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N O I T A C U D E D N A G N I N I A R T S R E H C A E T F O Y T L U C A F

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1 I R E T P A H C

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1 esearch Background

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S closurei soneo fthebasict eachingskill swhichi si mpo tran ttobedonei n e

k a m o t r e d r

o the student sunderstand and master t he mate iral swell ,and also t hey l

e e f n a

c that t he t eacher t o encourages them t o study hard by giving t he moitvaiton )

6 8 9 1 , o s r a li G

( .Se tclosure i sno tonly the closing session in the teaching and g

n i n r a e

l process ,bu talso t he acitvtiy which can moitvate student sand evaluate t he m

o c t u o g n i n r a e

l e soft hestudent swhliet heyarestudying(Coope randSrtoud ,1966) . h

T us ,the funciton so fthe se tclosure i sno tonly to summa irze the lesson into o

t o s l a t u b t x e t n o c l u f g n i n a e

m conveyt hemessagef romt hel essont ha twehavebeen d

e c u d o rt n

i enough mate ira lfo rone session and to focu son the students ’deepe r n

w o r B o t g n i d r o c c A . g n i d n a t s r e d n

u (1975 ,p . 90) ,se tclosure i salso used fo r , t n r a e l n e e b s a h t a h w n o n o it n e tt a ’ s t n e d u t s g n i s u c o f , g n i n r a e l l i p u p g n it a d il o s n o c

e l a f o d n e e h t o t n o it n e tt a g n i w a r

d arning sequence , and creaitng a sense o f s

li p u p e h t n i y r e t s a m d n a t n e m e v e i h c

a .Byunderstandingt hosef unciton swhichhave n

e e

b menitoned ,we know tha tse tclosure should be appiled prope lry when the h

c a o t r e d r o n i s t n e d u t s r i e h t h c a e t s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e

t ieve t he l earning objecitve so f

. t c e j b u s e h t

, ) 9 9 9 1 ( o n o ij d u M d n a i t a y m i D o t g n i d r o c c

A the teacher sare supposed to

e t u b ir t n o c s t n e d u t s e h t e k a m h c i h w s e it i v it c a l a r e v e s g n i v i g y b s t n e d u t s e h t ” e c r o f “

n i y l e v it c

a theteaching and l earningprocess .Those severa lacitviite sshouldbe able e

s a e r c n i o

(21)

e h

t student s reailze tha tthe learning acitvtiy wli l give meaningfu l and usefu l t

n e d u t s e h t n e h W . e g d e l w o n k r i e h t p o l e v e d o t n o it a m r o f n

i sreailze t hat t he l earning

s e v i g s s e c o r

p manyessenita landhelpfuli nformaitonf o rdevelopingt hei rknowledge , . ) 7 0 0 2 , o n U ( s s a l c e h t e d i s t u o r o e d i s n i s s e c o r p g n i n r a e l e h t y o j n e y l d n i k l li w y e h t

o it n e tt a y a p l li w s t n e d u t s e h

T nmoreont heteachingand l earningacitviitesi ncluding e

h

t se tclosurebecauset heyunderstandt hatt heacitvtiywhichoccur satt heendoft he . n o it a v it o m g n i n r a e l ri e h t d n a e g d e l w o n k r i e h t e v o r p m i o t l u f e s u o s l a s i n o s s e l

, e r u s o l c t e s f o e c n a tr o p m i e h t g n i w o n

K a ts rong and good percepiton i s

m y b d e d e e

n icroteachingstudent sno tonlytoenhancet he rit eachingskli lbu talso t o t

n e m e l p m i d n a r e t s a

m appropr ei at closure in thei rteaching performance a sfuture r

e h c a e

t s .Percep iton i s i mpo tran tbecause people’ spercepiton on t he meaning of t he n

o it a u ti

s aroundt hem i s i nterrelatedt o t hei rbehavior( Robbins ,2005) .I tmeans t ha t t eh teache rcandidate so fELESP who have posiitve percep iton abou tse tclosure i n

s e c n a m r o f r e p g n i h c a e t r i e h

t can implemen tgood closure. Atlman ,Valenzi ,and e

l b a n e n o it p e c r e p t a h t d e t a t s o s l a ) 5 8 9 1 ( s tt e g d o

H s people to comprehend and dea l

t n e m n o ri v n e e h t h ti

w they belong t o .In t hi scase ,the teache rcandidate swho make .

m o o r s s a l c l a e r e h t n i s t n e d u t s l a e r e h t h c a e t o t y d a e r e r a e r u s o l c d o o

g Besides ,

s e v l o v n i t i e s u a c e b t n a tr o p m i s i n o it p e c r e

p the manage ira lacitviite s(Kretine rand 0

0 2 , i k c i n i

K 8 .) Refe irng to thi sstudy ,percepiton i simpo tran tbecause when the n

a c s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e

t managet hei ritme rfo doingse tclosurei nt heril essonplanand t

i y l p p

(22)

d e v e i h c

a .Thi sthesi srevea led the Microteaching students ’percepiton on thei rse t e

r u s o l

c implementaitoninMicroteachingclas .s

R 2 .

1 esearch Problems e

h

T problem soft her esearcharepresentedbelow: .

1 Howi ss e tclosurei mplementedbyMicroteachingstudentswhentheyaredoing

p -eerteachingi nMicroteachingclass? .

2 Wha taret hes tudents ’percepiton sont hei mplementaitono fse tclosure? .

3 Wha tarestudents’s uggesitonstoi mprovet hei mplementaitonofs e tclosure?

P 3 .

