PLOT RELATED TO PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY IN
KATE CHOPIN’S “THE STORM”
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree ofSarjana Sastra
in English Letters
Student Number: 014214081
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
PLOT RELATED TO PSYCHOANALYTIC THEORY IN
KATE CHOPIN’S “THE STORM”
AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS
Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree ofSarjana Sastra
in English Letters
Student Number: 014214081
ENGLISH LETTERS STUDY PROGRAMME DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS
FACULTY OF LETTERS SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY
My entire grateful are for Jesus Christ, The Lord, The Savior, who has
always given me strength and power to struggle in accomplishing this undergraduate
thesis. Your guidance is always with me. When I am down, You wake me up. When
I am once failed, it means You give me two gifts, thankfulness and success.
I am greatly indebted to my advisor, Drs. Hirmawan Wijanarka, M.Hum.
and my co-advisor, Dra. Th. Enny Anggraini, M.A. for the help, support, advice,
suggestion, and correction. Thank you so much for your patience and kindness. And
also thanks to all members of the English Letters’ staffs of the English Department
of Sanata Dharma, the Faculty’s secretariat, and the library staffs.
I would like to thank my parents; my dad JB. Widirdjo, my mom JA.
Sujatmi, and my beloved brothers Widyanto and Wibriyanto. Thank you dad, thank
you mom for your prayer, love and care, your great patience, and for everything,
thank you my brothers, I love you all so much.
To Andre’s family; Andre, Lina, my little Vanya, and mbak Tiwi, thank
you guys for the support and the tools. For Bapak and Ibu in Purworejo, thank you
so much for the advice and support.
Finally, to my big great family in Semarang, I say thanks a lot. I have
finished it, my dear my love Lisa Yunistrini, I thank you.
A. Background of the study ... 1
B. Problem Formulation ... 4
C. Objectives of the study ... 4
D. Definition of Term ... 5
CHAPTER II THEORETICAL REVIEW... 6
A. Review of Related Studies ... 6
B. Review of Related Theories... 8
1. Theory of Character and Characterization ... 8
2. Theory of Setting and Plot ... 13
3. Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis ... 18
C. The Relation between Literature and Psychology ... 22
D. Theoretical Framework ... 25
CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY... 26
A. Object of the Study ... 26
B. Approach of the Study ... 27
C. Method of the Study ... 28
CHAPTER IV ANALYSIS ... 30
A. The Characterization of the Major and Minor Characters ... 30
1. Calixta ... 31
2. Alcee Laballiere ... 36
3. Bobinot ... 39
4. Bibi ... 41
B. The Depiction of the Setting and Plot in “the Storm” ... 42
C. The Reflection of Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis on the Major Characther in “The Storm” ... 50
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION ... 53
PRIYO WIDIANTONO (2009). A Reflection of the Characters, Setting, and Plot Related to Psychoanalytic Theory in Kate Chopin’s “The Storm”.
Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Sanata Dharma University.
"The Storm" by Kate Chopin is a great literary example of the use of setting. Chopin uses setting to not only influence the reader’s senses, but also, to illustrate the actions and feelings of her characters. The description of her setting also helps to make the characters actions and feelings more powerful and exciting to the reader than if the story had taken place in a different setting. Chopin also uses the element of plot in order to make the story more alive. The setting and plot in the story will be reflected in the actions of the characters, especially the two main characters that can be analyzed from psychological angle.
This undergraduate thesis explores the intrinsic elements of the short story “the Storm”. Specifically this undergraduate thesis elaborates on the character, setting, and plot. The writer will show that the character, setting, and plot of the story are important aspects in a literary work related to the theory of Freud’s psychoanalysis.
The writer conducts library research in working on this study. The writer also used books, the criticisms about the work and articles from Internet for sources. The theories used in this study are theory of character, setting, plot, and the theory of psychoanalysis. The writer uses the suitable approach that relates to this study which is psychoanalytic approach.
PRIYO WIDIANTONO (2009). A Reflection of the Characters, Setting, and Plot Related to Psychoanalytic Theory in Kate Chopin’s “The Storm”.
Yogyakarta: Jurusan Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.
"The Storm" oleh Kate Chopin adalah satu contoh bagus dari penggunaan latar belakang sebuah cerita. Chopin menggunakan latar tidak hanya untuk mempengaruhi gambaran pembaca, tetapi juga untuk memberikan ilustrasi tentang adegan dan perasaan dari para tokohnya. Deskripsi dari latar yang disuguhkannya juga membantu agar adegan dan perasaan dari para tokoh menjadi lebih kuat dan hidup sehingga menarik bagi pembaca dibandingkan misalnya disuguhkan latar yang lain. Chopin juga menggunakan unsur alur untuk membuat cerita lebih hidup. Latar dan alur di dalam cerita ini akan direfleksikan pada adegan-adegan dari para tokohnya, khususnya oleh dua tokoh utamanya yang akan dianalisa dari sudut psikologi.
Skripsi ini mengekplorasi tentang unsur-unsur utama dari cerita pendek “The Storm”. Khususnya skripsi ini memadukan unsur tokoh, latar, dan alur. Penulis akan menunjukkan bahwa tokoh, latar, dan alur dari cerita ini adalah aspek-aspek yang penting di dalam satu karya sastra yang berhubungan dengan teori psikoanalisis dari Freud.
Penulis memakai metode penelitian dari sumber data perpustakaan untuk melakukan studi ini. Penulis juga mennggunakan buku-buku, kritik-kritik tentang cerita pendek ini, dan artikel dari internet. Teori-teori yang digunakan di dalam studi ini adalah teori tentang tokoh, latar, alur, dan teori tentang psikoanalisis. Penulis menggunakan pendekatan yang sesuai dengan studi ini yaitu pendekatan psikoanalitik.
A. Background of Study
Literature is one expression of life through medium of language. As
Hudson says in An Introduction to the Study of Literature, literature presents some kinds of human aspects of life such as history, psychology, social, and
many more. By reading literary work, we can get some lessons of life which
are closely related to human aspects of life.
Literature is a vital record of what men have seen in life, what they have experienced of it, what they have thought and felt about those aspects of it which have the most immediate and enduring interest for all of us, it is thus fundamentally an expression of life through the medium of language (1960: 10).
Literary works may give the readers an understanding of the idea of
the messages values in the works. In the process of reading, readers may get
the implied meaning from the literary works. As Jeremy Hawthorn states in
his bookUnlocking the Text: Fundamental Issues in Literary Theorythat, The report of some readers…that a poem or story induces them in the vivid images, intense feelings or heightened consciousness, is neither anything that can be refuted nor anything that it is possible for the objective critic to take into account (1987: 20).
