IN TEACHING READING OF NARRATIVE TEXT(A Quasi-Experimental Study at SMPN I Pakuhaji)
Presented to the Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training
in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of S.Pd in English Language Education
AGUNG SDAYU NIM. 109014000163
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA
IN TEACHING READING OF NARRATIVE TEXT(A Quasi-Experimental Study at SMPN I Pakuhaji)
AGUNG SDAYU NIM. 109014000163
THE DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH EDUCATION THE FACULTY OF TARBIYA AND TEACHERS’ TRAINING
SYARIF HIDAYATULLAH STATE ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY JAKARTA
certifies that the “Skripsi” scientific paper entitled, “The Effectiveness of Using Teams Games Tournaments in Teaching Reading of Narrative Text (A Quasi-Experimental Study at SMPN I Pakuhaji)” written by Agung Sdayu,
student’s registration number: 109014000163, was examined by committee on Tuesday 30th of September 2014, and was declared to have passed and have fulfilled one of the requirements for the degree of Strata 1 (S1) in English language Education at the Department of English Education.
iv Saya yang bertanda tangan di bawah ini,
Nama : Agung Sdayu
Tempat / Tgl. Lahir : Jakarta, 27 Maret1988
NIM : 109014000163
Jurusan / Prodi : Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris
Judul Skripsi : “THE EFFECTIVENESS OF USING TEAMS GAMES TOURNAMENTS (TGT) IN TEACHING READING OF
NARRATIVE TEXT” (A Quasi-Experimental Study at
SMPN I Pakuhaji)
Dosen Pembimbing : 1.Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum 2.Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum
dengan ini menyatakan bahwa skripsi yang saya buat benar-benar hasil karya sendiri dan saya bertanggung jawab secara akademis atas apa yang saya tulis.
Pernyataan ini dibuat sebagai salah satu syarat Ujian Munaqasah.
Second Year Students of SMPN I Pakuhaji)”. Skripsi, English Education Department, Faculty of Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta, 2014
Advisor I : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum
Advisor II : Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum
Keyword : Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) Technique, Reading, Narrative Text
The objective of the research was to see the effectiveness Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique in teaching reading of narrative text at the second year students of SMPN I Pakuhaji and also to help the English teachers create interactive activities for students while learning reading of narrative text.
The method which applied in this research was quasi-experimental research. There were two classes, they were experimental class and controlled class. The experimental class was taught by using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique while the controlled class was taught without using of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique. Furthermore, this research was conducted through the following procedures: giving the pre-test, applying treatments, giving post-test.
The result of the research proved that Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique is effective to be used in learning reading of narrative text. According to
calculation, it can be seen that the experimental class’ mean of gain score is 9.0, and the controlled class’s mean of gain score is 5.13. Moreover, based on the result of analysis data, the value of ttable in the degree of significance of 1% was
2.375. Then the value of t0 was 38.7. Therefore, it can be inferred that Teams
Second Year Students of SMPN I Pakuhaji)”. Skripsi, Jurusan Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris, Fakultas Ilmu Tarbiyah dan Keguruan, Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 20014.
Pembimbing I : Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M.Hum Pembimbing II : Zaharil Anasy, M.Hum
Kata Kunci : Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) Technique, Membaca, Teks Naratif
Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk melihat efektifitas penggunaan teknik Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) dalam pengajaran teks naratif di kelas VIII SMPN I Pakuhaji dan juga untuk membantu guru-guru dalam membuat kegiatan-kegiatan yang interaktif bagi siswa dalam belajar membaca teks naratif.
Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode penelitian eksperimen semu. Ada dua kelas yaitu kelas eksperimen dan kelas control. kelas eksperimen diajarkan menggunakan teknik Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) sementara kelas kontrol diajarkan tanpa menggunakan teknik Teams Games Tournaments (TGT). Kemudian, penelitian ini dilaksanakan melalui langkah-langkah berikut: pemberian pre-test, pelaksanaan tindakan penelitian, dan pemberian post-test.
