The Equivalence Of Passive Verbs In J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter And The Deathly Hallows And Its Translation Into “Harry Potter Dan Relikui Kematian” By Listiana Srisanti

109 

Teks penuh

(1)

THE EQUIVALENCE OF PASSIVE VERBS IN J. K. ROWLING’S HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS AND ITS TRANSLATION INTO “HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN” BY LISTIANA SRISANTI

A THESIS

BY :

JULKHAIRI NASUTION

REG. STUDENT NO : 050705070

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LETTERS

UNIVERSITY OF SUMATERA UTARA MEDAN

(2)

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to thank to Allah SWT who has given me all of

the blessing, mercy, talent and time, so that I can finish my thesis entitled “The

Equivalence of Passive Verbs in J. K. Rowling’s ‘Harry Potter and The Deathly

Hallows’ and Its Translation Into ‘Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian’ by Listiana Srisanti”.

I would like to thank to the dean of Faculty of Letters, Prof. Drs.

Syaifuddin, M.A. Ph.D, also to Dra. Swesana Mardia Lubis, M.Hum and Drs.

Parlindungan Purba, M. Hum as the chairman and secretary of English

Department, and to Bang Syamsul for all of opportunities and facilities that are

given to me and for all their attentions in all academic affairs.

I would like to express my best and sincere thanks to my supervisor, Drs.

H. Muhizar Muchtar, M.S. and my co-supervisor Dra. Hj. Masdiana Lubis,

M.Hum for having shared their valuable ideas, times, guidance and patience.

I would like to thank Rudy Sofyan, S.S. M, Hum as my academic advisor.

My gratitude is also expressed to all of my lecturers in English Department who

taught me much and contributed the knowledge during the academic years.

My lovely thanks are due to my beloved parents, brother and sister. To all

my friends that had been giving me the support and friendship for all this time,

(3)

ABSTRACT

Skripsi yang berjudul “The Equivalence of Passive Verbs in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows and Its Translation Into ‘Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian’ by Listiana Srisanti”, membahas tentang kesamaan arti dalam penerjemahan kata kerja pasif dari bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa sumber (SL) ke bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa target (TL). Data yang dianalisis bersumber dari novel berbahasa Inggris “Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows” oleh J. K. Rowling dan terjemahannya “Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian” oleh Listiana Srisanti.

Teori yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah teori Formal and Dynamic Equivalence oleh Nida (McGuire, 1991 : 26). Nida membagi teori tersebut ke dalam dua bagian, yaitu Formal Equivalence dan Dynamic Equivalence.

Data yang dikumpulkan adalah kata kerja pasif atau passive verbs dalam bahasa Inggris (SL) kemudian dianalisis dengan menentukan kesamaan arti dalam penerjemahannya menjadi Formal Equivalence atau Dynamic Equivalence. Untuk memilih sampel data digunakan metode purposive sampling. Dan untuk menganalisis data digunakan metode deskriptif.

(4)

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

RL : Receptor Language

SL : Source Language

ST : Source Text

TL : Target Language

(5)

TABLE OF CONTENTS

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……… i

ABSTRACT………. ii

LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS………………... iii

TABLE OF CONTENTS……… iv

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 Background of the Analysis……… 1

1.2 Problem of the Analysis………... 4

1.3 Objectives of the Analysis……… 5

1.4 Scope of the Analysis………... 5

1.5 Significances of the Analysis………... 5

1.6 Review of Related Literature……… 6

CHAPTER II A BRIEF VIEW OF TRANSLATION 2.1 Definition of Translation……… 9

2.2 Function of Translation……….. 11

2.3 The Process of Translation………... 12

2.4 The Types of Translation……….... 18

2.5 Equivalence in Translation………... 23

(6)

CHAPTER III PASSIVE VERBS IN ENGLISH AND BAHASA INDONESIA

3.1 Passive Verbs in English………. 27

3.1.1 The Use of Passive Verbs……….. 29

3.2. Passive Verbs in Bahasa Indonesia……….... 29

CHAPTER IV METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

4.1 Research Method………... 31 4.2 Data Collecting Method………. 31

4.3 Data Analysis Procedure………... 32

CHAPTER V ANALYSIS OF THE EQUIVALENCE OF PASSIVE VERBS IN J.K. ROWLING’S HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS AND ITS TRANSLATION INTO “HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN” BY LISTIANA SRISANTI

5.1 Data Findings………... 34

5.2 Formal Equivalence……… 34

5.2.1 Formal Equivalence of Passive Verbs Based on Tense……… 35

5.2.2 Formal Equivalence of Passive Verbs Without

To Be……… 63

5.2.3 Formal Equivalence of Passive Verb With

Auxiliary Verb………... 67

(7)

Get Form……... 72 5.3 Dynamic Equivalence………... 73

5.3.1 Dynamic Equivalence of Passive Verbs Based

on Tenses……….. 75

5.3.2 Dynamic Equivalence of Passive Verbs Without

To Be………. 91

5.3.3 Dynamic Equivalence of Passive Verbs With

Auxiliary Verb……… 94

5.3.4 Dynamic Equivalence of Passive Verbs in Get

Form……….. 95

CHAPTER VI : CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

6.1 Conclusions………... 97

6.2 Suggestions………... 97

(8)

ABSTRACT

Skripsi yang berjudul “The Equivalence of Passive Verbs in J. K. Rowling’s Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows and Its Translation Into ‘Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian’ by Listiana Srisanti”, membahas tentang kesamaan arti dalam penerjemahan kata kerja pasif dari bahasa Inggris sebagai bahasa sumber (SL) ke bahasa Indonesia sebagai bahasa target (TL). Data yang dianalisis bersumber dari novel berbahasa Inggris “Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows” oleh J. K. Rowling dan terjemahannya “Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian” oleh Listiana Srisanti.

Teori yang digunakan dalam skripsi ini adalah teori Formal and Dynamic Equivalence oleh Nida (McGuire, 1991 : 26). Nida membagi teori tersebut ke dalam dua bagian, yaitu Formal Equivalence dan Dynamic Equivalence.

Data yang dikumpulkan adalah kata kerja pasif atau passive verbs dalam bahasa Inggris (SL) kemudian dianalisis dengan menentukan kesamaan arti dalam penerjemahannya menjadi Formal Equivalence atau Dynamic Equivalence. Untuk memilih sampel data digunakan metode purposive sampling. Dan untuk menganalisis data digunakan metode deskriptif.

(9)

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

1.1. Background of the Analysis.

We live in a big and wide world where all of us separated into some places

and countries. These places and countries have different cultures, language and

way of life. But with curiousity in every human being, we cannot bear ourselves

to find out what people in another part of the world have achieved. We try to find

out what happened in the other world, what kind of knowledge that they have

found, technology that they have invented, and stories that they have etc.