Choosing such principle in conducting a literary analysis requires us
to use psychological perspective. A literary study using psychological
some of the technique of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature (2002: 96).
Literature and the author have a close relationship because an author’s
social background, ideology, and experience have an important role in the
process of creativity creating the work of literature. Society and personal
experiences of the author are the main source for the author to create his or her
works. The author uses literature to express his or her feeling, thought,
experience, problem, or a certain view of life through characters, setting, events
or incidents, and motives in his or her works directly or indirectly. Literature is
an imitation of life, literature is not merely a copy of the world; there is a
creative process. It is as what Kenney says in How to Analyze Fiction, Poetry, and Drama(1966: 3).
During her life, Kate Chopin has produced many literary works, such
as novels, and short stories. Most of them explore issues that are not far from
her life; her life’s experience as a young widow who struggles with her hard life
after her husband passed away. She also tries to get happiness and pleasure in
her life. Since the author’s background is the strong element that influences his
works, the writer is interested to analyze one of Kate Chopin’s short stories,
“The Storm”. In 1898, Kate Chopin wrote “The Storm” but she never published
Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” is a simple story about the experience of a
married woman named Calixta who faces against the storm outside her house
from the storm. In the story, Alcee admired Calixta’s beauty and he seduced
Calixta. Alcee tried to make Calixta remembered the beautiful moments
which they had when she and Alcee were in love, especially the beautiful
moment in Assumption when they had romantic kissing. At first, Calixta tried
to defend herself from Alcee’s seduction. In the story, Alcee did not give up
to make Calixta fell into his arm. Finally they did sexual intercourse. This
sexual intercourse signed their love affair. Actually they already had a happy
family but an affair broke their holiness of marriage. After the storm passed
Calixta’s husband, Bobinot and her child, Bibi returned home. Calixta
welcomed her husband and child arrival happily and she gave a sweet kisses
to her husband and her child. Alcee also wrote a love letters to his wife to
show his love to her wife in a faraway distance. Although Calixta and Alcee
had an affair, their marriages were still safe and normal.
In this study the writer is going to analyze the main characters’
characteristics related to the setting and plot. In analyzing this topic, the
writer tries to relate literature and psychology. It is undeniable that literature
and psychology are two different fields that can influence each other. Wellek
and Warren in their book, Theory of Literature, state that analyzing literary
works relating to psychology can mean studying theory of psychology that
may present within works of literature. The point in this study is the
sexual directness and complete lack of moralizing is nothing less than
astonishing. It made Kate Chopin unable to publish “The Storm” until long
after Kate Chopin’s death.
B. Problem Formulation
Considering the background above, the writer would like to examine
two problems in this literary study.
1. How are the major and minor characters characterized in Kate Chopin’s
2. How is the setting and plot in the story depicted?
3. How is Sigmund Freud’s Theory of psychoanalysis reflected on the
characterization of the major characters in the short story “The Storm”?
C. Objectives of the Study
To give the answers to the problems stated, the writer will analyze the
characterization of the major and minor characters in this short story. This
will help the writer to understand the characteristic of the major and the minor
characters in the short story “The Storm”.
After the writer finds the characterization of the major and the minor
characters in the short story “The Storm”, the writer lists the characteristic of
both the major and the minor characters in the story. After that, the writer also
result of the characterization of both characters, especially the two main
characters and the analysis of setting and plot to find out the all important
elements of human’s unconsciousness within the theory of Freud’s
psychoanalysis which are reflected in the Kate Chopin’s short story “The
D. Definition of Terms
To avoid any kinds of misinterpretation in understanding in this thesis,
there should be an explanation about the meaning of psychoanalytic criticism.
In his book An Introduction to Literary and Cultural Theory, Peter Barry defines psychoanalytic criticism as a form of literary criticism that uses some
of the techniques of psychoanalysis in the interpretation of literature.
Psychoanalysis itself is a form of therapy that its aim is to cure mental
disorder by investigating the interaction of conscious and unconscious in the
A. Review of Related Studies
A famous work, whether it is in literature or in the other fields, will
become public’s attention. This attention then will create many kinds of opinion
from them, whether they like or dislike it. In literature, usually the readers
compose their point of view of a literary work in criticism. That kind of criticism
often goes to Kate Chopin’s works. In this chapter, the writer tries to show and
explain about some studies which are done to analyze Kate Chopin’s “The
Storm” and some criticisms from books and internet. These will prove that Kate
Chopin’s “The Storm” is worth reading and interesting to discuss. The writer also
explains about some theories which are needed to characterize the all characters,
to come up to our understanding of the relation between psychoanalysis and the
characters through the characters themselves, and to deal with the concept of
setting and plot in Chopin’s short story “The Storm”. These will help the writer
to analyze Kate Chopin’s short story “The Storm” which is as a reflection of the
theory of character, setting, plot, and Freud’s psychoanalysis.
From the book Literature Reading and Writing the Human Experienceby
Richard Abcarian, Marvin Klotz with Peter Richardson tells that Kate Chopin’s
Many of literary works placed in the section “Innocence and Experience“,
“Conformity and Rebellion”, ”Culture and Identity” speak of Love and Hate as
In this age of psychological awareness, the claims of the flesh are well recognized. But psychology teaches us, as well, to recognize the aggressive aspect of the human condition. The omnipresent selfishness that civilization attempts to check may be aggressively violent as well as lustful. Thus we have the simple eroticism of Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” (1998: 945).
The essay above explains that in the short story “The Storm”, Kate
Chopin used setting in creating her story as her way to influence the reader’s
feeling, and emotion. Each sentence in “The Storm” showed that Kate Chopin
tried to emphasize the use of setting in creating her story. In “The Storm”, Kate
Chopin invited the readers to feel the setting or the condition in the story. In a
simple way, Kate Chopin invited the readers to feel the presence of the storm
which is scary and horrible. The essay tells that, the more we understand the
setting in “The Storm”, we can understand the content of the story.
Another essay from www.123helpme.com, tells that “The Storm” shows
the act of adultery of Calixta and Alcee.
The essay above, explains that love affair in “The Storm” is the act of
adultery and the act of adultery is a sin. The essay tells that Kate Chopin had a
purpose in writing her short story “The Storm”. Her purpose is that she wants to
show that the act of adultery is a way of life and everyone may able to do the act
of adultery. In a simple way, the act of adultery such as love affair may happen to
This study focuses on analyzing the two major characters, Calixta and
Alcee Laballiere in Kate Chopin’s “The Storm” in psychological angle
concerning the symbols and the setting.