1 roblem Limtia iton

. h c r a e s e r s i h t n i s n o it a ti m il e m o s e r a e r e h t , c if i c e p s h c r a e s e r s i h t e k a m o

T T his

. n o it p e c r e p t u o b a s i h c r a e s e

r T whe rtie rwould ilke to ifnd out M oicr teaching f

o n o it p e c r e p ’ s t n e d u t

s se t closure on thei r teaching performance , when they m

r o f r e

p e d a sa t eache rand a a s studen ton thepeer-teachingi n Microteachingclass . s

i h

T research wouldbe ilmtiedonlyf o rEngilsh Language EducaitonStudyProgram d

u t

s ent so fSanata Dharma Universtiy who took Microteaching clas sin the sixth ,

r e t s e m e

s academic yea r2011/2012 .T his research i s ilmtied t o the Microteaching e

c n a m r o f r e p ’ s t n e d u t

(23)

R 4 .

1 esearch Objec itves

h c r a e s e r s i h t , n o it a l u m r o f m e l b o r p e h t n i d e t a t s e r a t a h t s m e l b o r p e h t n o d e s a B

: s e v it c e j b o n i a m e e r h t s a h

.

1 Thi sresearch aim sto know how wel lMicroteaching student simplemen tse t e

r u s o l

c whent heyared goi n p -eer teachingsi nMicroteachingclas .s .

2 Thisr esearchaimst oknowabou tMicroteachingstudents ’percepiton sabouts e t .

n o s s e l e h t d n e o t e r u s o l c t e s f o s s e n e v it c e f f e e h t d n a e r u s o l c .

3 Thisr esearchalsowould ilket oknowabou tMicroteachings tudents’s uggesiton d

n e o t e r u s o l c t e s d o o g e k a m o

t thel esson.

R 5 .

1 esearch Beneftis e

h

T student so fthe Engilsh Language Educaiton Study Program (ELESP) are r

e h c a e t d o o g e b o t d e t c e p x

e s w ho can maste r basic teaching skills through Microteaching class .They are also expected to have good teaching competence so

ll if l u f n a c y e h

t the students ’needsi neverycricumstanceo rstiuaiton .Hopefully,t hi s e

v i g l li w h c r a e s e

r a cont irbuitont othe Engilsh Language Educaiton StudyProgram , .s

r e h c r a e s e r r e h t o d n a , s r e r u t c e l e h t ,s t n e d u t s e h t r o f y ll a i c e p s e

.

1 oF rLowerSemesterStudents h

c r a e s e r s i h t h g u o r h

T ,the student swho are taking Microteaching clas swli lbe t o n l li w y e h T . s s a l c r i e h t n i n o s s e l e h t d n e o t e r u s o l c t e s g n i k a m e r a y e h t n e h w e r a w a

(24)

e k a m o t s ll i k s g n i h c a e

t the teaching and learning acitviite smore conducive and .

g n it s e r e t n i

.

2 ForLecturers

e r a s r e r u t c e l e h t y ll u f e p o h , h c r a e s e r s i h t h g u o r h

T moreaware fo thef uncitonand

. s s e c o r p g n i h c a e t e h t o d y e h t n e h w e r u s o l c t e s f o s ti f e n e b e h

t Thei rstudent swli lno t

g n i d n if n i s e it l u c if fi d t e

g the model sto make good se tclosure in thei rteaching .r

e t a l l o o h c s t a e c it c a r p

.

3 ForFutureResearchers

e h t t c u d n o c o t e c n e r e f e r a e b n a c h c r a e s e r s i h t y ll u f e p o

H othe rresearch t hat i s

d e t a l e

r t othet opic .Thisr esearchprovidess omei nformaitont ha tmigh tbeusefu land a

v luablet os uppor ttheotherr esearchi nt hef uture.

D 6 .

1 e ifni itonof Terms

e m o s s e d i v o r p r e ti r w e h t , g n i d n a t s r e d n u s i m d i o v a o t r e d r o n i , y d u t s s i h t n I

n o it i n if e

d s oft erm susedi nt hisr esearch . .

1 Microteaching n o d e s a

B lAlen and Ryan (1969 ,p.1 )statement ,microteaching i sa preparaiton s

s a l

c which i sused fo rthe teache rcandidates t o pracitce t heri t eaching skli lbefore .

s s a l c l a e r e h t h c a e t y e h

t AllenandRyanalsos aidt hat (a sctiedi nCoope randSrtoud , .

p , 6 6 9

1 1 m) , icroteaching i sasmal lclas swhichi sdesigned a sani niita lrtainingf o r tl

u s e r ’ s l a s r a e h e r e h t e v r e s b o o t l o o t s i s y l a n a n a , s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e t e h

t s byusingt he

a d n a , s p e t s d e n i a rt s e

(25)

o

t Wahba (2003 ,p. 44 ) ,microteaching i sa chance given t o t he t eacher swh lie they h

ti w d e d i v o r p e r

a the simple mate iral sand ilmtied itme allocaiton to t each a smal l . n o it u ti t s n i g n i n i a rt s r e h c a e t r o f d o h t e m l a i c if e n e b a s a d e s u s i tI . s t n e d u t s f o r e b m u n

9 0 0 2 ( n o h tl u S o t g n i d r o c c

A , 0p. 2 ) ,microteaching i sa teaching pracitce which i s e

n o

d graduallyandsystemaitcallybysimplfiying thebasict eachingskills ’aspect sin o

t r e d r

o beeas liyobservedf ort hei mpo tranceoft heguidance. M

n

I icroteaching clas ,st he student sare asked t o playt wo r ole sdu irngt heclass , .