In order to find out everything that existed in the world outside of ours, we

use any kinds of media we have. And every media using different kinds of

language based on their cultures and countries. Language is used in the media to

tell about anything that happened or as we can say as a device to communicate

especially in utterance. Sapir (1949 : 8) stated that, “Language is a purely human

and non-instinctive method of communicating ideas, emotions and desires by

means of voluntary produced symbols.” Human has their own language to tell

stories and transfer their knowledge to others but what if the others cannot

understand the language that is used. So, as the way to solve this problem, some

people begin to learn other language that can give them the ability to do

translation. For example, Indonesians nowadays are so interested in learning

English and Mandarin so we can communicate and transfer their message by

using both languages, whether by utterance or written, and can compete in global

(10)

transfer the message in a text. Crystal (1987:334) stated that, “The term

‘translation’ is the neutral term used for all tasks where the meaning of expression

in one language (the ‘source’ language) is turned into the meaning of another (the

‘target’ language), whether the medium is spoken, written, or signed.”

The translation process is a process that can be found in the existence of

language, in utterance or written text as articles, journals, newspapers, magazines,

novel, etc. Translation helps us in making a connection between nation,

transferring the knowledge contained in the SL into the TL and with a good

translation we can understand each other to make a better living.

Translators do not only need to know their source language well; they

must also have throughout understanding of the field of knowledge covered by the

source text, and of any social, cultural, or emotional connotations that need to be

specified in the target language if the intended effect is to be conveyed (Crystal

1987:334).

“Translation is the rendering of a text into another language. Applied in

literature, the term connotes the art of recomposing of a work in another language

without losing its original flavor, or of finding an analogous substitute.”

(www.answer.com)

When translating there are some rules need to be followed. At least the

translator should master the SL and TL because each of them has its own

grammatical and structural system. So a translator does not only need to know the

Source Language but also should have a wide and deeper knowledge of the Target

(11)

grammatical and structural system in TL and also fit with the meaning of words

in SL.

Equivalence is equal in worth or value, force, power, effect, import and the

like ; alike in significance and value ; of the same import or meaning

(www.ardictionary.com). Equivalence in translation cannot be considered as the

sameness but considered as equal meaning in translating text in SL into TL.

Translation equivalence refers to the equivalent relationships between Target

Language (TL) and Source Language (SL).

Nida (McGuire, 1991:26), distinguishes two types of equivalence. They

are Formal equivalence which focuses attention on the message itself, in both

form and content and Dynamic equivalence is that based on the principle of

equivalent effect, i.e. that the relationship between the receiver and message should aim at being the same as that between the original receivers and the SL

message.

There are eight parts of speech and verb is one of them as Mukti (2008 : 6) states :

”Tata bahasa Inggris terdiri dari delapan bagian, yang lazim disebut Part of Speech, yang terdiri dari : Noun (Kata Benda), Adjective (Kata Sifat), Pronoun (Kata Ganti), Verb (Kata Kerja), Adverb (Kata Keterangan), Preposition (Kata Depan), Conjunction (Kata Sambung), dan Interjection (Kata Seru).”

English grammar consists of eight parts, usually called Part of Speech.

This Part of Speech consists of : Noun, Adjective, Pronoun, Verb, Adverb,

Preposition, Conjunction, and Interjection.

In passive verb sentences, the thing receiving the action is the subject of

the sentence and the thing doing the action is optionally included near the end of

(12)

In the analysis the source of the data is Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows book and its translation Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian. The data are all passive verbs found in the novel and its translation. Harry Potter and The

Deathly Hallows is the last book of Harry Potter series by J.K Rowling. These

bestseller series have been translated into 65 languages and one of them is into

Bahasa Indonesia.

The translation of passive verbs in this novel is varied. It can be seen from

the example, Her face flooded with colour was translated into Wajah wanita itu

semburat kemerahan. The passive verb flooded is translated into semburat. The next example is, The lane was bordered on the left by wild, low-growing

brambles, on the right by a high, neatly manicured hedge and is translated into

Jalan kecil itu tumbuh di sebelah kirinya dibatasi semak rendah yang tumbuh liar,

di sebelah kanannya oleh pagar tanaman tinggi yang terpangkas rapi.. The passive verb was bordered is translated into dibatasi, as in the dictionary. As the reference for the meaning of the words, the Shadily’s English-Indonesian

dictionary is used.

1.2 Problems of the Analysis.

The problems of this analysis will be :

1. What types of passive verbs equivalence found in the novel and its

translation?

2. What is the dominant type of passive verbs equivalence found in

(13)

1.3 Objectives of the Analysis.

The objectives of the analysis are :

1. Finding out the types of passive verbs equivalence found in the

novel and its translation.

2. Finding out the dominant type of passive verbs equivalence found

in the novel and its translation.

1.4 Scope of the Analysis

This analysis will be focused on passive verbs translation found in Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows by JK. Rowling and its translation into Harry

Potter dan Relikui Kematian by Listiana Srisanti.

1.5 Significances of the Analysis.

In analyzing this equivalence of passive verbs, there are some

significances, which are:

1. The reader will understand how to translate the passive verbs found in

the novel.

2. To enrich the study of translation especially about the passive verbs

translation.

3. Theoretically giving information about some types of equivalence in

(14)

1.6 Review of Related Literature.

There are some books and thesis that are reviewed in order to support this

analysis.

As Catford (1965 : 20) states, “Translation equivalence may be set up, and

translation performed between any pair of languages or dialects – related of

unrelated and with any kind of spatial, temporal, social or other relationship

between them.”

While Larson (1984 : 3) states that translation consists of transferring the

meaning of source text (ST) to target text (TT), and it is done by going from the

form of source text to the form of target text by way of semantic structure. It is the

meaning which is transferred and it can not be added or changed, only the surface

structure or form can be changed.

Nida and Taber (1974: 4&12) state, “Anything that can be said in one

language can be said in another, unless the form is an essential element of these

message; the best translation does not sound like translation.”

Chalilullah (2007) in his thesis entitled “The Translation of Verbs in

Djenar Maesa Ayu Short Stories Collection’s Mereka Bilang Saya Monyet! Into Michael Nieto Garcia’s They Say I’m A Monkey,” analyzed the translation of

verbs and verbal shifts using the descriptive method to collect the random sample.

He used the simple statistical analysis in percentage by using the Educational

Statistic by Butler. He found out out the frequency of shifts from base verb in

BahasaIndonesia to verb in English is 27,37%, the frequency of shifts from base verb in Bahasa Indonesia to other part of speech in English is 2% and the

(15)

the frequency of shifts from derivative verb in Bahasa Indonesia to verb in English is 60,48%, the frequency of shifts from derivative verb in Bahasa

Indonesia to other part of speech in English is 2,94% and the frequency of shifts from derivative verb in bahasa Indonesia to untranslatable is 4,27% and the total frequency of shifts from verb to verb is 87,85%, the total frequency of shifts from

verb to other part of speech is 4,94% and the total frequency of shifts from verb to

untranslatable is 7, 21%.