Hasil dari penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa teknik Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) memiliki efektifitas untuk digunakan dalam belajar teks naratif. Berdasarkan perhitungan, dapat dilihat bahwa nilai rata-rata dari nilai perolehan pada kelas experimen adalah 9.0, dan nilai rata-rata dari nilai perolehan kelas kontrol adalah 5,13. Selain itu, berdasarkan pada hasil analisis data t-hitung (t0) adalah sebesar 38,7 dan t-tabel (ttable) pada taraf signifikansi 1% adalah
Praised be to Allah, Lord of the world who has blessed the writer in
completing this „skripsi’ entitled The Effectiveness of Using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in Teaching Reading of Narrative Text (An
Quasi-Experimental Study at SMPN I Pakuhaji. Peace and Blessing be upon the Prophet
Muhammad SAW, his family, his companion, and his followers.
This “skripsi” is presented to the English Education Departement, the
faculty of Tarbiya and Teacher’s Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of
S.Pd (Bachelor of Art) in English Language Education. The writer realized that without support and motivation from people around him, he could not finish this
„skripsi.’ Therefore, he would like to give his deepest appreciation to the writer’s parents, Kastari and Sumiati, and also his sister, Gracia Imaniar, who have given the greatest love, prayer, moral, and financial support to him and also he would like to give his deepest appreciation to:
1. Nurlena Rifa’i, M.A., Ph.D, the Dean of Faculty Tarbiya and Teachers’ Training Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.
2. Drs. Syauki, M.Pd., the Head of English Education Departement.
3. Nida Husna, M.Pd., MA TESOL., as the writes’ academic advisor,
without her guidence and her advices the writer could not become mature person like now on.
4. Ismalianing Eviyuliwati, M. Hum., as an advisor, for her time, valuable
guidance, help, correction, suggestion, and kindness during completing
5. Zaharil Anasy, M. Hum., as the secretary of English Eduaction
viii Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta.
7. H. Firmansyah, S.Pd. M.Pd, the Headmaster of SMPN I Pakuhaji for giving permission to the writer to do observation and research.
8. Siti Nurhayati, S.Pd, as the English Teacher at SMPN I Pakuhaji.
9. All teachers and students at SMPN I Pakuhaji who involved in this study. 10. His beloved best friends of English Education Department Class D for
academic year 2009 who have always been in the writer side in the facing all the laughter and tears during his study.
The writer realized that this „skripsi’ is far from being perfect. It is a pleasure for him to receive some suggestion and criticizes from the reader for valuable improvement.
Jakarta, September 2014
TITLE……….. ... i
APPROVAL ... ii
ENDORSEMENT SHEET ... iii
CERTIFICATION OF ORIGINALITY ... iv
ABSTRACT ... v
ABSTRAK ... vi
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... ix
LIST OF TABLES ... xii
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xiii
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ... 1
B. Identification of the Problem ... 4
C. Limitation of the Problem ... 4
D. Formulation of the Problem ... 4
E. Objective of the Study ... 4
F. Significance of the Study ... 4
CHAPTER II LITERATURE REVIEW A. The General Concept of Cooperative Learning ... 6
1. Definition of Cooperative Learning ... 6
2. Characteristic of Cooperative Learning ... 7
3. Benefits of Cooperative Learning ... 8
B. The General Concept of Narrative Text ... 9
1. Definition of Narrative Text ... 9
6. Elements of Narrative Text ... 13
C. The General Concept of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)... 14
1. The Understanding of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 14
2. The Principles of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 15
3. The Procedures of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 15
4. The Advantages of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 16
5. The Disadvantages of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 17
6. Teaching Narrative Text Using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) ... 17
D. Relevant Studies ... 17
E. Framework Thinking ... 19
F. Hypotheses ... 21
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Place and Time ... 22
B. Method of the Study ... 22
C. Population and Sample ... 23
D. Instrument of the Study ... 24
E. Procedures of the Study ... 25
F. Techniques of Data Collection ……….. 26
1. Pre-test ... 26
CHAPTER IV RESEARCH FINDINGS
A. Description of the Data... 30
1. The Data of the Controlled Class ... 30
2. The Data of the Experimental Class ... 35
B. Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing ... 33
1. Analysis of Pre-test and Post-test ... 33
2. Data Analysis ... 37
3. Hypothesis Testing ... 38
C. Data Interpretation ... 39
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION A. Conclusion ... 42