) 8 1 , 7 1 . p , 6 8 9 1 , o s r a li G ( s r e h c a e t e h t s a d n a s t n e d u t s e h t s

a In thi sresearch, the

e h t d e s u r e ti r

w term s“thet eachers” r eferst omicroteaching student swhoplayed t he s

m r e t e h t d n a s r e h c a e t e h t s a e l o

r “thes tudents”r eferst oMicroteachings tudent swho e

l o r e h t d e y a l

p as t hestudents .Thewrtie rused t hoset wot erm sinorde rto avoidthe d n a s r e h c a e t h c i h w d e s u f n o c t o n e r a s r e d a e r e h t , s u h T . g n i d n a t s r e d n u s i m ’ s r e d a e r

s t n e d u t s h c i h

w tha taremeanti nt hisr esearch. .

2 Percep iton

i k c i n e K o t g n i d r o c c

A and Kretie r(2008 , . 3p 18 ) ,percepiton i sa proces swhich ti

m r e

p s ust ode ifne andcaptureou renvrionment by choosing ,keeping ,andr eacitng .

ti d r a w o

t Whlie according to Luthan s(2005 , . 8p 16 ) ,percepiton i sa compilcated e

c u d o r p h c i h w s s e c o r

p s paritcula rdescirpiton so fou renvrionmen twhich migh tbe .

r e h t o n a o t e n o m o r f e s r e v i

d Huffman ,Vernoy ,andVernoy( 2000 , . 7p 10 )statedt ha t i

n o it p e c r e

p sa way t o choose ,arrange ,and respond wha tare happening around us . g

n i d r o c c

(26)

s e e s n o s r e p a w o h n o e r o m s i t I . t n e v e n i a tr e c a e b ir c s e d d n a d n o p s e r n a c n o s r e p

n i g n i h t e m o

s themeaningfu lwayaboutt hesurroundingenvrionment . .

3 Se tclosure

t S d n a r e p o o C o t g n i d r o c c

A roud ( 1966 , . 8p 5 ) ,se tclosurei sachievedwhen t he d

n a m i

a thebasic o fthe t eachingand learning acitvtiyare evaluatedi n order t o ilnk s

l a ir e t a m w e n e h t p

u tha tha sbeen taugh twtih t he previous one .Se tclosure i s t he f

o t n e m e l p m o

c se tinduciton .S cet losure i sno tonlyt he wrap-up sessiono fa l esson e

n o w e n e h t h ti w n o it a m r o f n i s u o i v e r p e h t e t a l e r o t s s e c o r p e h t o s l a t u

b .Se tclosure

t n e m n i a tt a e h t e t a e r c n a

c o fthestudents .Se tclosure canalsobecome t hesignt o t el l n

e r a y e h t e r e h w s t n e d u t s e h

t ow and where they should go .Fo rexample ,i fthe ,

t e y d e h s i n if t o n s i n o i s s e s g n i n r a e l d n a g n i h c a e

t se tclosure can stli lbe done by

d n a d e h s i n if e b d l u o h s t a h t tr a p e h t m e h t ll e t o t n o it n e tt a ’ s t n e d u t s g n i b b a r

g when i t

. d e d n e e b d l u o h

s Whlie according to Brown (1975 , . 0p 9 ) ,se tclosure ha sfou r s

i t s ri f e h T . s n o it c n u

f to cenrtailze the students’ atteniton on wha tthey got t hrough n

o s s e l e h

t ,thesecond i sto reinforce t s uhe t dents’knowledge ,thet hrid i stograb the ’

s t n e d u t

s atteniton a tthe end o fthe lesson ,and the fou trh i sto signfiy a sense o f t

n e m h s il p m o c c

a andcomprehensiont ot hes tudents . 1

1 0 2 ( k a h c u a K d n a n e g g E n o d e s a

B , .p78 ,143 ,144 ,170 ,203 ,306) ,se tclosure s

n o it c n u f r u o f s a h o s l

a .The frist ,se tclosure i san oppo truntiy fo rthe student sto t I . s d r o w n w o r i e h t g n i s u t h g u a t n e e b s a h t a h t l a ir e t a m e h t e b ir c s e d d n a d n a t s r e d n u

g n i b ir c s e d d n a g n i d n a t s r e d n u n i s a e d i ri e h t e s u o t s t n e d u t s e h t r o f r e i s a e e b l li

w a new

, d n o c e s e h T . e g d e l w o n

(27)

e d i s e b e l p m a x e r e h t o n a e v i

g s wha tthei rteache rhad given to them .The thrid ,se t p

l e h e r u s o l

c s thestudent sconcludet hei mpo tran tpointsf romt hel essont ha tha sbeen ,

t s a l e h T . t h g u a

t se tclosure help t he student srelate previou sknowledge t o t he new e

h t f o t r a p n i a m e h t g n i n il r e d n u y b e n

o mate iral t ha tha sbeen t aught .According t o t

s o h

S ak (2011 ,p . 89 ,) s ce t losure i san acitvtiy which i screated by t he t eacher sto p

l e

h the student scollect and review t he i mpotrant i nformaiton from t he l esson t ha t t

h g u a t n e e b s a

(28)

0 1

I I R E T P A H C

V E

R IEWOFRELATEDLITERATURE

. y d u t s s i h t o t t n a v e l e r e r a t a h t s e ir o e h t e h t s e d i v o r p r e ti r w e h t ,r e t p a h c s i h t n I

n I . k r o w e m a r f l a c it e r o e h t d n a n o it p ir c s e d l a c it e r o e h t e r a y e h t ; s n o it c e s o w t s e d u l c n i tI

t t n a v e l e r e h t n o it p ir c s e d l a c it e r o e h t e h

t heo ire sandsimliarr esearchwli lbeprovided ,

e li h

w the theoreitca lframework wli lprovide the summary fo ral lthe review o f

e h t d e t a l e

r o ire sandt hes imliarr esearchtot hiss tudy.

l a c it e r o e h T . 1 .

