1. Gaji sebesar 2.000.000 per bulan untuk masing masing pemilik Andalucia, apabila masih ada sisa keuntungan penghasilan bersih yang Andalucia dapat kan per bulan nya maka uang tersebut dimasukan kedalam uang kas Andalucia yang nantinya digunakan sebagai infaq atau sadaqoh yang selalu Andalucia lakukan setiap Andalucia berulang tahun yaitu tanggal 23 Januari. 2. Perhitungan Penyusutan yang dialami Analucia di hitung dari jangka waktu 3
The other decson to make s whether to mport pregnant hefers or yearlng (vrgn) hefers. Pregnant hefers are the most favoured because farmers get “two for the prce of one”, assumng the foetus s a dary genotype. In addton as the hefer s pregnant (at least dagnosed as pregnant) she does not have to be mated soon on arrval at her new home where there s no guarantee that she wll easly conceve. However wth only a few months to adapt to her new envronment, there s also no guarantee that that hefer wll become a long term member of the mlkng herd once she calves down. All too often one hears stores of very hgh numbers (up to 30 or 40%) of mported hefers beng culled and slaughtered after havng only one calf. The most lkely reason s that her poor feedng management post-calvng and her hgher genetc propensty to utlse body reserves to produce mlk, have combned to result n anoestrus for many, many months post calvng. Such anmals have become very expensve dary beef anmals. In the long run, yearlng hefers may be better economc propostons than pregnant hefers.
landscape elements, biological productivity of di ff erent The spatial pattern of a changing landscape also components of the ecosystem, biodiversity, and the contains some information on the processes of land- spread of disturbances. cover change. Certain categories of changes in human Remote sensing o ff ers the possibility to analyse land use tend to fragment the landscape (e.g. expansion changes in spatial structure at the scale of landscapes of extensive agricultural exploitation, forest degrada- (e.g. Briggs & Nellis, 1991; Dunn et al., 1991; Turner tion driven by small-scale logging, overgrazing or & Gardner, 1991). Indicators of the degradation of the desertification around deep wells). Other land use vegetation cover can be derived from such measures changes increase landscape homogeneity (e.g. large- (Jupp, Walker & Pendridge, 1986; De Pietri, 1995). scale intensive cultivation or ranching). Spatial For example, Pickup & Foran (1987) developed a processes of gap expansion in a forest cover have been method to monitor arid landscapes used for pastoralism modelled to predict the total gap area and gap size based on the spatial variability of the vegetation. The distribution (Kubo, Iwasa & Furumoto, 1996). One spatial autocorrelation function and mean-variance can hypothesize that landscapes with a very low or plots of a spectral indicator were found to be successful very high level of disturbance are characterized by in discriminating between the cover responses typical a low spatial heterogeneity, while landscapes with a of good and poor rainfall years. For drought medium level of disturbance are very heterogeneous. conditions, the decrease in spatial autocorrelation with This would lead to the relationship sketched in Fig. 1. increasing spatial lag was rapid since the ground surface Recent remote sensing observations generally support is bare and most of the vegetation signal comes from this hypothesis, e.g. in a study of forest-cover scattered areas of trees and shrubs. A low decay rate disturbances in Papua New Guinea (Estreguil & of the autocorrelation function indicated a greater Lambin, 1996) and another study of forest spatial uniformity of the landscape, e.g. during wet fragmentation in New England (Vogelmann, 1995). periods, when more ground cover is present so reducing However, the validity of this model is likely to depend the contrast between the bare soil signal and that on the scale of analysis. It is only when the spatial produced by trees and shrubs (Pickup & Foran, 1987). scale of observation of the landscape pattern is slightly Similar observations were made by Lambin (1996) broader than the spatial scale of the impacts on over the seasonal and inter-annual cycle of three West landscape of a given disturbance that this inverted ‘U’ African landscapes. Vogt (1992) also analysed the shape is likely to be observed.