Rahmadhani (2007) in her thesis entitled “The Equivalence of

Prepositional Phrase in The Translation Of J.K Rowling’s Harry Potter And The Order of the Phoenix Into Harry Potter Dan Orde Phoenix by Listiana Srisanti”

analyzed the same Formal and Dynamic equivalence of prepositional phrase using

the same descriptive method and formula to collect the random sample. She

managed to find the dominant type found in the translation product which is

Formal equivalence. She found that the percentage of formal equivalence is

91,97% while the percentage for dynamic equivalence is 8,03 %.

Turnip (2001) in her thesis entitled “The Equivalence Of Verbs In The

Translation Of Mary Higgins Clarks’ Where Are The Children Into Dimana

Anak-Anakku” discussed about the verbs translation and the verbal change of class. She used the method of library review research and quantitative analysis. She found

out that there are 1292 verbs using the Simple Past Tense in the novel which

consist of : 1168 verbs that translated from verb to verb, 56 verbs that translated

from verb to another part of speech (changing the class of word), and 68 verbs

that are not translated. She also found out that there were 194 finite verbs using

(16)

from verb to verb, 33 verbs that are translated from verb to another part of speech

(17)

CHAPTER II

A BRIEF VIEW OF TRANSLATION

2.1 Definitions of Translation.

There are many theories that define translation. Some experts and theorist

had already given some definitions of translation to make us understand the

essential meaning of translation. Here are some of the definitions that had been

composed by some experts:

Catford (1965 : 20) states in his book A Linguistic Theory that “Translation is the replacement of textual material in one language by equivalent

textual material in another language”. It can be said that translation is a way to

find the equivalent in another language of one textual material.

Larson (1984: 10) in Meaning-Based Translation states that “Translation

consists of studying the lexicon, grammatical structure, communication situation

and cultural context of the source language, analyzing it in order to determine its

meaning, then reconstructing the same meaning using the lexicon and

grammatical structure which appropriate in the receptor language and its cultural

context”.

The conclusion is that in doing translation there are three steps that are

followed namely studying source text, analyzing it, and reconstructing the

meaning.

In the Theory and Practice of Translation, Nida and Taber (1974 : 12) states that “Translating consists of reproducing in the receptor language the

(18)

meaning and secondly in terms of style”. From here it can be concluded that in

reproducing or transferring the message, there is an equivalent relationship

between SL and TL.

In the nineteenth century, some scholars such as Savory (McGuire, 1987:

4), defines translation as an ‘art’; others, such as Jacobsen, define it as a ‘craft’;

whilst others, perhaps more sensibly, borrow from the German and describe it as

‘science’.

Newmark (1984: 28) in his book A Textbook of Translation says

“Translation is rendering the meaning of a text into another language in the way

that the author intended the text”. Here, Newmark said that the message and

meaning transferred should be the same with the original author meaning and

message”.

According to Lefevere (McGuire, 1987:2), what is generally known as

translation involves the rendering of a source language (SL) text into the target

language (TL) so as to ensure that (1) the surface meaning of the two will be

approximately similar and (2) the structures of the SL will be preserved as closely

as possible but not so closely that the TL structures will be seriously distorted.

Levy (1967 : 148) implies that “Translation is a process of communication

whose objective is to import the knowledge of the original to the foreign reader.”

While Pinhhuck (1977 : 38) defined translations as “a process of finding a TL

equivalent for an SL utterance”.

Simatupang (1992: 2) in his book Pengantar Teori Terjemahan states “Menerjemah adalah mengalihkan makna yang terdapat dalam bahasa sumber ke

(19)

dengan bentuk-bentuk sewajar mungkin menurut aturan-aturan yang berlaku dalam bahasa sasaran”. Translation tries to transfer the meaning in SL to TL in the form that best fit with the rules of TL.

As the conclusion of translation based on those definitions above, it can be

said that translation is a process of transferring the original message of the original

author into another language by using the exact meaning of words or the

equivalent one. It is not an easy task to do a translation because every language

has their own ways and words to say some terms that might be different with

another language.

2.2 Function of Translation.

As a way to communicate, translation has a function as the way to share

information, stories, experiences and most of all knowledge.

Nida (1981 : 2) states that “Translation means communication because it

has three essential elements to form a process of communication. The three

essential elements are source, message, and receptor, and these elements must be

found in all communication activities”. From the quotation above, translation is a

way to communicate involving two different languages.

Levy (Venutti, 2000: 148) clearly explains about the function of

translation. He states “…Translation is a process of communication: the objective

translating is to impart the knowledge of the original to the foreign reader.”

Duff (1989: 5) states “As a process of communication, translation

functions as the medium ‘across the linguistic and cultural barriers’ in conveying

(20)

that crossing the barrier of different language for delivering the message from SL

to TL. As stated before, that this function of translation is so important in helping

people who want to learn some knowledge from a text in different language that

they can not understand by changing the text into a language that is

understandable for people that use different language. Translation functions as the

medium across linguistic and culture barriers in conveying the message from a

foreign language into a receptor language.

2.3 The Process of Translation.

Nida and Taber (1974: 33) introduce three stages in the process of

translation. This process begins by analyzing ST into grammatical and semantic

structure of the TL, transferring the meaning and at last by reconstructing the

grammatical and semantic structure into the appropriate TL forms in order to

create an equivalent TT.

However, the process of translation based on Nida and Taber’s theory is

too simple and general than the real process. The process of translation is actually

more complicated, difficult and unique. Larson (1984 : 476 – 490) in his book

Meaning-Based Translation A Guide to Cross-Language Equivalence divides the process of translation into eight different steps, they are :

1. Preparation

There are two kinds of preparation. First, there is the preparation which the

translator should have before beginning the translation task, and secondly, there is

(21)

project. The first kind of preparation should have include training in writing, in

linguistics and in translation principles.

During the reading and re-reading of the text, the translator will want to

makes notes. For example, he will note the key terms, and the sections which

seem obscure and will need further research. There may be cultural barriers which

immediately strike him as potential problems. He will want to study more in detail

or deeply on these. As he researches, he should make notes for later use he should.

When he feels acquainted with the text he is ready to begin the analysis.

2. Analysis

As the translator reads through the text, he should note down any lexical

items which seem to be the key words. These will be words which are crucial to

an understanding of the text. One of the first steps in the analysis should be a

careful study of these key words, in order to find a good lexical equivalent in the

receptor language. Often it will be necessary to consult dictionaries and

encyclopedias for more information. The components of meaning which are

crucial and need to be transferred should be identified.

How detailed the analysis will be vary with the difficulty of the text. The

more difficult the text, the more need there will be for a careful re-writing into

semantic structure before any transfer begins. The translator should not become

burdened by making extensive semantic displays. It is a tool to help in his

analysis. Some find it most helpful to simply re-write the text in a near semantic

(22)

3. Transfer

Transfer is a process of going from the semantic structure analysis to the

initial draft of the translation. The transfer takes place in the mind of the

translator. The semantic analysis will have eliminated most of the skewing

between the deep and surface structure of the source text. After this is done the

translator is faced with transferring this meaning into the second language, and

introducing the appropriate receptor language skewing.

