Lingga (2002:174) states that there are nine modals. As their name suggests, they are largely concerned with expressing ‘modality’, such as possibility, necessity, prediction, and volition. Themodals are: can, could, may, might, must, will, would, shall, and should.
Burch (2003:1) says, “Grammar is a way of organizing what we know about language so that we can talk and manipulate this knowledge. It means that by grammar we can organize language and make us comfort to talking about it. Not only to talking but also we can learn, because grammar is also a knowledge.”
or word that cannot be interpreted literally, they have to think and they are given the pleasure of interpretation. Third, metaphor is more efficient and economical than ordinary language. Fourth, metaphor also creates new meaning. It allows us to write about feelings, thoughts and things. Fifth, metaphor is one way to make the abstract thing becomes concrete and also gave us the color and vigor inthe sentences where it forces the readers to open their mind to find speakers needs by their interpretation.
In other hand, novel not only needs characters, story and plot, but also setting. Setting usually directs to the definition of place, connection of time and social environment where the event happens. Setting gives the basic of story correctly and clear. The setting is important to give realistic impression to the readers, created a certain situation at a glanced is really happened. So, the readers feel easier to create their imagination and participation to criticize the story.
Wallek and Warren (1973:75) say that the approach is based on the intrinsic structural of point of text and literature. This means the intrinsic approach emphasizes the inter text analysis by describing the elements of prose that described previously. Relationship with the art ofliterature and art of music is very diverse and complited. Sometimes they influence each other. Theory of art and taste can be studied and related to the theory and literary tastes of artist. Besides the issue of sources and influences, inspiration and coorperation, there is another problem, namely literary works often produce the same result with the result of a painting and musical. The term is just as vague metafon.
Most the stories have the theme, something that we might call it as the intention or the moral ofthe story. Peace is one of theme which can found inthe certain novel. The definition of peace is all about happiness, freedom from fear of violence, and something that will make people respect each other. Peace also becomes bridging the gaps between the two states which have through too many seasons of warfare, hatred, destruction, and recriminations.
Ignoring his mother’s advice is a bad action, but Hendry Fleming still protagonist because a whole story he gives empathy to the reader. As Nurgiyantoro (2005:178) says “Tokoh protagonis menampilkan sesuatu yang sesuai dengan pandangan kita, harapan-harapan kita pembaca. Maka, kita sering mengenalinya sebagai memiliki kesamaan dengan kita, permasalahan yang dihadapinya seolah- olah juga sebagai permasalahan kita, demikian juga halnya dalam menyikapinya.” It means that a protagonist usually represented what our feeling and our wishes. That is way; the reader may cry when the protagonist being hurt and laugh when a protagonist character gets happiness.
Innovel, a character may be defined as a verbal representation of a human being. Through action, speech, description, and commentary, authors portray characters who are worth caring about, rooting for and even loving, although there are also characters you may laugh at, dislike, or even hate, to quote Robert and Jacobs (1995:131). There can be simplified that the character in a novel is a description and a representation of a person qualities. It can be shown by the creation ofthe characters in a novel from their action, gesture, speech, and behavior, these term can be used by the readers to identify the characters in a novel, because the character in a novel has equal qualities as a person in real life. The attempt ofthe author describes the characters in a narrative work known as a characterization. According to Di Yanni (1990:36) says that Characterization is the means by which the writers present and reveal the characters.
One ofthe fiction process is novel. Waston (1979:3) says, “Novel is the name of a literary kind, and there is a story to tell about how, over the centuries, its substance has widened and its conventions changed.” It means that novel is literary work that narrate life story in centuries ago. Every novel has these five elements: Setting - When and where the story takes place. Characters - The people (or sometimes animals) the story is about. Plot - What happens inthe story. Theme - The lesson the writer ofthe story is trying to teach the reader. The "message". And the last, point of view - Who is telling the story. First person point of view uses "I", and is told by one ofthe characters ofthe story. Third person point of view uses an unnamed narrator who knows what all (or most) ofthe story's characters are thinking.
Rudyanto (2011:68) said, ”A Subordinating Conjunction (sometimes called a dependent word or subordinator) comes at the beginning of a Subordinate (or dependent) clause and establishes the relationship between the dependent clause and the rest ofthe sentence. It also turns the clause into something that depends on the rest ofthe sentence for its meaning.”