Flamenco is considered as a part of the Spanish culture. It is a fusion of cultural elements from many nations. Its native origin is Andalucia, a region of Spain. The remarkable charm of the dance, the song and the music of lamenco is dfferent from the westen classical tradition. The elements of African, Latin American and oriental music arouse in the singing syle and guitar playing performed by the Gypsies, a communiy of Indian, Jews, Moorish arrived inAndalucia around fourteenth century in the Byzantine era . The main elemetns of lamenco is Cante-Song, Bailie-Dance, Toque-Guitar, and Jaleo, which freely translated as "hell raising "involves the handclapping, foot stomping, and shouts of joy. The diversiy of cultures that iluences the development of lamenco can be traced back through history, cultural theory, and musicoloy to unravel the cultural elements which contribute to the development and maturiy as an important icon of the Spain as a nation.
ABSTRACT: This study aimed to analyze: 1) Dairy farmers motivation in disaster-prone areas (DPA) II and DPA III of Merapi volcano, and 2) The influence of dairy farmers motivation on dairy cows productivity. The research was conducted using household survey with interviews involving respondents were selected. The location determined by purposive sampling study, which was located in DPA II and DPA III of Merapi volcano. Samples or materials research was determined by Purposive Sampling method. Dairy farmers in disaster-prone areas chosen with the following criteria: 1) maintain dairy cows at least one year, and 2) as the member of farmer group’s cage. The respondent took by using the Census for farmers who have the criteria. Assessment of dairy farming motivation was based on criteria according to the Likert scale. In order to determine the influence of dairy farming motivation on the productivity of dairy cows made by Regression. The average value of dairy farming motivation was high for both areas of research in DPA III of 110.19 while in DPA II amounted to 106.05. Farmer motivation in the DPA III was higher if compared with the farmer in DPA II. There were very little influence of dairy farming motivation on the productivity of dairy cows, even in terms of milk production (0.07), services per conception (0.05) and calving interval (0.002).
Selection of Human-origin Lactobacillus Strains as Probiotics with Capability in Synthesizing Conjugated Linoleic Acid and Alleviating Hyperglycemia in Rats (Rattus norvegicus) in Vivo Widodo, Pradiptya Ayu Harsita, Samuel Aditya, Nosa Septiana Anindita, Tutik Dwi Wahyuningsih and
We have previously demonstrated that microarthro- pods can have a signi®cant impact on the decomposi- tion of both, local litters (Heneghan et al., in press) and on a single substrate examined in two different tro- pical sites (Heneghan et al., 1998). An in¯uence of microarthropods on N dynamics can also be expected. This is because, through its in¯uence on microbes, grazing by microarthropods can stimulate or inhibit microbial production (Lussenhop, 1992). Zheng et al. (1997) showed, using general models of both below- ground food webs and ecosystem processes, that the faunal effect on decomposition is determined by pro- perties of the microbial populations. Whether micro- bial production increases or decreases in response to grazing appears, however, to depend on the grazing intensity of the fauna (Hanlon and Anderson, 1979). A microarthropod in¯uence on microbial N accumula- tion would, therefore, result in greater or lower N concentration for a given mass of litter remaining, depending on the abundance of grazers in the system. In this paper, we examine C and N dynamics in decomposing Quercus prinus litter con®ned in litter- bags in one temperate and two tropical forests. The temperate site is at Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory, NC (CWT) and the tropical sites include Luquillo Forest, Puerto Rico (LUQ) and La Selva Biological Station, Costa Rica (LAS). Each site has distinctive microarthropod assemblages in terms of abundance and diversity (Heneghan et al., in press). The objec- tives of the study were (a) to compare N dynamics in decomposing litter intropical and temperate forests, (b) to contrast N dynamics in two tropical sites which were similar in climate but which differed in the level of abundance and diversity of their microarthropods, and (c) to examine the role of microarthropods in determining the ¯uxes of N in the litter.