B. Review of Related Theories
1. Theory of Character and Characterization
To begin with the fiction, the author introduces his characters to the
readers, as one of the important elements of dramatic or narrative work. Since a
character is very important in this analyzing study, it is very important also first
to find the best definition of it. The definition of characters is taken from Abrams
in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms.
Stanton in An Introduction to Fiction says that the term “character” has
two meanings. It can refer to the individuals who appear in the story and also the
mixture of interest, desires, emotions, and moral principles that shape each of
these individuals (1965: 17). Equivalently, Holman and Harmon inA Handbook
to Literature mention that the term “character” is used to designate the
individual’s speech and action. Therefore, the character can represent human
being actions, behaviors, and attitudes (1986: 81).
According to the importance in its story, characters can be described as
major and minor characters. Abrams inA Glossary of Literary Termsdefines that
major or main characters are the most important characters which become the
center of attraction of a story. Usually the acts of the story are focused on these
characters from the beginning to the ending part. The core of the story is
highlighted through these characters’ experience. Minor characters appear in a
certain setting, just necessarily to become the background for the major
characters. Their roles in a story are just to support the development of major
characters. In the other words, basically, a story is about major characters (main
characters), but they cannot stand on their own, they still need other characters to
make the story convincing and lifelike. Minor characters are characters of less
important than those of the mains (1981: 20).
In Aspects of the Novel, E.M. Forster divides characters into flat and
represented in outline and without much individual detail. A flat character can be
fairly described in a single phrase or sentence. The use of simple characters is to
fulfill minor roles in a work of fiction. The flat character is usually the same sort
of people at the end of the story as in the beginning of the story. Round character
is obviously more lifelike than the simple one because in real life people are not
simply embodiments of single attitude. The round character is complex in
temperament and motivation and is represented with subtle peculiarity. Usually
round characters are major figures in the story. Round characters possess many
individual and unpredictable human traits. They may be considered dynamic in
which they demonstrate their capacities to change or to grow. The mark is that he
is capable of surprising the readers (1974: 46-54).
Holman and Harmon in A Handbook to Literature state that
characterization is the creation of imaginary persons. The characters are created
imaginatively, but they have to be seen real, therefore they exist for the reader or
audiences as lifelike (1986:45). Perrine also defines characterization as the
creation of an author’s imagination about character as a real person so that they
exist for the reader as lifelike (1974: 88).
According to Mary Rohberger and Samuel H. Woods, the process of
creating characters is called characterization. In Reading and Writing about
called characterization. There are two principal ways an author can characterize
Murphy’s Understanding Unseen gives more detailed techniques of
characterization. It mentions nine techniques of characterization used by the
author to describe the characters of a story (1972: 161:173).
a. Personal description
An author uses this method particularly to give the description of face,
body, and other physical appearances.
b. Character as seen by another
The author can also describe a character through the eyes and opinion of
The author gives the readers some clues to a person‘s character in the book
through what the person says. Whenever a character is in conversation
with another and whenever a character gives such opinions, a character is
giving the readers some clues to its character’s personality.
d. Past Life
By letting the readers learn about a character’s past life, an author can give
the clue to events that have helped to shape a person’s character. It can be
thought, through its character’s conversation, or through the medium of
e. Conversation of Others
The author can also give the readers some clues to a person’s character
through the conversations of other people and the things they say about its
The author can give the readers a clue to a person’s character by letting
them know how the person reacts to various situations and events.
g. Direct Comment
The author can also describe or comment on a person’s character directly.
The author can give the readers direct knowledge or what a person is
thinking about. What in the person’s mind is and what he feels reflected on
An author can describe a person’s way of behaving and habits which may
2. Theory of Setting and Plot
In his bookHow to Analyze Fiction, Kenney divides the setting into three
types; they are neutral setting, spiritual setting, and setting as dynamic. The
neutral setting is a reflection of the truth that things can happen somewhere. The
principal concern of the author is in plot character and not really interest in the
setting, because the fiction has an unclear contemporary’s urban or rural setting.
The spiritual setting is the values that are embodied or implied by the physical
setting. The spiritual setting is the rural setting that does not only describe about
grass, cows, and barns, but also the important thing is a certain value. The setting
as dynamic is the setting that thrusts from dynamic into the action. The setting is
affected by the events and explains the role of a major character (1966: 38-40).
Kenney also divides the setting into three kinds, which are the use of
setting as metaphor, the use of setting to create atmosphere, and the use of setting
as dominant element which consists of time and place as dominant elements. The
function of the setting as metaphor has a purpose in the character’s internal states
or a pervasive spiritual condition. The use of setting to create atmosphere is more
talked than defined. It focuses on the suggesting than the setting. There is one
critic that describes the creation of the atmosphere. It is kind of the setting and
also helping to establish the expectation of the reader. The setting as the
dominant elements which are time and place as the dominant elements can be
fiction. And place as the dominant element is the place dominates in the whole
story that tries to find out the effects in a particular character of geographical
setting (1966: 40-44).
Murphy in his book Understanding Unseen says that the setting of the
literary works is the background of the characters lives. The setting can be
concerned with the place and time where characters live. These have an
important effect on the personalities, actions, and the characters’ way of thinking
Beaty and Hunter inNew Worlds of Literatureemphasize that setting is a
part of the complex perspective on people and action that is offered to a reader; it
helps to set tone and mood and it helps to realize both character and plot.
Meaning to say that setting can help the readers in realizing character and plot in
the story, set the tone and mood, and it can make the readers seeing many more
on people and action in the story (1989: 111).
The same as what Beaty and Hunter have stated, Rohrberger and Woods
inReading and Writing about Literaturesay that the setting aids in establishing
credibility; it can help to explain both characters and situation; it can contribute
to the atmosphere or predominated mood; it can be active in foreshadowing; it
can be symbolic. Setting can give complete info to the readers and help them to
According to Roberts and Jacobs in their bookFiction: An Introduction to
Reading and Writing state explain that there are six uses of setting, they are:
setting and credibility, setting and statement, setting and characters, setting and
organization, setting and atmosphere, setting and irony. In their explanation on
setting and characters, they say that setting may intersect with characters as one
of the means by which characters are to be underscored and therefore understood.
It means that setting has some connections with the characters, so they can be
understandable (1987: 191-194).