Watson (1979:xi) says “Novel is the name of literary kind, and there is a story to tell about how, over the centuries, its subtance has widened and its conventions changed.” It means that novel is literary kind, tell the stories of life inthe last centuries. It is clear that novel can send the message through the story which has written.
In addition, Clara HerlinaKarjo made a research about “An analysisofthe translation of English idioms by Indonesian Novel translators.” In her research study, he has four problems statement: (1) what the type of idioms are mostly used in English novels? (2) Which the translation strategies are used by Indonesian novel translators to render English idioms into Indonesian? (3) To what extent are there equivalents in Indonesian for English Idiom? (4) To what extent are the meanings of English idioms transferred by thenovel translator? By using Indonesia Novel translators as subject, she also focuses on English Idioms as an instrument. She uses qualitative design and as a result, this study found that only thirty percents ofthe idioms were translatable and seventy percents were untranslatable.
Conflict is not always has negative impact. With the conflict, we can get the best solution in every problem that happened in our life. Sociologically, cooperation and competition do not always work together. When cooperation and competition do not run well, the tendency of conflict happens is greater. Conflict is disappointed situation when the desired wants do not come true. Thus, conflict may have positive and negative aspect. It is positive if the conflict has been resolved in mutual way. And it will be negative it the conflict brings chaotic situation or even disaster.
Characterization is one ofthe main element in a story which tells the story of human life with all the miscellaneous life. Character is human being in fiction who plays action inthenovel. The character does action like making conversation or doing activities. With that understanding there would have been required as a manifestation ofthe human figure and his life to be told. The characters in this story will do its job to be "a source story". Figure is a living thing (humans) who have physical and temperament.
Gwynn (2002:7) says that plot may be defined as a story’s sequence of incidents, arranged in dramatic order. One is tempted to insert the word “Chronological” but doing so will exclude many stories that depart from this strict ordering of events. In opposite fashion, novelist sometimes uses of foreshadowing prevents a story’s outcome from seeing haphazard or contrived which is largely illusory.
opinion or feelings ofthe individuals involved in a situation. Inliterature, point of view is the mode of narration that an author employs to let the readers “hear” and “see” what takes place in a story, poem, essay etc. Point of view is a reflection ofthe opinion an individual from real life or fiction can have. The point of view discusses about who is telling story, or from which position the events are perceived. In general, point of view is differentiated into two kinds : first person point of view and third person point of view.
In reading a literary work, we often feel sympathy for a character, on the other hand we may feel no sympathy for another. A character's honesty, boldness or suffering may create a moving story that stirs our emotion and feeling. On the contrary, a character who is wicked, cruel, dishonest, etc, may give rise to our dislike. The ability of an author to describe his characters makes a reader feel that he is watching the reality of human life, and, consequently, the literary work becomes more interesting.
Abstract. The study focuses on theanalysisof phonology on Madurese English students‟ pronunciation in reading an English text. The writer identified kinds of English oscillographic pronunciation made by Madurese students in reading an English text, the differences of English oscillographic pronunciation between Madurese students and that ofthe English native speaker in reading an English text and how Madurese language characteristics influences Madurese English students‟ pronunciation. To collect the data, she ob served and recorded the Madurese English students‟ pronunciation by using MP4 then analysed it descriptively by using Praat program version 4027. Then, she found that the oscillographic pronunciation of Subject 2 and Subject 3 when it is compared to subject 1 is different and makes different meaning, but sometimes not. Furthermore, it is found that Madurese language characteristics influence them in reading the English text. Therefore, they made some sound changes: vowel, consonant and diphthong. Moreover, they also made deletion and addition. She concludes that their pronunciation is unintelligible because they often make mispronunciation.
Observing about mystics is a fun thing because it promises a new one for anyone who explores. For hundreds of years, the world has been widely mystic stir interest in academics to explore and reveal diverse facts and competence levels. Reason who encouraged me, among other things: first, desire ecumenical or good and bad reasons, is to find something that is common in that.
Language is mostly a collection of a system of conventional symbols with possibilities for learning. The symbols are considered as the unitary elements of transmissions. And symbols are primarily vocal which are produced by organ of speech, and secondary system such as writing. The understanding of a language is a big event that helps to make the culture ofthe human beings magnificent. Since the language is an achievement to the transmission of states of emotions, and purposes. Furthermore it is because ofthe language that human beings are able to use his knowledge.