In carrying out this process, he will find a lexical equivalent for concepts

of the source language and culture. The translator will decide whether or not the

figurative and rhetorical devices of the source language will be transferred or if

some adjustments will need to be made, he will consider what grammatical forms

to use to communicate the correct meaning. Without an adequate study on the

translation principles the transfer process can be very difficult and the result is

unsatisfied.

4. Initial draft

The translator begins making his initial draft after moving back and forth

from the source to the receptor text. He may need to go back for more background

reading or check again the dictionary. In this process, the translator should work at

paragraph level. He must be sure of what the paragraph communicates, then he

composes the draft naturally, without looking at the SL or even the semantic

rewrite. He should just let it flow naturally and express the meaning clearly.

However, there are number of things which the translator should keep in

mind as he does the initial draft. He should know who will use the translation, and

(23)

the paragraph, and semantic structure analysis. If the number things are

combinated, the initial draft will be accurate and natural.

5. Reworking the initial draft

The reworking of an initial draft should not be undertaken until a larger

section is completed. It is best if the draft has been left untouched for a week or

two. In this way the translator comes with a fresh look at it and is able to be more

objective in his evaluation and reworking of it. The reworking of the initial draft

includes checking for naturalness and for accuracy.

The first thing that the translator will do is to read through the manuscript

of this larger unit which he is checking. In doing this, the translator should be

looking for:

 Wrong grammatical forms or obscure constructions

 Places that seem too wordy

 Wrong order, awkward phrasing

 Places where the connections do not seem right and it does not

flow easily

 Collocation clashes

 Questionable meaning

 Style

The second thing the translator will need to do is to check for accuracy of

meaning. He can only do this by a careful comparison with the source text and the

semantic analysis. Some trouble he may find are: something omitted, something

added, a different meaning, or a zero meaning, that is, the form used just doesn’t

(24)

only at the meaning of the words, but also of the sentences and especially the

relations between the sentences and the paragraphs and larger units.

The third thing the translator will need to check is whether or not the

theme comes through clearly. He should have a look at the draft for a while and

evaluate this. This may be one of the things that will be more easily evaluated.

After the translator himself has done the drafting, he will have it tested.

6. Testing the translation

This step is needed to know whether the translation product had done by

the translator perfectly transferred or not. There are three main reasons in doing

testing translation. They are accurate, clear and natural.

In order to make the translation as accurate, clear and natural as possible,

the translation must involve at least four persons. They are translator, consultant,

tester, and reviewer. The translator will do self-checks by making a

comprehension testing. He asks people to read the translation whether they

understand or not. He also does the naturalness checking by comparing his

translation with the TT. The consultant helps the translation in accuracies and

correcting use of translation principles. He can train the translator in how to do

other kinds of testing. He also encourages the translator throughout the project. A

consultant can often help with difficult exegetical questions. The tester tests the

translation with people whether the ST familiar or not. The reviewer reads through

(25)

7. Polishing

After doing all those steps above, the translator needs to polish the

translation he had done. He needs to know whether he makes an adequate

translation or not.

8. Preparing the Manuscript for the Publisher

In this last step, the translator checks the translation by having it tested

over and over again until he is sure that there is no missing information from the

ST.

Nababan (in Jurnal Linguistik Bahasa) explains 4 scales in testing a

translation product. They are:

1. The content of the source sentence is accurately conveyed into the target

sentence. The translated sentence is clear to the evaluator and no

re-writing is needed.

2. The content of the source sentence is accurately conveyed to the source

sentence. The translated sentence can be clearly understood by the

evaluator, but some rewriting and some change in word order are needed.

3. The content of the source sentence is not accurately conveyed to the target

sentence. There are some problems with the choice of lexical items and

with the relationship between phrase, clause and sentence elements.

4. The source sentence is not translated at all into the target sentence, i.e. it is

(26)

2.4 The Types of Translation.

Nida (Venuti, 2000: 127) states that differences in translation can

generally be accounted for by three basic factors in translating: (1) the nature of

the message, (2) the purpose or purposes of the author and, by proxy, of the

translator, and (3) the type of audience.

Catford (1965: 21-26) divides some broad types or categories of

translation in terms of the extent, levels and ranks of translation.

1. In Terms of the Extent.

The extent type relates to full and partial translation. Catford (1965: 21)

states “In full translation, the entire text is submitted to the translation process that

is every part of the SL text is replaced by RL text material”. It means that all of

the text is translated. In partial translation, some parts of the SL text are left

untranslated: they are simply transferred to and incorporated in the RL text. It

means that not all of the text is translated. There are two reasons why some parts

of SL text can not be translated. The first one is because there are no words in SL

that can be found or translated accurately in TL. As can be seen from this example

: the word “terasi” in Indonesian cannot be translated into English because the word “terasi” is nowhere can be found in English. The second reason will be

because there are some vocabularies in SL that have no equivalence in translation

in TL For example : the word “computer” is translated into “komputer” in

Indonesian. In this example, there is a loan translation i.e. the using of SL’s

element in TL by changing the phonological and morphological structure because

(27)

2. In the Term of the Levels

Catford (1965: 22) states “The levels type relates to total and restricted

translation of language that involved in translation”. This distinction relates to the

levels of language involved in translation. . Total translation means what the most

is usually meant by ‘translation’; that is, translation in which all levels of the ST

are replaced by the TT material. Strictly speaking, ‘total’ translation is a

misleading term, since though total replacement is involved it is not replacement

by equivalents at all levels. Total Translation may best defined as : replacement of

ST grammar and lexis by equivalent TT grammar and lexis with consequential

replacement of SL phonology/graphology by (non-equivalent) TT

phonology/graphology. By restricted translation we mean: replacement of ST

material by equivalent TT material at only one level. That is translation performed

only at the phonological or at the graphological level, or at one of the two levels.

3. In Terms of the Rank.

The rank type relates to the rank of translation in grammatical hierarchy at

which translation equivalence is established. Here, Catford (1965: 25) divides this

type into three distinctions. They are free translation, word-for-word translation

and literal translation. First, free translation is always “unbounded – equivalences

shunt up and down the rank scale, but tend to be at the higher ranks – sometimes

between target units than the sentence”. It reproduces the matter without the

manner, or the content without the form of the original. It is usually a paraphrase

much longer than the original. It is also called as intralingual translation. Second,

word-for-word translation generally means what its say. In this type the words of

(28)

grammatical or lexical difference between them. This type is usually used in case

of translating poems. Third, literal translation lies between these extremes; it may

start, as it were, from a word-for-word translation, but make changes in

conformity with RL grammar; this may make it a group-group or clause-clause

translation. This type is usually used if the structure of SL is different with the

structure of RL. Below is the example of the three distinctions (English –

Indonesian).

SL text : I am going nowhere.

TL text : 1. Aku sedang pergi tidak kemana-mana (Word-for-word translation)

2. Aku takkan pergi ke manapun (Literal translation)

3. Aku akan tetap di sini (Free translation)

Another theory based on Larson (1984 : 15) states that there are two main

kinds of translations.