In the same book Roberts and Jacobs also mention that there are two
types of setting; natural setting and manufactured setting. Natural setting is the
out-of doors setting where nature is seen as a force that shapes action and
therefore direct and redirect lives. A deep woods way make walking difficult or
dangerous or they maybe a place for a sinister meeting of devil worshipers. The
open road may be a place where one person seeks flight, other face a showdown
and still others may meet their fate. The ocean may be the location of youth but
also may provide the environment for memory of vanished dream. It wants to say
that nature is one of the major forces governing the circumstances of the
characters that go about facing the conflicts on which the plot of the story
depends. Manufactured setting is always connected to people who create them.
Therefore, a building or rooms may tell something about the people who built it
Stanton’sAn Introduction to Fictiondefines plot as entire sequence of the
casually linked events related to each other and cannot be separated.
In the broadest sense, the plot of a story is its sequence of events. We usually limit the term, however, to include only casually linked events that is, events that directly cause or result from other events, and cannot be omitted without breaking the line of action (1965: 14).
The events that are meant above are not only including the physical
occurrences, like a speech or action, but also a character’s change of attitude, a
flash of insight, and decision. On other words Stanton says that plot is the
backbone of a story (1965: 15).
Kennedy in Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama
mentions that plot is defined as a plan or groundwork for a story, based on
conflicting human motivations, with the actions resulting from believable and
realistic human response. Thus, the plot of the story is the establishment of a
conflict and the consequences, variations, and development that stem from it. To
the degree that plot requires a set of events that may be laid out in a
chronological order, which may have a clearly formed shape, it may be termed a
major structure of the story (1983: 107-108).
To analyze more complete about the plot, the writer uses the idea of some
aspects which the plot may be had in such a story. According to Kennedy and
also Pickering and Hoeper, plot can be divided into some aspects that form the
plot or the skeleton or pattern of development: exposition, complication, crisis,
In his book Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama,
Kennedy explains that in a story there will be five aspects: exposition,
complication, crisis, climax, and resolution or denouement (1983: 120-121).
While Pickering and Hoeper in their book Literature, draw the plot of a
traditional short story as in also five aspects: exposition, complication, crisis,
falling action, and resolution (1986: 21-22).
The writer will combine the two ideas as follow:
The beginning of the section presents everything that is important in the story
such as the necessary background information, the main characters, their
goals, their limitations and potentials. The background information is to set
the scene and may give description about the situation and the time when the
action takes place.
Sometimes referred to as the rising action, breaks the existing equilibrium
and introduces the characters and the underlying or inciting conflict. It is
place for conflict to be developed gradually and intensified.
The crisis is the turning point, the separation between what has gone before
and what has would come after. In practice, the crisis is usually a decision or
The climax is the high point in the action, in which the conflict and the
consequent tension are brought out to the fullest extent. Another way to think
of climax is to define it as that point in a story in which all the rest of the
action becomes inevitable. This inevitability happens as a result of the fact
that once the high point is reached, there must be an action or development
that brings the climax to a conclusion.
e. Falling action
The tension subsides once the climax has been reached and the plot moves
toward its appointed conclusion. Meaning to say that falling action can be the
section to calm down and lead the way for the resolution.
f. Resolution or denouement
The final section of the plot is its resolution; it records the outcome of the
conflict and establishment some new equilibrium or stability. The resolution
(a releasing or untying) or denouement (untying) is the set of actions bringing
to the story to its conclusion.
3. Sigmund Freud’s Theory of Psychoanalysis
Hall in his book, A Primer of Freudian Psychology states that theory of
psychoanalysis dealt with conscious and unconscious is mainly based on the
superego. Despite of their own functions, properties, components, operating
principles, dynamism, and mechanism, they interact so closely with one another.
In other words, it is the product of the interaction among these three systems that
results in individual behavior (1954: 22).
Before an individual gets an experience and has no knowledge yet of
objective reality, and before an individual gets an experience about the outer
world, it isidthat stimulates the individuals to do so. That is why Freud calls id
as the true psychic reality. As what Hall says that the only function of id is to
channel the instinct so that there is no strained situation as the result of a pressure
or failure. Therefore,idbrings the individual from a strained situation to a joyful
situation. The id does not tolerate any increase of energy that makes
uncomfortable state of tension. Consequently, when the tension level of the
individuals raised, id function to discharge the tension immediately and returns
the individual to a comfortably constant and low energy. Therefore, Freud calls
idas the principle of pleasure. When the idfails releasing an individual from a
strain, it tries to at least reduce the strain so that the psychic goes back to the
constant condition. Sinceidtries to keep the constant condition,idis also called
as the principle of constancy (1954: 22-27).
Egois the result of the creation of spiritual or inner system as the result of
reciprocal relationship between an individual and his outer world. It comes into
with the objective world of reality. Therefore, ego always considers the reality
before it tries to reduce the strain. The hungry individual has to seek, find, and
eat food before the tension of hunger can be eliminated. The individual has to be
able to differentiate a memory image of food from the actual perception of food
exists in the outer world. Then, the individual has to convert the image of food
into a perception that is realized by finding and eating the food. The individual
has to be able to match the memory image of food with the sight or smell of food
because they come to the person through his senses. This is what makes ego
different from id. Ego can distinguish between things in mind and things in the
external world, whileidknows only the subjective reality of mind.
Ego functions as a mean of reaching the reality of what is demanded by
id. This is the reason whyegois called the principle of reality. Whenidimagines
some food because the individual is hungry,ego tries to motivate the individual
to get some food to eat, so there is no strain anymore. That is to say that in
accomplishing its functions,ego acts as the mediator of the instinctive demands
on the one hand and the reality on the other. The aim of ego is to prevent the
discharge of tension until an object that is appropriate for the satisfaction of the
need is discovered. To accomplish its function ego operates by means of
secondary process, it is realistic thinking. By means of secondary process, ego
formulates a plan for the satisfaction of the need then tests the plan, usually by
when the individual is hungry, he will think of where he can find the food and the
proceeding to look in the place. In order to perform its role efficiently,egohas a
control over all the cognitive intellectual functions. Becauseegois dominated by
the principle of reality, ego develops itself in accordance with what the individual
undergoes in the real world. It is ego that has to solve any problems when the
individual tries to satisfy his need. Therefore, it is also ego that acts because of
spontaneous stimulus on the one hand and adapts its action to what the reality
demands (1954: 27-31).
Superego consists of some values and evaluative norms. Superegois the
internal representative for the traditional values and ideals of society as
interpreted and dictated by the parents to the children. Because it deals much
with the values and the evaluative norms, superego represents the ideal world
rather than the pleasure. Its main function is to decide whether something is right
or wrong so that it can act accordance with the moral standards authorized by the
society. That is why superego can not release itself from the rules, norms, and
beliefs of the society.