2 Descrip iton

d e h t e d i v o r p l li w r e ti r w e h t ,t r a p s i h t n

I escirpitonabou tse tclosure ,thef unciton

e r u s o l c t e s f o n o it a t n e m e l p m i e h t , e r u s o l c t e s f

o ,microteaching ,andpercepiton .

1 . 1 .

2 .Se tClosure

r o f p l e h a e m o c e b o t d e t a e r c s i e r u s o l c t e

S the students when t hey ifnish the

i n o s s e

l n one day .I ti suseful because se tclosure can be in the form o fa smal l

n a c e r u s o l c t e s , s e d i s e B . w e i v e

r resume the idea o fthe lesson a tfe rthe student s

. y a d e n o n i n o s s e l f o t i n u e n o d e h s i n

if Se tclosure refer sto those aciton stha tare

d e n g i s e

d bytheteachers to b irng al esson presentaiton t o an approp irate conclusion .

t e h

(29)

e h t g n ir u d n o g n i o g n e e b s a h t a h w f o t u o e s n e s e k a m o

t course of t he presentaiton

o h S

( stak ,2011) .Accordingt oMujisandReynolds( 2005,)i nconsrtucitvismlearning

t a m r o

f , t here are severa lway smenitoned and t wo of t hem are re lfeciton phase and

r a li m i s e r a m e h t f o h t o B . e s a h p n o i s s u c s i d d n a n o it a c il p p

a t ose tclosurewhich aim s

d a h y e h t t a h w y l p p a d n a n o s s e l e h t w e i v e r o

t studied into discussion sin orde rto

t n r a e l d a h y e h t t a h w e z ir a m m u

s att heendoft hel esson .

s e h

T tudents are in a hurry to ge tou tfrom the clas sto have break itme o r

y lr a e e m o h o g o t t n a

w whent hel essoncomesi ntot heend .Thestudentst endt ohave

lack o fconcenrtaiton to pay atten iton t o t he l esson .A t eacher should rty hi so rhe r

e k a m o t t s e

b thestudent spayattenitont ot hel essonevent hat i sonlyf ort esitngt hei r

. y a d t a h t n o c i p o t e h t t u o b a g n i d n a t s r e d n

u According t o Allen and Ryan (1969) ,s te

d n a n o s s e l e h t f o d n e e h t t a e d a m s i h c i h w y r a m m u s k c i u q a t s u j t o n s i e r u s o l c

e t e l p m o c r i e h t e v e i h c a o t s t n e d u t s e h t r o f l o o t a s i t I . s l a ir e t a m e h t l l a d e r e v o c

e c n a h c e h t g n i v i g y b t h g u a t l a ir e t a m e h t t u o b a g n i d n a t s r e d n

u s rfo them to ilnk the

s u o i v e r

p mate ira land t he new mate iral t aught . tI i sbette rfor t he t eacher sto make

e v it c e f f e d n a e v it a e r

c se tclosure to grab the students ’atteniton and also help the

c if fi d e v a h l li t s o h w s t n e d u t

s ulitesi n maste irngt het opic .The t eacher shavet o make

a h t e r u

s tthei rstudent sunderstand the topic tha tthey had taugh twell .Se tclosure

s a d e n if e d y ll a c i n h c e t e b t h g i

m a driec tattenitont ot he compleitononaspeci ifct ask

r

o a learning sequence. There are two impo tran ttype so fclosure :cogniitve and

e h T . l a i c o

s fris ti sdriected a tconsoildaitng wha tthe student shave learn tand

(30)

e ti p s e d t n e m e v e i h c a f o e s n e s a s t n e d u t s e h t g n i v i g h ti w d e n r e c n o c s i d n o c e s e h T

tl u c if fi d y n a g n i v a

h ie sthat encountered wtihin the lesson ,they are encouraged to

, y ll a u s U . g n i v ir t s e u n it n o

c at eacheruse ssocia lclosureonlyat t heendo fal esson o r

f o d n e e h t t

a aparitcula lrydfi ifcutll earnings equence( Brown ,1975 .)

c t e

S losurei sa f ormofr eview whichi soccuredatt heendo fal essont hat i s

t i ; a e d i l u f g n i n a e m a o t n i d e n r a e l e v ’ y e h t t a h w e z i n a g r o s t n e d u t s p l e h o t d e n g i s e d

e h t s l a n g i s d n a r e h t e g o t c i p o t e h t f o s t c e p s a t n e r e f fi d e h t s ll u

p endo fal esson( Eggen

d n

a Kauchak ,2011) .Basedont hatt heory ,se tclosurei sexpectedt o eb comeausefu l

e k a m o t l o o

t the student sacitvely paritcipate in the discussion when the topic ha s

t h g u a t n e e

b .Se tclosurei salsoexpectedt o er viewt hestudents ’understandingonthe

c i p o t e n o f o t p e c n o

c tha tha sbeen taugh to rhelp student smemo irze t he l esson and

. fl e s ti c i p o t e h t f o g n i d n a t s r e d n u r i e h t o t t n e m e c r o f n i e r e v i g

C t e S f o s n o it c n u F .