1. Form-based translations.

Form-based translations attempt to follow the form of the source language

and are known as literal translations. If the two languages are related, the literal

translation can often be understood, since the general grammatical form may be

similar. However, the literal choice of lexical items makes the translation sound

foreign.

2. Meaning-based translation.

Meaning-based translation makes every effort to communicate the

meaning of the source language text in the natural forms of the receptor language.

(29)

Idiomatic translation uses the natural form of the receptor language, both

in the grammatical constructions and in the choice of lexical items. A truly

idiomatic translation does not sound like a translation. It sounds like it is written

originally in the receptor language. The translator’s goal should be to reproduce in

the receptor language a text which communicates the same message as the source

language but use the natural grammatical and lexical choices of the receptor

language, his goal is an idiomatic translation.

Newmark (1995:45), distinguishes several kinds of translation. They are:

1. Word-for-word translation

This is often demonstrated as interlinear translation, with the TT

immediately below the ST words. The ST word-order is preserved and the words

translated singly by their most common meanings, out of context. Cultural words

are translated literally. The main use of word-for-word translation is either to

understand the mechanics of the source language or to construe a difficult text as a

pre-translation process.

2. Literal translation

The ST grammatical constructions are converted to their nearest TT

equivalents but the lexical words are again translated singly, out of context. As a

pre-translation process, this indicates the problems to be solved.

3. Faithful translation

A faithful translation attempts to reproduce the precise contextual meaning

of the original within the constraints of the TT grammatical structures. It

(30)

‘abnormality’ (deviation from ST norms) in the translation. It attempts to be

completely faithful to the intention and the text-realization of the ST writer.

4. Semantic translation

Semantic translation differs from ‘faithful translation’ only as far as it

must take more account of the aesthetic value of the ST, compromising on

‘meaning’ where appropriate so that no assonance, word-play or repetition jars in

the finished version. Further, it may translate less important cultural words by

culturally neutral third or functional terms but not by cultural equivalents and it

may make other small concessions to the readership.

5. Adaptation

This is the ‘freest’ form of translation. It is used mainly for plays

(comedies) and poetry; the themes, characters, plots are usually preserved, the ST

cultures converted to the TT culture and the text rewritten.

6. Free translation

Free translation reproduces the matter without the manner, or the content

without the form of the original. Usually it is a paraphrase much longer than the

original, a so-called ‘intralingual translation’, often prolix and pretentious, and not

translation at all.

7. Idiomatic translation

Idiomatic translation reproduces the ‘message’ of the original but tends to

distort nuances of meaning by preferring colloquialisms and idioms where these

(31)

8. Communicative translation

Communicative translation attempts to render the exact contextual

meaning of the original in such a way that both content and language are readily

acceptable and comprehensible to the readership.

2.5 Equivalence in Translation.

When translating some words in SL into TL, sometimes translator finds it

difficult to find the words in TL that have the same meaning with the words in SL.

This happen because not every word in one language can be translated into

another. As the way to solve it, translator must modify his translation by using

another word in TL that equivalence with the words in SL so the reader of the

translation in TL can understand more what the original author want to tell.

Translator has to have deep knowledge about both language, SL and TL, in order

to find the equivalence words. It is important thing to do to make sure the message

from original author in SL can be delivered and transferred correctly in the

translation using TL.

Nida (Venuti, 2000:133) states that it is not easy to produce a completely

natural translation, especially if the original writing is good literature, precisely

because truly good writing intimately reflects and effectively exploits the total

idiomatic capacities and special genius of the language in which the writing is

done. A translator must therefore not only contend with the special difficulties

resulting from such an effective exploitation of the total resources of the source

language, but also seek to produce something relatively equivalent in the receptor

(32)

Nida (Venuti, 2000 : 134) explains about two types of equivalence in

translation, which are :

a. Formal Equivalence.

Formal equivalence translation basically source-oriented; that is, it is

designed to reveal as much as possible of the form and content of the

original message. In doing so, a formal equivalence attempts to reproduce

several formal elements, including: (1) grammatical units, (2) consistency

in word usage, and (3) meanings in terms of the source context. Nida also

calls this type of translation a ‘gloss translation’, which aims to allow the

reader to understand as much as the ST context as possible. The translator

attempts to reproduce as literally and meaningfully as possible the form

and content of the original. A gloss translation of this type is designed to

permit the reader to identify himself as fully as possible with a person in

the source-language context, and to understands as much s he can of the

costumes, manner of thought, and means of expression.

Nida (Mcguire, 1991 : 26) states that Formal Equivalence focuses attention

on the message itself, in both form and content. In such a translation one is

concern with such correspondences as poetry to poetry, sentence to

sentence, and concept to concept.

b. Dynamic Equivalence.

A Dynamic Equivalence translation may be described as one concerning

which a bilingual and bicultural person can just justifiably say, “That is

just the way we would say it”. In Dynamic Equivalence translation the

(33)

toward the receptor response. One way of defining a Dynamic Equivalence

translation is to describe it as “the closest natural equivalent to the

source-language message.” This type of definition contains three essential items:

(1) equivalent, which points toward the source-language message, (2)

natural, which points toward the receptor language, and (3) closest, which

binds the two orientations together on the basis of the highest degree of

approximation.

2.6 Untranslatability.

Untranslatability is a property of a text or of any utterance, in one

language, for which no equivalent text or utterance can be found in another

language. Contrary to popular belief, words are not either translatable or

untranslatable. They are only words, and these words are more or less hard

translate depending on their nature and the translator’s skills. Quite often, a text or

utterance that is considered to be “untranslatable” is actually a lacuna, or lexical

gap, that is to say that there is no one-to-one equivalence between the word,

expression or turn of phrase in the source language and another word, expression

or turn of phrase in the target language. A translator, however, can resort to a

number of translation procedures to compensate. (www.axistranslation.com)

Catford distinguishes two types of untranslatability, which he terms (1)

linguistics and (2) cultural (McGuire, 1991:32).

1. On the linguistics level, untranslatability occurs when there is no lexical or

(34)

It is called as linguistic untranslatability, because of the failure to find a

TT equivalent is due entirely to differences between the ST and the TT.

2. Cultural untranslatability occurred due to the absence in the ST culture of

(35)

CHAPTER III

PASSIVE VERBS IN ENGLISH AND BAHASA INDONESIA

3.1 Passive Verbs in English.

In English, the subject in sentences with a passive verb does not do

anything, instead something happens to it. The form of English passive verbs

always contain part of the auxiliary be (is, am, are, was, etc) and a past participle

or verb 3.

Ex : The man is taken into custody.

It can be seen that the auxiliary be of is and the past participle of take are

becoming the part of the passive sentences.

However, passive verbs phrases can also be formed with the auxiliary verb

get, called the get-passive.

Ex : It’s all about the man who got left behind in his old days.

It is already said that the form of passive verbs always consist of two parts

which are auxiliary be (is, am, are, was, etc) and past participle or verb 3. So, the

changing of the passive verbs form are based on the tenses because the auxiliary

be will be changed if the tenses in the passive voice is changed.

Here are some examples of passive verbs form based on the tenses.