Hall says that superego bears three functions. Firstly, it functions to
inhibit the impulses of id, especially the impulses of a sexual or aggressive
nature. This is because these are impulses whose expression is most highly
condemned by the society. Secondly,superego functions to substitute moralistic
tries to challenge idand ego and to make the world over into its own image. In
short, the function of superego is to control the conscience when it endangers
either oneself or the society. Superego, with its values and evaluative norms,
enables individual to be good member of society. When he wants to have sexual
intercourse, for example, superego will control the individual to do it with his
couple in a relation of marriage. Like what happens to ego, superego develops
itself in accordance with the individual’s experience. Superego also tries to
control the instinct. The only difference is that ego is influenced by the
experience about reality while superego is influenced by the experience of the
definition of bad and good. Therefore,superego starts its development when the
individual understand what is bad and what is good (1954: 31-35).
C. The Relation between Literature and Psychology
Literature is an expression of individual to a certain issue in reality. To
some extents, every literary work has connection with the real world. Stanton in
Introduction to Fictionimplies that literature is a unique imitation of life.
In life, on the other hand, there are no stereotypes, no mere copies: every person is an individual to those who known him, every love affair is a unique experience to the lover. The serious author takes life as his model. Instead of writing a “typical story”, he writes of particular individual in particular situation. The result, paradoxically, is that his story is typical-typical of life (1965: 7).
Kennedy in An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama states that
approaches. First, it investigates the creative process of the artist: what the nature
of literary genius is, and how it relates to normal mental function. The second
major area for psychological criticism is the psychological study of a particular
artist. Most modern literary biographies employ psychology to understand their
subject’s motivation and behavior. The third common area of psychological
criticism is the analysis of fictional characters. Freud’s study of Oedipus is the
prototype for this approach, which tries to bring modern insights about human
behavior into the study of how fictional people act (1983: 147).
Psychology as one of studies can become a theoretical criticism which
provides theories, principles, and tenets of the nature and value of art. This kind
of critic is known also as psychological critics. According to Wellek and Warren
in Theory of Literature, psychological approach shows its existence when
Sigmund Freud’s idea influenced many literary works. Most frequently,
psychological critics apply Freudian psychological to works. Psychological
critics view works through the lens of psychology. They look either at the
psychological motivations of the characters or of the authors themselves,
although the former is generally considered a more respectable approach.
Literature truthfully reflects life and represents a realistic human motivation and
behavior; meanwhile psychological criticism may focus on creative process of
the artist or analyze fictional characters’ motivation and behavior. It is clear that
Literature contains the application of the rule of psychology in the literary work
According to Bressler in his book Literary Criticism an Introduction to
Theory and Practice, when analyzing a text, literary critics ask basic questions
concerning the philosophical, psychological, and descriptive nature of the text
itself. Traditionally, literary critics involve themselves in either theoretical and or
practical criticism. Theoretical criticism formulates the theories, principles, and
tenets of the nature and value of art. By citing general aesthetic and moral
principles of art, theoretical criticism provides the necessary framework for
practical criticism. Practical criticism (also known as applied criticism) applies
the theories and tenets of theoretical criticism to a particular work. Using the
theories and principles of theoretical criticism, the practical critic defines the
standard of taste and explains, evaluates, or justifies a particular piece of
literature. The basis for either kind of critic, or any form of criticism, is literary
theory. Without theory, practical criticism could not exist (1998: 5).
During the twentieth century, psychological criticism has come to be
associated with a particular school of thought: the psychoanalytic theory of
Sigmund Freud and his followers. The foundation of Freud’s contribution to
modern psychology is his emphasis on the unconscious aspects of the human
psyche. He demonstrated that, like the iceberg, the human is structured so that its
consciousness). Principal among these is his assignment of the mental process to
three psyche zones: theid, theego, and thesuperego(Guerin, 1999: 127-128).
D. Theoretical Framework
All the theories above are going to be the base of the analysis. Those
theories will be used to find the answers of the problems. In this study the writer
will more emphasize to analyze the two main characters. The writer then tends to
consider the main and minor character that may be helpful to answer the first
The theory of character stated before will be used to answer the first
question of the problem formulation. The theory of character and characterization
is needed in order to get the clear insight about how the main characters are
characterized. That theory also functions in finding out their characteristics.
The second theory is about the theory of setting and plot. It will be used
to answer the second question of the problem formulation. Theory of setting and
plot will help the writer in revealing how the characters discussed affects the
setting and plot of the story.
The other theory to help in answering the third question is the theory of
psychoanalysis. This theory will also help the writer to analyze the characters,
In this chapter, the writer explains about the object of the study, the
story itself, “The Storm” and the approach of this study, psychoanalytic
approach. Then the writer will explain about the some step which the writer
uses to analyze the Chopin’s short story “The Storm”.
A. Object of the Study
“The Storm” is a short story by Kate Chopin. It was published after
the death of Kate Chopin in 1898. The writer finds the short story in
Literature: An Introduction to Fiction, Poetry, and Drama by X.J. Kennedy and Dana Gioia 1999: 95-99. This short story contains 5 parts.
“The Storm” is a short story about a married woman named Calixta
who had an affair with her ex-lover, a married man named Alcee. Both of
them were already married and they had a nice or good family (they both had
their each own child already), but the affair still happened between them.
Calixta had a husband named Bobinot and their child named Bibi. Alcee also
had a wife named Clarisse and a baby.
In the story, Calixta and Alcee was a lover couple but they could not
continue their love relationship, and they never met for a long time. A
problem arose when Calixta stayed alone in her home without any
intercourse. Each character actually potentially can create an affair but Alcee
contributes a lot in the affair.
B. Approach of the Study
Rohrberger and Woods inReading and Writing about Literaturepoint out that there are five approaches as the means to understand and apprehend
the aesthetic values of literary work. They are formalist approach,
biographical approach, sociocultural-historical approach, the mythopoeic
approach, and psychological approach. Rohrberger and Woods define
psychological approach as follows:
Psychological approach is the effort to locate and demonstrate certain recurrent patterns, but from a different body of knowledge that is psychology. This approach uses the psychological theory to explain human motivation, personality, and behavior patterns written in literary objects (1971: 5, 6, 31).