a losure

e r u s o l c t e

S i so tfenf orgottenbyt het eache rcandidate so revent heprofessional

a y e h t e li h w l o o h c s t a r e h c a e

t ret eaching i nt he classroom .Manyof t hemonlymake

t r o h

s se tclosure wtih lack o fessenita lcontent .According to Brown (1975) ,se t

p l e h l li w t i e s u a c e b e n o d e b o t t n a tr o p m i s i e r u s o l

c the student sge ta deepe r

r o c i p o t e h t t u o b a g n i d n a t s r e d n

u the uni ttha thad been taugh tby the teacher .The

e r a e r u s o l c t e s f o s n o it c n u

f focusingatteniton onwha tha sbeen l earnt,consoildaitng

li p u

p learning ,drawing atteniton to the end o fa learning sequence ,and creaitng a

e h t n i y r e t s a m d n a t n e m e v e i h c a f o e s n e

(31)

e r u s o l c t e s f

o in Brown’ sstatement ,i ti sclea rtha tse tclosure i simpotrant to be

n i d e t n e m e l p m

i t he effecitve ways whlie the teache ri sdoing thei rteaching and

e s a e r c n i o t r e d r o n i s e it i v it c a g n i n r a e

l the students ’atteniton andparitcipa itoni n t he

s s a l

c roomandi mprovethestudents ’understandingoft hel essont ha thasbeent aught .

e v i g t i e s u a c e b s y a w e v it c e f f e n i d e t n e m e l p m i e b d l u o h s e r u s o l c t e s , s e d i s e

B s asense

s u j e v a h y e h t e li h w s t n e d u t s e h t o t t n e m e v e i h c a f

o t ifnished l earningone t opic .The

p n a c y e h t d n a n o it a v it o m d o o g e v a h o s l a l li w s t n e d u t

s aritcipate acitvely when t hey

e

g ts omethingusefu landmeaningfu la tfert heyhavel earn tonet opic.

r o c c

A ding to Muji s and Reynold s (2005) , se tclosure should have three

features ,which are consoildaitng ,evaluaitng pupi ’l sresponses ,and summairzing .

g n it a d il o s n o

C is t obroadenthestudents ’oppo truniitest or einforceand developwha t

n i s e it i v it c a f o s t n a ir a v g n i s u y b t h g u a t n e e b d a

h theclas sort asks ,groupdiscussions ,

e ti v n i o t r e d r o n i s k s a t r e e p r

o thestudents’t obroaden ,applyandexpress t herii dea s

n r a e l r e tf

a i ng one topic .Evaluaitng puplis ’response si sto identfiy the mistake s

d n a s e it i v it c a e h t e v o r p m i o t r e d r o n i s s e c o r p g n i n r a e l d n a g n i h c a e t e h t g n ir u d

s s e c o r p e h t o t d e t a l e r g n i h t y n

a . Thus ,in the future the same mistake scould be

g n i z ir a m m u S . d e d i o v

a ist or eview,r echeck ,andrem indaboutt hei nformaitonwhich

s a

h been obtainedbyt he students ,alsot o identfiyandrectfiyanymisunderstanding s

h c i h

w stli l occurred . Besides , summa irzing also connects the idea s which are

, n o s s e l e h t o t d e t a l e r r e t n

i thus the student swi ll understand i tand they can be apply

t o g y e h t t a h t e g d e l w o n k e h

(32)

C t e S f o n o it a t n e m e l p m I e h T .

b losure

u S o t g n i d r o c c

A tlhon( 2009) ,se tclosureshouldbeeffecitvelyi mplementedby

n i a t n i a m o t r e d r o n i s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e t e h

t thestudents ’willingnessinconitnuingt he

s s e c o r p g n i n r a e

l atlhough the learning proces sin the classroom has ended .There

t d n e o t s y a w e e r h t e r e

w he lesson in effecitve ways .Frist ,the teacher scheck t he

e h t d o o t s r e d n u y d a e rl a d a h y e h t t a h t e r u s e k a m o t r e d r o n i g n i d n a t s r e d n u ’ s t n e d u t s

T . t h g u a t n e e b d a h t a h t n o s s e

l he t eacher scan summa irze t hel esson att he endof t he

s s a l

c .Second, et h teacher sinvtiethes tudentst or elfectt hel essont ha thasbeent augh t

t I . n o s s e l e h t f o d n e e h t t

a i s used i n ordert oachieve t he goal sof t hel earning ,help

d n a , n o s s e l e h t g n i n r a e l n i s e it l u c if fi d r i e h t e m o c r e v o o t s t n e d u t s e h

t evaluates the

s s e c o r p g n i n r a e

l ot bemoreeffecitve .Thrid,t het eacher sevaluatethel esson t ha tha s

c y e h T . t h g u a t n e e

b a n use severa lways ,such as i nvtie the students t o express t hei r

s e s i c r e x e l a r e v e s o d r o n o s s e l e h t e z ir a m m u s o t s n o it s e u q e h t g n ir e w s n a n i s a e d

i .

S o t g n i d r o c c a e li h

W liberman (1996) ,se tclosure should be implemented

t c e lf e r o t s t n e d u t s e h t e l b a n e o t r e d r o n i y l e v it c e f f

e on wha tthey had learn tand

n e m e l p m i o t w o h r e d i s n o

c ti tin the future .The focu si son wha tthe student shad

r e h c a e t e h t m o r f d e p s a r

g s so t hey would no teas liyforge twhat t heyhad l earnt .The

r e h c a e

t s c na do f ou rways t o i mplemen tse tclosure .Fris,tt he t eache rdid t he r eview

n r a e l n e e b d a h t a h w e z ir a m m u s d n a d n i m e r o t r e d r o n

i t .Second,t he t eachers do t he

fl e

s -assessmenti nordert oevaluatet hechangesi nknowledge ,skills ,andbehavio ro f

e h

t ri students .Thrid ,the teachers m ea k future planning to determine the students ’

w o ll o

(33)

e ti v n

i the student sto expres s thei r ifna lsenitment s to communicate the ideas ,

.s s a l c e h t f o d n e e h t t a s t n e d u t s e h t f o s n r e c n o c d n a , s g n il e e

f

2 . 1 .