1. Simple Present Tense.

Jonathan is taught by Kate.

2. Present Continuous Tense.

Jonathan is being taught by Kate.

(36)

Jonathan has been taught by Kate.

4. Simple Past Tense.

Jonathan was taught by Kate.

5. Past Continuous Tense.

Jonathan was being taught by Kate.

6. Past Perfect Tense.

Jonathan had been taught by Kate.

7. Simple Future Tense.

Jonathan will be taught by Kate.

Most of passive voice verbs are easy to identify. However, sometimes

words look like passive verbs, but are actually predicative adjectives describing a

state or quality. For example :

We are delighted with the result.

I ought to be excited.

These participial adjectives function as subject predicatives. They are

usually gradable and can be modified by very (Biber, 2002 : 167).

Passive verbs can occur as either short or long passives. In short passives

(also called agentless passive) the agent is not specified, ex ; Turbofan and

turboprop engine are then discussed in turn. Long passives contain a by-phrase

which, in typical cases, specifies the agent of the action, ex ; The proposal was

approved by the Project Coordinating team (Biber, 2002 : 166).

However, in English there are also some verbs that can’t be changed into

(37)

there are some verbs cannot be passives. Here are some common ones : happen,

occur, become, exist, go, arrive, fall, die.

3.1.1 The Use of Passive Verbs.

Passive verbs are often used in writing, whether in writing business letter

or documents, academic prose or paper, and in constructing article or news etc,

rather than in conversation. In this kind of writing the human actor/agent/subject

is not important. So, the passive voice is useful : it reduces the importance of the

agent noun phrase by putting it in a by-phrase or not mentioning at all. The main

focus of the sentence is the passive verb, not the subject. In writing news, the

using of passive verbs in passive voice is to make the agent less prominent (Biber,

2002 : 168). It is because often the main focus of the news is not the subject but

the event or action that involves a person or institution.

3.2 Passive Verbs in Bahasa Indonesia.

Alwi and friends (2003 : 130) state that “Verba aktif transitif yang berprefiks meng-, baik dalam kombinasinya dengan prefiks lain maupun tidak, dapat diubah menjadi bentuk pasif dengan mengganti prefiks meng- dengan prefiks di-.”

In Bahasa Indonesia, active verbs with prefiks meng- can be changed into passive form by changing the prefiks meng- into prefiks di-.

Examples :

1. Tuti memakai baju baru malam ini.

Tuti is wearing a new dress tonight. 2. Baju baru dipakai oleh Tuti malam ini.

(38)

Alwi and friends (2003 : 130) also state that “Verba yang berprefiks ter- pada umumnya erat berkaitan dengan verba yang berprefiks di-. Pembentukan dengan ter- juga produktif karena pada umumnya verba transitif yang berprefiks meng- bisa diubah menjadi verba dengan ter-.

Usually, active verb with prefiks meng- can also be changed into passive form by changing prefiks meng- with prefiks ter-.

Examples :

membawa dibawa terbawa

1. Ayah membawa koran itu ke kantor tadi pagi.

Father brought that newspaper to his office this morning. 2. Koran itu dibawa oleh ayah ke kantor tadi pagi.

That newspaper was brought by father to his office this morning. 3. Koran itu terbawa oleh ayah ke kantor tadi pagi.

That newspaper was brought by father to his office this morning.

Ada tiga jenis kata kerja pasif. Kata kerja pasif diri pertama, kedua dan ketiga. Kata kerja pasif diri pertama ialah kata kerja pasif yang berimbuhan ku-. Contohnya: kuangkat, kuatasi, kuberikan, kupercepat, kupelajari, dan kupersilakan. Kata kerja pasif diri kedua ialah yang berimbuhan ka-. Contohnya: kauangkat, kauatasi, kauberikan, kaupercepat, kaupelajari, dan kaupersilakan. Kata kerja pasif diri ketiga ialah yang berimbuhan di-. Contohnya: diangkat, diatasi, diberikan, dipercepat, dipelajari, dan dipersilakan.

(www.tatabahasabm.tripod.com)

There are three types of passive verbs in Bahasa Indonesia, they are first,

second, and third pronoun passive verb. First pronoun passive verb is using

prefiks ku-. Second pronoun passive verb is using prefiks ka-. And the third

(39)

CHAPTER IV

METHODOLOGY OF RESEARCH

4.1 Research Method.

In this analysis the library research method is used. As quoted from

Nawawi (1993:30) “Penelitian kepustakaan dilakukan dengan cara menghimpun data dari berbagai literature baik di perpustakaan maupun tempat-tempat lain”.

Library research is done by collecting the data from any kinds of source in the

library or any other places.

All the information about passive verbs from linguistic books, internet,

dictionary and any other source is used.

4.2 Data Collecting Method.

The source of the data is the novel Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows

and its translation. The original novel consists of 36 chapters and 607 pages while

its translation also consists of 36 chapters and 999 pages. In collecting the data

written method is used. The data are sentences that contain passive verbs in the

novel and its translation. All the data that can be collected are 712 data of passive

verbs. Purposive sampling method is used in taking the sample for the data

analysis of passive verbs.

(40)

Purposive sampling is done by taking subject not based on strata, random

or regional but based on several purposes and reasons as the limited of time, effort

and budget for taking the bigger, wider and more sample.

4.3 Data Analysis Method.

In the analysis, a descriptive method is used. As quoted from Nawawi (1993:63): “Metode deskriptif dapat diartikan sebagai prosedur pemecahan masalah yang diselidiki dengan menggambarkan / melukiskan keadaan subyek / obyek penelitian (seseorang, lembaga, masyarakat, dll) pada saat sekarang berdasarkan fakta-fakta yang tampak atau sebagaimana adanya”.

Descriptive method is a way in solving a problem by describing the facts

of subject/object of the research as the way they are.

Followings are the procedure used in analyzing. They are:

1. Reading the original novel Harry Potter and The Deathly Hallows by J.K. Rowling.

2. Reading the translation product of the original novel done by Listiana

Srisanti

3. The next step is identifying the passive verbs data in ST, underline it

and then find out the translation in the translation product.

4. After all the data have been collected, then classifying and analysing

the data and its translation.

5. Calculating the data to find the most dominant equivalence by using

Butler’s Educational Statistic (1985) in percentage :

Passive verbs equivalence = n x 100% (analyzed in percentage)

∑ n

(41)

∑ n = total number of passive verbs translated

(42)

CHAPTER V

ANALYSIS OF THE EQUIVALENCE OF PASSIVE VERBS IN J.K. ROWLING’S “HARRY POTTER AND THE DEATHLY HALLOWS” AND ITS TRANSLATION INTO “HARRY POTTER DAN RELIKUI KEMATIAN”

BY LISTIANA SRISANTI

5.1 Data Findings.

The data of passive verbs are collected from the novel Harry Potter and

The Deathly Hallows and its translation Harry Potter dan Relikui Kematian. The total of passive verbs data that found is 712. From all the data there are 4 types of

passive verb that can be found in the ST.