A psychological approach will be used in analyzing the story. Guerin
in his book A Handbook of Critical Approaches to Literature states that approach outlines a psychological theory in order to help readers to enhancing
their understanding and appreciation in literature. Psychological
interpretations and criticisms give some ideas that may lead the readers to
profound understanding of the characters and sometimes the themes and
sometimes the symbols of literary works (1999: 120-121).
Psychological approach will help the writer to analyze the story by
relation between the intrinsic elements (character, setting, and plot) and the
human motivation or behavior.
C. Method of the Study
This study used primary and secondary sources. A library research
was a method to get the materials or data taken from the library. The primary
sources were certainly the short story “The Storm” written by Kate Chopin
and all the related theories. And the secondary sources were some articles and
criticisms related to the work.
There were some steps in order to analyze “The Storm”. The first step
was analyzing a literary work by reading it several times, so that it can be
comprehended well. By understanding the story, the writer tried to catch up
everything done by the author in the story. The writer then found something
interesting to be analyzed. In this short story “The Storm”, it could be seen
that it was a good example of the using of the setting and plot relating to the
characters. Finally the writer decided to present the analysis focusing on these
united elements which are brilliantly written by Kate Chopin in her short five
parts short story “The Storm”.
The second step was trying to know and understand well about the
theory of setting, plot, and psychoanalysis. By compiling all these elements as
motivation and or behavior of the two main characters which were influenced
by the intrinsic elements.
The last step was drawing a conclusion. The conclusion contains the
statement of the writer’s findings in the analysis that was presented in the
The writer will answer the three questions in problem formulation, which
have been presented in the previous chapter. Firstly, the writer will explore the
characters especially the two major characters, Calixta and Alcee Laballiere, and
the minor characters, Bobinot and Bibi to answer the first problem. Theories of
character and characterization will support to know their characteristic as well.
Meanwhile the second problem is going to be answered by analyzing the setting
and plot of “The Storm” using the theories of setting and plot. The last problem
that is what Freud’s theory of psychoanalysis is being reflected on the major
characters will be discussed by applying the psychoanalytic theory.
A. The Characterization of the Major and Minor Characters
The term character has two meanings. Like what Stanton said that it can
refer to individuals who appear in the story and also the mixture of interest,
desires, emotions, and moral principles that shape each of these individuals.
Holman and Harmon also say that the term character is used to designate the
individual’s speech and action. Therefore, the character can represent human
being actions, behavior, and attitudes. While Murphy says that there are nine
seen through their personal description, speech, thought, past life, reaction,
conversation of others, direct comment, mannerism and character as seen by
Besides the theories which are mentioned in the previous chapter, those
theories above will be helpful to explore the characters’ characteristic of major
and minor characters in “The Storm” by Kate Chopin.
Calixta is the main character in the Kate Chopin’s short story “The
Storm”. She is a married woman who is pretty and attractive. She has been
married for five years.
She was a little fuller of figure than five years before when she married; but she had lost nothing of her vivacity. Her blue eyes still retained their melting quality; and her yellow hair, disheveled by the wind and rain, kinked more stubbornly than ever about her ears and temples (p. 96).
From the quotation above, Calixta is clearly pictured as a woman who is
pretty and attractive. Calixta is a married woman who has inner beauty and
outside beauty. Although in the story Calixta is a little bit fat from five years
before she was married but this did not decrease her beauty and attractiveness.
Calixta’s beauty is strengthened by her beautiful blue eyes and yellow hair.
In the story, Calixta had an ex-lover, her ex-lover adored her beauty and
Her lips were as red and moist as pomegranate seed. Her white neck and a glimpse of her full, firm bosom disturbed him powerfully. As she glanced up at him the fear in her liquid blue eyes had given place to a drowsy gleam that unconsciously betrayed a sensuous desire. He looked down into her eyes and there was nothing for him to do but to gather her lips in a kiss. It reminded him of Assumption (p. 97).
Calixta’s ex-lover looked so amazed when he saw a figure like Calixta, a
beautiful woman whom he never met for a long time since Calixta was married
to her husband. Calixta’s ex-lover realized that Calixta did not change; she did
not lose her attractiveness power in her beauty. Calixta’s ex-lover was amazed
when he saw Calixta’s red lips which were very soft. He was also amazed when
he saw Calixta’s neck which was very white and also her bosom which was very
firm and dashing.
As a man, Calixta’s ex-lover felt seduced by Calixta’s body shape which
was charming and her pretty face which was tempting. At that time, Calixta
ex-lover remembered a beautiful moment when he was in love with Calixta. By this
thought, unconsciously Calixta ex-lover had a desire to repeat a beautiful
moment with Calixta. In other words, Calixta ex-lover wanted to make love with
“The Storm” shows that Calixta was afraid when she was alone in her
home. At that time, the big storm hit the place where she was living. Her husband
and her child went outside the house. As a mother, she was worrying about the
“I got enough to do! An’ there’s Bobinot with Bibi out in that storm-if he only didn’t left Friedheimer’s!”
“Let us hope, Calixta, that Bobinot’s got sense enough to come in out of a cyclone.”
She went and stood at the window with a greatly disturbed look on her face. She wiped the frame that was clouded with moisture. It was stiflingly hot (p. 97).
When the storm came, Calixta was very afraid and worried about the
condition of her husband and her son. She moved and sat near the window. Her
face looked pale and a sense of fear was clearly pictured at her face. She cleaned
the window’s glass and she looked outside the window hoping that her husband
and her child were staying around her. She felt very hot and it made Calixta feel
Calixta was a diligent mother. She had always done everything as what
she should do as a mother and a housewife. When she was doing her work on a
sewing machine, she forgot everything. It showed that she enjoyed her work.
Calixta, at home, felt no uneasiness for their safety. She sat at a side window sewing furiously on a sewing machine. She was greatly occupied and did not notice the approaching storm. But she felt very warm and often stopped to mop her face on which the perspiration gathered in beads. She unfastened her white sacque at the throat. It began to grow dark, and suddenly realizing the situation she got up hurriedly and went about closing windows and doors (p. 96).
Calixta was an active woman. She liked to work and she did everything
that she could do. She was not a woman who was passive and not doing
anything. Furthermore, when she was alone at home, she had to do everything
enjoyed her work and it made her forget the approaching storm. When the dark
came to role the day, she did realized the situation and hurriedly closed the
windows and the doors.
Calixta was characterized as an over-scrupulous housewife. Calixta was
carefully active housewife in handling the household. She was responsible
enough in doing her duty as a housewife.