2 .Microteaching

f o r e b m u n l l a m s h ti w g n i h c a e t p u o r g f o m r o f a s i g n i h c a e t o r c i

M peoplei nsidet he

. p u o r

g I ti susedto rtaint het eache rcandidatest ober eadywhent heyhavet ot eachi n

. m o o r s s a l c l a e r e h

t BasedonSu tlhon’ss tatement( 2009) ,microteachingi st hef ormo f

g n i n i a rt r o e u q i n h c e

t methodsf orthet eache rcandidate swhichi sarrangedt o rtaint he

t i f o t n e n o p m o c h c a e t a h t o s s ll i k s g n i h c a e

t c an easliy be mastered by the teache r

. n o it a u ti s g n i h c a e t y r e v e n i s e t a d i d n a

c According Cruickshank e t a l (2005) ,

“microteaching i sdesigned to provide a supporitve envrionmen tfo rpre-service

9 1 y lr a e e h t n i d e p o l e v e D . s ll i k s g n i h c a e t e c it c a r p o t s r e h c a e

t 60 s a t Stanford

n o e h t s a d e v l o v e s a h g n i h c a e t o r c i m , y ti s r e v i n

U -campu scilnica lexpe irence method

s m a r g o r p n o it a c u d e r e h c a e t f o % 1 9 “ n

i ”( a sctiedi nAmobi ,2005 ,p .115) .

e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e t e h

T shouldbeaccompaniedwtiht hebasict eachings kill swhich

a

c n be found and taugh tin Microteaching class .The basic teaching ski ll stake the

s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e t e h t r o f e l o r t n a tr o p m

i in order t oinrtoducet he rea latmosphere o f

e h

t teaching and l earning acitviites t o t he novicet eacher sor t eache rcandidates .The

a mi s o fmicroteachingare no tonlyfo r rtaining t eache rcandidate sa spreparaiton f o r

o s l a t u b , m o o r s s a l c e h t n i d lr o w g n i h c a e t l a e r e h t n i y d a e r e b o t s r e h c a e

t tomake the

. s r e h c a e t e h t f o n o it c n u f e h t h ti w d e m o t s u c c a e b o t s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e

t According t o

o h tl u

(34)

. s s a l c l l a m s n i s ll i k s g n i h c a e t l a r e v e s g n i c it c a r p y b g n i h c a e t m o o r s s a l c l a e r e h

t A tthe

g n i n n i g e

b , t he goa lo fmicroteaching was t o t each the t eache rcandidates to “copy”

s r e r u t c e l e h t y b t h g u a t n e e b d a h t a h

w .Thepoin tofi twast he f requentaitve pracitce s

r e t s a m s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e t e h t p l e h o t r e d r o n i e n o d e r e

w the basic teaching skills .

s e c n e ir e p x e l a r e v e s e v i g o t o s l a s a w s i h

T through t eachingsmal lclass andmake t he

e c n a m r o f r e p g n i h c a e t ri e h t n o n o it c e lf e

r (Amob iand rIwin ,2009) .

n o d e s a

B Amob iand rIwin’ sstatement (2009) ,the teacher sshould be able to

o s l a d n a , s t n e d u t s e h t h ti w d e t a l e r s s a l c e h t e d i s n i m e l b o r p e h t e l d n a

h the teaching

M . s e it i v it c a g n i n r a e l d n

a eanwhlie the teacher sare expected to be able to handle

s m e l b o r

p in prepa irng the teaching acitviite sand teaching the mate iral srepeatedly .

d e s u s i g n i h c a e t o r c i

M a a s“ b irdge” to help teache rcandidate sdo the task stha t

r e h c a e t e h t y b e n o d e b d l u o h

s s ewh nt heybecomeat eacherl ate .rMoreoverbasedon

) 9 0 0 2 ( t n e m e t a t s s ’ n o h tl u

S ,microteaching wi ll be successfully i mplemented i i s f ti

y b d e w o ll o

f somegoodmanagements ,sucha smanagementi nprepa irngt het eaching

e t e h t g n it n e m e l p m i n i t n e m e g a n a m , e c it c a r

p achingpracitce ,managementi n guiding

e c it c a r p g n i h c a e t e h

t s ,and managemen tin giving the feedback on the teaching

e c it c a r

p swhichhavebeendone .

t u o b a k l a t l li w h c r a e s e r s i h t e c n i

S the students ’percepiton on thei rse tclosure

m

i plementaitoni nMicroteachingclass ,tii si mpo trantt oputt het ermpercepitona tfer

(35)

3 . 1 .

2 .Percep iton

“Percepiton i sby no mean salway sa simple ,srtaighftorward ,and unambiguou s

s n o it p u r r e t n i d n a s n o it a ir a v y n a m o t e l b a il t c a f n i s i t u b , s s e c o r

p ” (Vernon ,1962 .)

i , t n e m e t a t s s ’ n o n r e V n o d e s a

B n thi sstudy ,the wrtie rused the insrtument stha t

t u o b a w e i v f o t n i o p ’ s t n a p i c it r a p e h t m o r f n o i n i p o e h t t e g o t s e i d u t s e h t d e tr o p p u

s the

. e r u s o l c t e s f o n o it a t n e m e l p m

i The i nsrtument ha ssevera l tiem swhich can help the

ir

w te rcollec tthe informaiton needed fo rthis study .“Percepiton i san individua’l s

g n i k n i h t s ’ e n o r o e c i v r e s r a l u c it r a p a f o y ti l a u q e h t f o w e i

v ” (Co trez-Anitg ,2011) .

n o d e s a

B Co trez’ s statement, in t hi sstudy the wrtie rd id the research t o understand

e h

t percepiton on se tclosure from speci ifc group o fpeople .The sixth semeste r

h s il g n E f o s t n e d u t

s LanguageEducaitonStudyProgrami nSanataDharmaUniverstiy

h c r a e s e r s i h t n i s t n a p i c it r a p s ’ r e ti r w e h t e m o c e b o t n e s o h c e r e

w .