Types of Passive Verb SUM

Passive verbs based on tenses 502

Passive verbs without to be 149

Passive verbs with auxiliary verb 56

Passive verbs with get form 5

712

5.2 Formal Equivalence.

The translation of passive verbs below are exactly like the one in the

dictionary. Here I use the English – Indonesian dictionary by Shadily. Because

formal equivalence attempts to retain the language forms of the original as much

(43)

5.2.1 Formal Equivalence of Passive Verbs Based on Tenses.

1. ST : The lane was bordered on the left by wild, low-growing brambles, on the

right by a high, neatly manicured hedge. (Page 9)

TT : Jalan kecil itu tumbuh di sebelah kirinya dibatasi semak rendah yang tumbuh liar, di sebelah kanannya oleh pagar tanaman tinggi yang

terpangkas rapi. (Page 11)

Passive verb was bordered is translated into dibatasi.

2. ST : As their eyes grew accustomed to the lack of light, they were drawn

upward to the strangest feature of the scene. (Page 10)

TT : Setelah mata mereka menyesuaikan diri dengan keadaan cahaya,

pandangan mata mereka tertarik ke atas, ke pemandangan yang paling aneh. (Page 13)

Passive verb were drawn is translated into tertarik.

3. ST : Apparently fearful that they themselves would be scorched by the

ferocity of the gaze. (Page 11)

TT : Rupanya takut mereka akan terbakar oleh kegarangan pandangan itu.

(Page 14)

Passive verb be scorched is translated into terbakar.

4. ST : “The Order is eschewing any of transport that is regulated by the

Ministry.” (Page 13)

TT : “Orde menghindari segala bentuk transportasi yang diatur oleh Kementrian.” (Page 18)

(44)

5. ST : “I have been careless, and so have been thwarted by luck and chance.”

(Page 13)

TT :“Selama ini aku ceroboh, jadi, aku digagalkan oleh keberuntungan dan

kesempatan.” (Page 18)

Passive verb have been thwarted is translated into digagalkan.

6. ST : His school and Quidditch robes, cauldron, parchment, quills, and most of

his textbook were piled in a corner. (Page 20)

TT : Jubah sekolah dan jubah Quidditchnya, kuali, perkamen, pena-bulu, dan

sebagian besar buku pelajarannya ditumpuk di sudut. (Page 30) Passive verb were piled is translated into ditumpuk.

7. ST : Dumbledore’s triumph, and its consequences for the wizarding world, are

considered a turning point in magical history. (Page 24)

TT : Kemenangan Dumbledore dan konsekuensinya untuk dunia sihir,

dianggap titik balik dalam sejarah sihir. (Page 36) Passive verb are considered is translated into dianggap.

8. ST : Her nine-hundred page book was completed a mere four weeks after

Dumbledore’s mysterious death in June. (Page 26)

TT : Bukunya yang setebal sembilan ratus halaman diselesaikannya hanya

empat minggu setelah kematian misterius Dumbledore bulan Juni lalu.

(Page 40)

Passive verb was completed is translated into diselesaikannya.

9. ST : ”You are being offered serious protection, the best there is.” (Page 33)

TT : “Kalian ditawari perlindungan serius, yang paling baik di antara yang

(45)

Passive verb being offered is translated into ditawari.

10. ST : “We think the Ministry has been infiltrated.” (Page 34)

TT : “Kami berpendapat Kementrian telah disusupi.” (Page 53)

Passive verb been infiltrated is translated into disusupi.

11. ST : Aunt Petunia, whose face had been buried in her handkerchief, looked

around at the sound. (Page 40)

TT : Bibi Petunia yang wajahnya terbenam dalam saputangannya, menoleh

mendengar suara itu. (Page 63)

Passive verb been buried is translated into terbenam.

12. ST : Long ago, when he had been left alone while the Dursley went out to

enjoy themselves, the hours of solitude had been a rare treat. (Page 42)

TT : Dulu, kalau dia ditinggalkan sendirian selama keluarga Dursley

bersenang-senang, saat-saat sendirian seperti ini adalah saat-saat menyenangkan yang jarang terjadi. (Page 66)

Passive verb been left is translated into ditinggalkan.

13. ST : “Yeah thirteen of us against one bloke who’s not allowed to magic;

we’ve got no chance,” said Fred. (Page 47)

TT : “Yeah, kami bertiga belas lawan satu cowok yang tak diizinkan

menggunakan sihir; kami tak punya kesempatan,” kata Fred. (Page 73) Passive verb is not allowed is translated into tak diizinkan.

14. ST : Hermione had already been helped up on to a great, black Thestral by

Kingsley. (Page 50)

TT : Hermione sudah dibantu Kingsley naik ke punggung Thestral besar

(46)

Passive verb been helped is translated into dibantu.

15. ST : And then, out of nowhere, out of nothing, they were surrounded. (Page

51)

TT : Dan kemudian, mendadak saja, mereka sudah dikepung. (Page 81) Passive verb were surrounded is translated into dikepung.

16. ST : One of his fellows slowed up to save him, but they and the airborne wall

were swallowed by darkness as Hagrid leaned low over the handlebars and

sped up. (Page 53)

TT : Salah satu temannya melambatkan terbangnya untuk menyelamatkannya, namun mereka dan tembok melayang itu ditelan kegelapan ketika Hagrid

membungkuk di atas pegangan motor dan mempercepat lajunya. (Page 83) Passive verb were swallowed is translated into ditelan.

17. ST : His missing tooth had been regrown. (Page 58)

TT : Giginya yang tanggal sudah ditumbuhkan kembali. (Page 92) Passive verb been regrown is translated into ditumbuhkan kembali.

18. ST : “Death Eaters, loads of them – we were chased – “ (Page 59)

TT : “Pelahap Maut, banyak sekali – kami diburu –“ (Page 93) Passive verb were chased is translated into diburu.

19. ST : “Hagrid said you were ambushed.” (Page 60)

TT : “Hagrid mengatakan kalian disergap.” (Page 94)

Passive verb were ambushed is translated into disergap. 20. ST : “We’ve been betrayed.” (Page 63)

TT : “Kita telah dikhianati.” (Page 99)

(47)

21. ST : “We must decide ‘ow you will be disguised, ‘Arry,” said Fleur, once

everyone had pudding. (Page 80)

TT : “Kita harus memutuskan bagaimana kau harus disamarkan, ‘Arry,” kata

Fleur, setelah semua memakan puding mereka. (Page 128) Passive verb be disguised is translated into disamarkan.

22. ST : “That was decided months ago.” (Page 84)

TT : “Itu sudah diputuskan berbulan-bulan lalu.” (Page 134) Passive verb was decided is translated into diputuskan.

23. ST : The yard had been swept. (Page 92)

TT : Halaman telah disapu. (Page 148)

Passive verb been swept is translated into disapu. 24. ST : The nearby garden had been pruned. (Page 92)

TT : Kebun di sebelahnya telah dipangkas. (Page 148)

Passive verb been pruned is translated into dipangkas.