“My! Bibi, w’at will yo’ mama say! You ought to be ashame’. You oughtn’ put on those good pants. Look at ‘em! An’ that mud on yo’ collar! How you got that mud on yo’ collar, Bibi? I never saw such a boy!” Bibi was the picture of pathetic resignation. Bobinot was the embodiment of serious solicitude as he strove to remove from his own person and his son’s the sign of their tramp over heavy roads and through wet fields. He scrapped the mud off Bibi’s bare legs and feet with a stick and carefully removed all traces from his heavy brogans. Then, prepared for the worst-the meeting with an overscrupulous housewife, they entered cautiously at the back door (p. 98).
From the quotation above, it is clear that Calixta was an over-scrupulous
housewife. It is explained from the act of Calixta’s husband, he knew that his
wife would be angry after she would know the condition of himself and his child.
Calixta’s husband knew that his and his child’s condition was very untidy and
dirty. It was because of the storm and the rain which made them dirty and untidy.
He prepared some explanations to his wife as an apologizing attitude for what he
was doing to himself, his child and his wife.
As a woman, Calixta needs someone who can accompany and give her
came to Calixta’s house. Her ex-lover gave her comfort, warmness, attention, and
tenderness. That was the cause of the love affair between Calixta and Alcee.
“Calixta,” he said, “don’t be frightened. Nothing can happen. The house is too low to be struck, with so many tall trees standing about. There! Aren’t you going to be quiet? Say, aren’t you?” he pushed her hair back from her face that was warm and steaming. Her lips were as red and moist as pomegranate seed. Her white neck and a glimpse of her full, firm bosom disturbed him powerfully. As she glanced up at him the fear in her liquid blue eyes had given place to a drowsy gleam that unconsciously betrayed a sensuous desire. He looked down into her eyes and there was nothing for him to do but gather her lips in a kiss. It reminded him of Assumption (p. 97).
“Do you remember-in Assumption, Calixta?” he asked in a low voice broken by passion. Oh! She remembered; for in Assumption he had kissed her and kissed and kissed her; until his sense would well nigh fail, and to save her he would resort to a desperate flight. If she was not an immaculate dove in those days, she was still inviolate; a passionate creature whose very defenselessness had made her defense, against which his honor forbade him to prevail. Now-well, now-her lips seemed in a manner free to be tasted, as well as her round, white throat and her whiter breasts (p. 97)
From the quotation above, Calixta’s ex-lover gave attention and care to
Calixta. He cared so much about what happened to Calixta and what her feeling
in that time was. Calixta ex-lover tried to make Calixta felt calm, safe and
comfortable. The contact of their warm body made them drowned into their
sensuous desire. They were very closed and they were kissing to fulfill their
passion. Both of them were drunk and drowned by their passion. They were
alone in that house and there was no one disturbing them anymore. They could
not stand their sexual passion anymore and they were drowned deeply in their
intercourse. The sexual intercourse showed the love affair between Calixta and
This story shows Calixta as a woman who feels lonely while she was
facing a difficult situation. A love affair that she was doing was one action that
she could do to resolve her problem.
2. Alcee Laballiere
Alcee is also the major character in this story. Alcee was Calixta’s
ex-lover and he was already married. In the story, Alcee is characterized as a man
who understands what women need and what women want. When Calixta felt
afraid and worried, because of the storm which happened outside her house,
Alcee gave attention, and comfort to Calixta. That made Calixta feel comfortable
and warm beside Alcee. Not only that, Alcee also gave a very tender body
language to Calixta to show his attention to her.
Calixta put her hands to her eyes, and with a cry, staggered backward. Alcee’s arm encircled her, and for an instant he drew her close and spasmodically to him (p. 97).
“Bonte!” she cried, releasing herself from his encircling arm and retreating from the window, ‘the house’ll go next! If I only knew w’ere Bibi was!” She would not compose herself; she would not be seated. Alcee clasped her shoulders and looked into her face. The contact of her warm, palpitating body when he had unthinkingly drawn her into his arm, had aroused all the old-time infatuation and desire for her flesh (p. 97).
you going to be quite? say, aren’t you?” He pushed her hair back from her face that was warm and steaming (p. 97).
When the storm was happening, Calixta was so afraid and worried about
the condition of her husband and her child. She was crying when she saw the
storm was very terrible. She was afraid that storm would damage her house.
Alcee was characterized as a man with full of attention and care to women. Alcee
tried to make Calixta feel safe and comfortable in his arms. In the first time,
Alcee held Calixta, she released herself from Alcee’s arms. In this time, Alcee
did not give up, he tried to make Calixta safe and comfortable. Also, he tried to
make Calixta fall into his arm. One more time Alcee was not reluctant to hold
Calixta in his arm. Finally, it was undeniable that Calixta needed someone who
could make her feel safe and comfortable. She gave up and she gave herself in
Alcee’s arm to get that safe feeling and comfort. It was because she found that
safe feeling and comfort in Alcee’s arm.
In this story, Alcee is characterized as a man who is good in tempting
women. He had tempting words and body language which can make women fall
into his arm. In the story, Alcee tried to tease Calixta by his tempting words and
attention. Calixta was drowned into his beautiful words and sensual body
language. Finally they did sexual intercourse.
creature whose very defenselessness had made her defense, against which his honor forbade him to prevail. Now-well, now-her lips seemed in a manner free to be tasted, as well as her round, white throat and her whiter breasts (p. 97).
Alcee did not want to release his chance to be close with Calixta, or in
other words, he wanted to be more intimate with Calixta. He tried to seduce
Calixta with his sweet words and tender body language. In the story, he tried to
remind Calixta about a beautiful moment when Calixta and Alcee were in love
and they filled their day together with intimacy. Finally, both of them were
trapped in a very deep hole of sensuous desire and Alcee tried to brave himself to
kiss Calixta’s lips. Calixta enjoyed that kissing, it was because she was stunned
by Alcee’s seduction.
Alcee made Calixta surrender everything to him. Calixta could forget the
storm outside her house. She enjoyed her sense of desire.
When he touched her breast they gave themselves up in quivering ecstasy, inviting his lips. Her mouth was a fountain of delight. And when he possessed her, they seemed to swoon together at the very borderland of life’s mystery (p. 98).
He stayed cushioned upon her, breathless, dazed, enervated, with his heart beating like hammer upon her. With one hand she clasped his head, her lips lightly touching his forehead. The other hand stroked with a soothing rhythm his muscular shoulders (p. 98).
From the quotation above, Alcee really made Calixta cannot do anything.