o t g n i d r o c c

A Robbin s(2005) “ r , pe cepiton i sa proces sby which individual s

r i e h t o t g n i n a e m e v i g o t r e d r o n i s n o i s s e r p m i y r o s n e s r i e h t t e r p r e t n i d n a e z i n a g r o

t n e m n o ri v n

e ” .However ,wha tone perceive scan be substanitally dfiferen tfrom

. y ti l a e r e v it c e j b

o Individuals ’percepiton i sseen as unique and i tcan be dfiferen t

. r e h t o n a o t e n o m o r

f Fu trhermore ,the way one person see s something in the

s e d u l c n i , y ti l a e r e h t m o r f t n e r e f fi d e b n a c t n e m n o ri v n

e theparitcipant swhot ookpar t

in the wrtier’ sresearch .Here ,wha tRobbin shad stated ,srtengthened Atlman and

. n o it p e c r e p t u o b a s t n e m e t a t s s ’i z n e l a V

i z n e l a V d n a n a m tl A n o d e s a

B (1985), percepiton i s t he ways itmul iare selected

(36)

f o s s e c o r p e h T . y ti l a e r f o w e i

v percepitonenable sust ounderstandandcopewtiht he

t n e m n o ri v n

e where we ilve .Factors i n lfuencing percepiton ear :seleciton o fsitmuil ,

ti s e h t ,i l u m it s f o n o it a z i n a g r

o uaiton ,and t he person’ ssefl-concep.t In othe rwords ,

d r o c c a n o it p e c r e

p ing t o t hem is t he way someone views the rea lenvrionment .One

n o s r e

p not i mmediatelygivesthei ropinionbu theo rshe hast oseeo rexpe irencet he

f l e s r e h r o s i h y b t n e v

e tobeableingivingt hei rpoin to fview.

t s u j t o n s i n o it p e c r e

P animmediatepoin to fviewf romeachi ndividual ,buti talso

o t g n i d r o c c A . n o it p e c r e p s a d e d u l c n i e b o t r e t c a r a h c c if i c e p s s a

h Kretie rand Kenick i

, ) 8 0 0 2

( “percepitoni samenta landcogniitveprocess t ha tenable sus t oi nterpre tand

d n a t s r e d n

u ou rsurroundings .I tha sfou rstages; lseecitve atteniton-encoding and

n o it n e t e r d n a e g a r o t s d n a , n o it a c if il p m i

s - desc irbe how speci ifc informaiton and

y r o m e m n i d e r o t s d n a d e v r e s b o e r a i l u m it s l a t n e m n o ri v n

e -ret ireva landr esponse”. In

ri e h

t statement ,opinion o rpoin to fview f rom apersoncan becalleda spercepiton i f

t

i si matched rf eo t h classi ifcaiton step swhich had been menitoned by Kenicki and

r e ti e r

K .

’ r e ti e r K d n a i k c i n e

K sstatemen tsrtengthen sand complete sKolb ,Osland ,and

n i b u

R (1995 )s etat men tabou tpercepiton .Theysaidt ha t“ cper epitonist heproces sby

h c i h

w we select ,organize ,and evaluate the sitmuil in ou renvrionmen tto make i t

s e v l e s r u o n i l u f g n i n a e

m ”. From theri statement ,i tcan be seen and understood tha t

s i n o it p e c r e

p an individua l opinion abou t something o r stiuaiton surrounded .

s a h l a u d i v i d n i e h t m o r f n o i n i p o y r e v e , r e v o e r o

(37)

. 2 .

2 Theore itcalFramework

e g a u g n a L h s il g n E e h t y b d e s u d n a n e s o h c s i h c i h w y a w e h t s i g n i h c a e t o r c i M

r e h c a e t e h t e r a p e r p o t y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D a t a n a S n i m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d E

s e t a d i d n a

c to enter the rea lclassroom t eaching .Since t he t eache rcandidate sdo no t

h g u o n e e v a

h expe irence in teaching the student sin the r eal class ,they need “a

e h t h c a e t m e h t p l e h n a c h c i h w ” e g d ir

b rea lstudent sin rea lclassroom teaching .

r o m r e h tr u

F e t , hecourse need sgood management .Thu ,sthe process i nside of i twli l

. d e v e i h c a y ll u f s s e c c u s e

b The t eache rcandidates who belong t o t hi scourse wli lbe

t h g u a t d n a n e v i

g thebasict eachings kill stot each intherea lclassroomt eaching.

i s a b e h t f o e n

O c t eachingskill swhich should beeffecitvely i mplemented by t he

s e t a d i d n a c r e h c a e

t i sse tclosurewhichoccur satt heend oft hel esson .Since t heyare

l l a , n o it a c o ll a e m it d e ti m il n e v i

g teache rcandidates who join Microteaching clas s

e h t e r a p e r p o t e v a

h i rmate irals a swel la spossible .Thus ,theycanmaximizet he itme

o

t pracitcet herit eachingskills ,especiallys e tclosure .Atlhough tii sf uncitonedast he

g n i s o l

c session o fthe lesson ,i tstli lha simpo tran trole fo rthe students ’needs ,

n i y ll a i c e p s

e ensuirng et h students ’understanding of the lesson .Since se tclosure

e b o t n e tf o s i h c i h w l li k s l a i c u r c e h t s e m o c e b t i , n o s s e l e h t f o d n e e h t t a s r u c c o

e l g e

n cted by t he t eache rcandidates because t hey have ilmtied itme .They have lack

o t s e it i n u tr o p p o f

o explore moreonse tclosureski ll .Moreover thedfi ifculite swhich

e r

a encountered by the teache rcandidate sare d fiferen tfrom one to another .They

d n a e r u s o l c t e s t u o b a n o it p e c r e p d n a n o i n i p o n w o r i e h t e v a

h alsot he i mplementaiton

M n i ti f

(38)

c y

B onsideirng t he t heo ire sabove, t he wrtie rattempts t o ifnd t he answe rt o the

o it s e u

q ns t ha thave beenstated on ChapterI .To answe rthe fris tquesiton, t hewrtie r

s o l c t e s f o n o it c n u f t u o b a ) 5 7 9 1 ( n w o r B m o r f e r u s o l c t e s f o s e ir o e h t e h t e s u l li

w ure ,

e r u s o l c t e s f o n o it a t n e m e l p m i e h t t u o b a ) 1 1 0 2 ( k a h c u a