25. ST : Ron’s splutter was interrupted by the opening of a door on the first floor

landing. (Page 98)

TT : Jawaban gugup Ron terpotong oleh terbukanya pintu di bordes pertama.

(Page 159)

Passive verb was interrupted is translated into terpotong.

26. ST : “That law was created to stop wizards passing on Dark artifacts,” said

Hermione. (Page 105)

TT : “Undang-Undang itu dibuat untuk mencegah penyihir mewariskan

(48)

27. ST : Outside in the garden, over the dinner tables, the three objects Srimgeour

had given them were passed from hand to hand. (Page 111)

TT : Di luar di kebun, di sekeliling meja makan, ketiga benda yang diberikan

Scrimgeour kepada mereka diedarkan dari tangan ke tangan. (Page 181) Passive verb were passed is translated into diedarkan.

28. ST : Hagrid, who was invited to the wedding the following day, but was too

far too bulky to sleep in the overstretched Burrow, left to set up a tent for

himself in a neighbouring field. (Page 111)

TT : Hagrid, yang diundang ke pernikahan hari berikutnya, tetapi terlalu besar sosoknya untuk tidur di dalam the Burrow yang sudah penuh sesak,

pergi untuk mendirikan tenda baginya sendiri di padang terbuka tak jauh dari situ. (Page 181)

Passive verb was invited is translated into diundang.

29. ST : The supporting poles were entwined with white and gold flowers. (Page

115)

TT : Tiang-tiang penyangga dililit bunga-bunga putih dan keemasan. (Page 188)

Passive verb were entwined is translated into dililit.

30. ST : By the time they had reached the other side of the marquee, most of the

tables were occupied. (Page 122)

TT : Saat mereka tiba di sisi lain tenda, sebagian besar meja sudah terisi.

(Page 200)

Passive verb were occupied is translated into terisi.

(49)

TT : “Squibs biasanya dikirim ke sekolah-sekolah Muggle.” (Page 211) Passive verb were shipped is translated into dikirim.

32. ST : “They were encouraged to integrate into the Muggle community.” (Page

130)

TT : “Mereka didorong untuk berintegrasi ke dalam komunitas Muggle.”

(Page 211)

Passive verb were encouraged is translated into didorong. 33. ST : A cry that was echoed on all sides. (Page 134)

TT : Seruan yang digemakan di segala jurusan. (Page 219) Passive verb was echoed is translated into digemakan.

34. ST : “Well, as long as it doesn’t get them into trouble, though they might’ve

been arrested already.” (Page 137)

TT : “Yah, asal tidak membuat mereka dalam bahaya, meskipun mereka

mungkin malah sudah ditangkap.” (Page 224) Passive verb been arrested is translated into ditangkap.

35. ST : “Don’t you think they might wonder what’s happened if they wake up

and find themselves in a place that looks like it’s just been bombed?”

(Page 139)

TT : “Tidakkah kau berpikir mereka mungkin bertanya-tanya apa yang telah terjadi jika mereka terbangun dan ternyata berada di tempat yang

(50)

36. ST : Once the café was restored to its previous condition, they heaved the

Death Eaters back into their booth and propped them up facing each other.

(Page 140)

TT : Setelah kafe dikembalikan ke keadaannya semula, mereka mengangkat kedua Pelahap Maut ke meja mereka dan mendudukkannya berhadapan.

(Page 228)

Passive verb was restored is translated into dikembalikan.

37. ST : Checking every few yards that they were not being observed. (Page 141)

TT : Mengecek setiap beberapa meter bahwa mereka tidak diawasi. (Page 230)

Passive verb being observed is translated into diawasi.

38. ST : Evidently Sirius’s room had been searched too. (Page 148)

TT : Kentara sekali kamar Sirius juga sudah digeledah. (Page 242)

Passive verb been searched is translated into digeledah.

39. ST : Had it simply been lost in the sixteen years that had elapsed since it had

been written? (Page 151)

TT : Apakah memang hilang dalam rentang waktu enam belas tahun sejak

surat itu ditulis? (Page 246)

Passive verb been written is translated into ditulis.

40. ST : The Black family crest was painstakingly painted over the bed, along

with its motto, Toujurs Pur. (Page 155)

TT : Lambang keluarga Black dengan cermat dilukis di atas tempat tidur,

(51)

41. ST : “Kreacher was told to come home, so Kreacher came home.” (Page 161)

TT : “Kreacher disuruh pulang, maka Kreacher pulang.” (Page 263) Passive verb was told is translated into disuruh.

42. ST : “Wizarding wills are examined by the Ministry, remember?” (Page 166)

TT : “Surat wasiat para penyihir diperiksa oleh Kementrian, ingat?” (Page

271)

Passive verb are examined is translated into diperiksa.

43. ST : “He has been replaced by Pius Thicknese, who is under the Imperius

Curse.” (Page 171)

TT : “Dia digantikan oleh Pius Thicknese, yang di bawah Kutukan Imperius.”

(Page 278)

Passive verb been replaced is translated into digantikan.

44. ST : “Muggle-borns are being rounded up as we speak.” (Page 172)

TT : “Para kelahiran-Muggle sedang ditangkapi sementara kita bicara ini.”

(Page 280)

Passive verb being rounded up is translated into ditangkapi. 45. ST : “That was announced yesterday.” (Page 173)

TT : “Itu diumumkan kemarin.” (Page 281)

Passive verb was announced is translated into diumumkan.

46. ST : The tiny number of people who henceforth knew of Ariana’s existence

could be counted upon to keep the secret. (Page 179)

TT : Sejumlah kecil orang yang sampai sejauh itu mengetahui keberadaan

(52)

47. ST : “Severus Snape, long-standing Potions master at Hogwarts School of

Witchcraft and Wizardry, was today appointed Headmaster in the most

important of several staffing changes at the ancient school.” (Page 186)

TT : “Severus Snape, yang sudah lama menjabat sebagai guru Ramuan di Sekolah Sihir Hogwarts, hari ini diangkat sebagai kepala sekolah, dalam

perubahan paling penting beberapa staf di sekolah yang sudah lama berdiri ini.” (Page 302)

Passive verb was appointed is translated into ditunjuk.

48. ST : They had tailed Ministry workers on their way in, eavesdropped on their

conversations and learned by careful observations which of them could be

relied upon to appear, alone, at the same time everyday. (Page 190)

TT : Mereka telah membuntuti pegawai-pegawai Kementrian yang akan

masuk, mencuri dengar percakapan mereka dan tahu, dari pengamatan yang teliti, siapa di antara mereka yang bisa diandalkan untuk muncul, sendirian, pada saat yang sama setiap hari. (Page 308)

Passive verb be relied is translated into diandalkan.

49. ST : After the usual brief spell of darkness and near suffocation, Harry found

himself in the tiny allaeyway where the first phrase of their plan was

scheduled to take place. (Page 194)

TT : Setelah sesaat dalam kegelapan dan mengalami sesak napas yang biasa,

Harry mendapati dirinya berada di jalan kecil, tempat pertama rencana mereka dijadwalkan akan dilaksanakan. (Page 316)

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...