Calixta gave herself and she was following the sensuous body rhythm which was
done by Alcee. They were really drowned in the pleasure of kissing until they
what happened around her. At that time, Alcee made Calixta drunk caused by the
drugs of love and sensuous desire which was given by Alcee.
In “The Storm” Alcee is characterized as a man with sensuality inside
him that makes Calixta fall into his arm. He also knows what women need and
want when they are lonely.
Bobinot is the minor character in “The Storm”. Bobinot was Calixta’s
husband. In the story, Bobinot was a responsible husband and full of attention to
his child and wife. It was shown when Bobinot and his child went outside to buy
some shrimps which were his wife’s favorite food.
Bobinot arose and going across to the counter purchased a can of shrimps, of which Calixta was very fond. Then he returned to his perch on the keg and sat stolidly holding the can of shrimps while the storm burst. It shook the wooden store and seemed to be ripping great furrows in the distant field. Bibi laid his little hand on his father’s knee and was not afraid (p. 95-96).
From the quotation above, Bobinot was Calixta’s husband who loved and
cared so much about his wife. It was shown from the act of Bobinot when he was
holding tight a can of shrimps. He knew that the shrimps were Calixta’s favorite
food. He already bought shrimps and he was hoping that his wife would feel very
glad about what Bobinot did to her. When the storm was happening, he held tight
that can of shrimps as if he held something precious and he did not want to lose
broke or released from his hands. Bobinot also kept his child safe and tried to
make his child, Bibi, stayed close to him. Bibi felt safe in his father’s knees.
As a good husband, Bobinot tries hard to give his best to his family. He
always wanted to make Calixta happy with what he is doing to her. He did not
want his wife angry, disappointed and sad because of what he did for his family.
In other words, he was afraid of his wife. It is shown when Bobinot and Bibi
returned home, he tried to make Bibi tidy. He also prepared the explanation about
their lateness to return home.
“My! Bibi, w’at will yo’ mama say! You ought to be ashame’. You oughtn’ put on those good pants. Look at ‘ em! An’ that mud on yo’ collar! How you got that mud on yo’ collar, Bibi? I never saw such a boy!” Bibi was the picture of pathetic resignation. Bobinot was the embodiment of serious solicitude as he strove to remove from his own person and his son’s the sign of their tramp over heavy roads and through wet fields. He scrapped the mud off Bibi’s bare legs and feet with a stick and carefully removed all traces from his heavy brogans. Then’ prepared for the worst-the meeting with an overscrupulous housewife, they entered cautiously at the back door (p. 98).
“Oh, Bobinot! You back! My! But I was uneasy. W’ere you been during the rain? an’ bibi? he ain’t wet? he ain’thurt?” she had clasped bibi and was kissing him. Bobinot’s explanations and apologizes which he had been composing all along the way, died on his lips as Calixta felt him to see if he were dry, and seemed to express nothing but satisfaction at their safe returned (p. 98).
Bobinot realized that his wife would be angry to him when she saw the
condition of Bibi who was dirty and untidy. Then, Bobinot tried to clean the mud
because he did not want to make his wife angry, sad, and disappointed when she
saw the condition of her husband and child after the storm.
As a responsible husband, Bobinot also tried to be responsible for
everything that he did to his wife and to himself. When he went outside the
house, he realized that his wife must be worried and felt lonely in the house. He
knew that there was no one in the house to accompany his wife. He could not do
anything when the storm was happening. He could not return home on time.
When the storm passed, on the way home, Bobinot prepared some explanation
that could help him to give explanation to his wife about the reason why Bobinot
and Bibi were late to go home.
In this story, Bobinot is characterized as a good husband who is loyal and
loves his wife and child. He always does his best to make his family happy.
Bibi is the minor character in this story. Bibi is the son of Calixta and
Bobinot. He was pictured as such a little child who looked very wise and cared
about his mother who stayed alone at home when the storm was ready to burst
while he and his father were outside at Friedheimer’s store.
empty kegs. Bibi was four years and looked very wise. “Mama’ll be ‘fraid, yes,” he suggested with blinking eyes. “She’ll shut the house. Maybe she got Sylvie helpin’ her this evenin’,“ Bobinot responded reassuringly. “No; she ent got Sylvie. Sylvie was helpin’ her yistiday,” piped Bibi (p. 95).
Although Bibi was a little child, he could felt uneasy of his mother’s
safety that was alone at home while the storm got to come. He worried enough
his mother even when he talked to his father he was really going to cry.
Bibi is also characterized as a pathetic resignation. Here Bibi was
pictured as a nice child; all he could do was just listened to what his father had
said, because his father was afraid of her mother if knowing his unclean clothes
and legs when they had returned back home.
“My! Bibi, w’at will yo’ mama say! You ought to be ashame’. You oughtn’ put on those good pants. Look at ‘ em! An’ that mud on yo’ collar! How you got that mud on yo’ collar, Bibi? I never saw such a boy!” Bibi was the picture of pathetic resignation. Bobinot was the embodiment of serious solicitude as he strove to remove from his own person and his son’s the sign of their tramp over heavy roads and through wet fields. He scrapped the mud off Bibi’s bare legs and feet with a stick and carefully removed all traces from his heavy brogans (p. 98).
B. The Depiction of the Setting and Plot in “The Storm”
A setting of a literary work or of a short story can be seen as setting as
dynamic. Kenney says that the setting as dynamic is the setting that thrusts from
dynamic into the action. It is affected by the events and explains the role of a
storm’ which points to bad weather or impresses the readers that something
horrible or turbulent as nature is suggested by Chopin. While in literary terms a
storm is associated with uneasiness, conflict, or turmoil. This is what Chopin
wants to bring her story to the situation which the major character, Calixta finds
it uneasy and uncomfortable to face the storm when she is alone at home while
Bobinot and Bibi are at the store.
The leaves were so still that even Bibi thought it was going to rain. Bobinot, who was accustomed to converse on terms of perfect equality with his little son, called the child’s attention to certain somber clouds that were rolling with sinister intention from the west, accompanied by a sullen, threatening roar. They were at Friedheimer’s store and decided to remain there till the storm had passed… while the storm burst. It shook the wooden store and seemed to be ripping great furrows in the distant field (p. 95-96).
The setting of the Chopin’s short story “The Storm” can also be seen as
neutral setting. Kenney and also Roberts and Jacobs state that the setting reflects
the truth that things can happen out-of doors and or somewhere where nature is
seen as a force that shapes action therefore direct or redirect lives. It can be said
that the setting of “The Storm” with the storm itself as nature supports to give a
big role in directing of what Chopin wants to present through its characters action
about things that can happen in real lives.