K in t he classroom ,and from

o h

S stak (2011 )about i mpo trance and suggesiton fo rthe teachers t o make closure a t

w o n k o t s t p m e tt a r e ti r w e h t , s e ir o e h t e s o h t g n i s U . n o s s e l e h t f o d n e e h

t how se t

u s o l

c re i simplemented in Microteaching clas sby the sixth semeste rstudent son

. y ti s r e v i n U a m r a h D a t a n a S n i m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d E h s il g n E

r o

F the second quesiton ,the wrtie rwli lanswe ri tby using the theo ire so fse t

n o it p e c r e p d n a , g n i h c a e t o r c i m , e r u s o l

c fromAmob iand rIwin’ sstatement( 2009 )and

t n e m e t a t s s ’ k n a h s k c i u r

C (1996 )a sctied i n Amob’is( 2009 )abou tmicroteaching and

( k a h c u a K , e r u s o l c t e s f o n o it c n u f e h t t u o b a ) 5 7 9 1 ( n w o r B , ti f o s m i a e h

t 2011 )abou t

s a l c e h t n i e r u s o l c t e s t n e m e l p m i o t y a w e h

t s tot hes tudents ,andf romShostak( 2011 )

t u o b

a the impo trance and the suggesiton fo rthe teacher sin making effecitve and

l a it n e s s

e se tclosure .Thoset heo ire sareno tye tenought o answe rthequesiton ont he

u m e b l li w t a h t d n a n o it a l u m r o f m e l b o r p d n o c e

s ch bette ri fi ti sequipped by the

u l li w r e ti r w e h T . n o it p e c r e p f o s e ir o e h

t set heo ire so fpercepitonf romVernon( 1962) ,

z e tr o

C -Anitg ,(2011) ,Kretie rand Kenick i(2008) ,and Kolb ,Osland ,and Rubin

5 9 9 1

( ) .The expe trs ’theo ire swli lalso help the wrtie rcomplie the quesitonnarie

n o i n i p o r i e h t k s a o t s t n a p i c it r a p e h t o t d e t u b ir t s i d e b o t g n i o g s i h c i h

w about the

d n a s s e n e v it c e f f

e the implementaiton o fse tclosure on thei rteaching pracitce sin

(39)

e s u r e ti r w e h t , n o it s e u q t s a l e h t r o

F sthe insrtuments to ifnd the percepiton o f

a m r a h D a t a n a S n i m a r g o r P y d u t S n o it a c u d E h s il g n E n o ’ s t n e d u t s r e t s e m e s h t x i s

. s e c it c a r p g n i h c a e t ri e h t n i ti f o n o it a t n e m e l p m i e h t d n a e r u s o l c t e s t u o b a y ti s r e v i n U

n o i s s u c s i d p u o r g s u c o f , e ri a n n o it s e u q e r a y e h

T , and Microteaching students ’video

r e e p g n i o d e li h

w -teachingsi nMicroteachingclass .Sitllt hewrtie rwli luset heo ire so f

z e tr o C , n o n r e V m o r f n o it p e c r e

p -Anitg ,Kenick iand Kretier ,also Kolb ,Osland ,and

n i b u

R a sthe guidance to give the idea o fpercepiton to the paritcipant .s Thus the

s u o ir a v t e g l li w r e ti r

w opinions also suggesiton abou t se t closure and the

(40)

2 2

I I I R E T P A H C

Y G O L O D O H T E M H C R A E S E R

r e t p a h c s i h

T discusses the research methodology which include sresearch method , tr

a p h c r a e s e r , g n it t e s h c r a e s e

r icipants ,research i nsrtuments ,data gathe irng t echnique , .

e r u d e c o r p h c r a e s e r d n a , e u q i n h c e t s i s y l a n a a t a d

.

3 R1 . esearchMethod r

e ti r w e h

T appiled mixed-method research since t hi sstudy thi sresearch t he wrtie r d

e s

u three insrtument s and combined two research methods , quanttiaitve and e

v it a ti l a u

q . Accordingt o Fraenke landWillen( 2009 ,p .558) ,“mixed-method i soneo f a o t n i s e l b a ir a v n e e w t e b p i h s n o it a l e r e h t m ri f n o c o t p l e h n a c t a h t s d o h t e m h c r a e s e r e h t

” n o n e m o n e h p f o n o it a t e r p r e t n i e l g n i

s . Mixed-method research also appile s y b s n o it s e u q h c r a e s e r e m a s e h t y d u t s o t n o it a l u g n a ir t l a c i g o l o d o h t e m r o n o it a l u g n a ir t

usingdfiferen tdatao rmethod sandalsot ovaildatet her esearch ifnding s(Fraenke land )

9 5 5 . p , 9 0 0 2 , n e ll i

W .The wrtie rcombined survey research and basic interpretaitve .

h c r a e s e r s i h t n i y d u t

s Survey i s one o fthe quanttiaitve method swhich i sused to e

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