , affective , and psychomotor aspects .So that, good character can forms be habit of the mind, heart, and hands. Therefore, it’s not precise if character education only religion and civilization education (PKN) affairs. Character education involves all of subject matters. Even, it seems not fair if character education only thrust and be responsible of school institution. Basically a character education can be integrated in the learning in each subject. Instructional material relating to the norms or values in each subject should be developed, explicit, associated with the context of everyday life. Thus, learning the values of the character not only on the cognitive level, but it touches on the internalization, and actual practice in the lives of student’s everyday in the community.
Broadly, educational problems are often found is the lack of student learning outcomes at the level of secondary school (SMP), especially in natural sciences. Science subject at school intended that learners have the following capabilities: (1) Increasing confidence in the greatness of Almighty God to the existence, creation of beauty and order of nature, (2) Develop an understanding of a wide range of natural phenomena, concepts and principles of IPA useful and can be applied in everyday life, (3) Develop a curiosity, a positive attitude, and awareness of the relationship interplay between science, environment, technology, and society, (4) Conducting scientific inquiry to develop thinking skills, behave and act and communicate scientifically, (5) Increase the awareness to participate in preserving, maintaining, and preserving the environment and natural resources, (6) Increase the awareness to appreciate nature and any regularity as one of God’s creation, (7) Increase the knowledge, concepts, and skills of science as a basis for continuing education to the next level.
character education can be integrated in the learning in each subject including science. Basically science education is directed to "find out" about the systematic nature is to "do or do something" because science is not just a mastery of knowledge in the form of a collection of facts, concepts or principles, but also is a process of discovery. Physics is a part of science that is the result of human activity in the form of knowledge, ideas and concepts that are organized around the nature of the experience gained through a series of scientific processes. For some students regard physics as a super tough lesson, and some students say the most frightening lesson, especially if the teacher's killer, sinister, rarely smiles, and others.
In order to the learning process can improve learning outcomes of students, and then students must have a strong motivation to learn physics and the perception that it was very enjoyable. This is where the role of a teacher is required to be able to change and learn to break the ice with a nice model for studying not only a knowledge transfer process, but should be entertaining, stimulating, interesting and not boring. In accordance with the ideals of the national educational goals, teachers need to have some principles of teaching which refers to the internal capacity building of students in designing and implementing learning model. Increase in the internal potential for example by applying the kinds of learning models that allow learners are able to achieve full competence, and contextual whole. Yet to accomplish this, a teacher must first be good to design a customized learning scenario with a model that will be applied to the learning objectives are achieved and obtain a satisfactory learning outcome. Integration of character education in the learning process carried out starting from the planning, implementation, and evaluation of learning in all subjects. Among the principles to be adopted in making lesson planning (designing learning and assessment activities in the syllabus, lesson plans and teaching materials), carry out the learning process, and evaluation are the principles of contextual learning (Contextual Teaching and Learning).
knowledge learned to their lives. Contextual learning applying a number of learning principles .One of principles contained therein is inquiry. Inquiry is the process of moving from observation to understanding, which begins with the observation of the questions that arise. Answers to these questions obtained through a cycle of up allegations, set of hypotheses, develop ways of testing hypotheses, making observations further, and develop theories and concepts are based on data and knowledge.
The reason to use of inquiry methods is the students will gain a better understanding of natural science and will be more interested in natural science when students are actively involved in learning. Active involvement is proven to improve student academic achievement and student attitudes toward science. Method of inquiry is a method of learning that seeks to instill the basics of scientific thinking on students in the learning process so that more students learn on their own, develop creativity in solving problems. Students actually placed as a study subject.
In the inquiry-based learning, students learn to use critical thinking skills as they discuss and analyze the evidence, evaluate the ideas and propositions, reflecting the validity of the data, process, and make a conclusion. Then determine how to present and explain the findings, and connect ideas or theories to get the concept. Applying the principles of inquiry learning can develop a variety of characters, such as critical thinking, logical, creative, and innovative, curiosity; respect other people's opinions, manners, honesty, and responsibility.
To determine the extent of the influence of the use of inquiry methods in teaching and learning and character development as pointed out above, the researchers found it necessary to conduct a study entitled: “The Effect of Character Education Implementation toward Improvement of Students
Curiosity and Critical Thinking Ability Using Inquiry Learning Model at Junior
1.2. Identification of Problems
Based on the background of the issues that have been described, it can be identified issues relevant to this study, among others:
1. The importance of character education in the process of implementation of national education.
2. Character education is not integrated in the learning in each subject including Physics.
3. Lack of involvement of students in the Learning Process.
4. Character education using inquiry learning is not implemented yet. 5. Students weakness in curiosity and critical thinking
1.3. Limitation of Problems
In accordance with the identification of issues and breadth of scope of the problem, then this study is only limited to:
1. Instructional design applied in this study is the use of character education through the implementation of character education using inquiry learning. 2. Character that will be improved are curiosity and critical thinking of
students in Science.
1.4. Formulation of Problem
Based on the above problems, it is the formulations of the problem in this study are:
1. Is there the difference of critical thinking ability with character education implementation using Inquiry Learning and Inquiry Learning without character education?
2. Is there the difference of critical thinking ability between students that have high curiosity and low curiosity?
1.5 Research objectives
Each study is certain to have targets to be achieved. The purpose is the starting point for doing activities and these activities will be measured from the level of success. The purposes of this study are:
1. Knowing the difference of critical thinking ability with character education implementation using Inquiry Learning and Inquiry Learning without character education.
2. Knowing the difference of critical thinking ability between students that have high curiosity and low curiosity.
3. Knowing the interaction between Inquiry Learning with character education and Inquiry Learning without character education with curiosity toward critical thinking ability.
1.6. Benefits of Research
Benefits to be gained in this study are:
1. As a handle material for researchers in carrying out their teaching duties in the future.
2. As input to the teachers / prospective teachers that inquiry learning can be an alternative option to develop the character of students.
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