B. Suggestion ... 42
BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 44
Table 3.1 Validity Test Table ... 25 Table 4.1 Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the Controlled Class ... 30 Table 4.2 Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the Experimental Class ... 32 Table 4.3 Normality of Pre-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Test ... 34 Table 4.4 Normality of Pre-test Using Lilliefors ... 34 Table 4.5 Normality of Post-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov
Appendix 1: Validity Test ... 46
Appendix 2: Lesson Planning of Experimental Class (1st and 2nd meeting) ... 48
Appendix 3: Lesson Planning of Experimental Class (3th and 4th meeting) ... 53
Appendix 4: Lesson Planning of Controlled Class (1st and 2nd meeting) ... 58
Appendix 5: Lesson Planning of Controlled Class (3th and 4th meeting) ... 64
Appendix 6: Students Work Sheet ... 70
Appendix 7: Students Work Sheet ... 71
Appendix 8: Test of Pre-test and Post-test ... 72
Appendix 9: Answer Key ... 76
Appendix 10: Questions of the Tournaments ... 77
This chapter consists of the explanation about background of the study, identification of the problem, limitation of the problem, formulation of the problem, objective of the study, and significance of the study.
Background of the Study
In Indonesia English is taught in some level of education. English subject is taught since the students in the junior high school until they are in the college, English is taught with different objectives and teaching techniques in some education levels. However, the field in teaching English is not far away from four main language skills. The four main language skills should be mastered by the students in learning English. The four language skills are listening, speaking, reading and writing.
Reading is one of main language skills. It is taught in teaching English beside listening, speaking, and writing. Reading skill has a big role for the students to get some information from English text in order to increase their knowledge. Reading is receptive skill. As Jeremy Harmer said that “Receptive skill work, then, should involve students in reading or listening where they are
able to process the language sufficiently at least to extract the meaning”.1
Through Reading students can increase their competence which is related to the target
language. Students also can improve their fluency in other skill like speaking. Hence, reading is taught in the second grade of junior high school with some goals that have been created by the government. Based on the curriculum 2013, there are some texts that taught in the second grade junior high school one of those texts is narrative text. Students of second grade junior high school should understand social function, text structure, and the elements of the narrative text in fable, based on the context function.
However, teaching English text at second grade junior high school is not easy. In fact, based on the interview with the students and the English teacher of SMPN I Pakuhaji on February 24th 2014, some students face difficulties to achieve the goal in learning reading materials, in the learning process they like to read the text loudly but they do not understand the messages or information of the text. And also, it is caused of lack vocabularies they had. Also, some of the students are de-motivated when they read the materials.
To solve the problems above, the teacher should find strategies to improve
students’ interest and motivation in reading narrative text to overcome this
problem. English teachers are expected to find appropriate technique to make students understand the narrative text and moreover, enjoy reading.
Based on the explanation above, this research is focused on finding an alternative technique in teaching reading of narrative text, it is expected can makes students enjoy in learning and make them confident to show their English ability. And then, the alternative technique is also expected can encourage
students’ motivation in teaching and learning process. Moreover, the students feel fun in the classroom while teaching and learning process.
As a professional worker, the teacher is expected to be able to motivate the students through certain ways. By using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT), the teacher probably can motivate the students to understand narrative text. Because by Teams Games Tournaments (TGT), the students can work together with their friends and they have variation in their learning style in the classroom. So, the teacher hopes that students will enjoy their learning activities. As Roy Killen said
that “TGT is suited to the same types of subject matter and learning outcomes as
STAD. It requires a little more than STAD, but can be very motivating for
Based on the Roy Killen statement it can be said that TGT can
motivates the learners in teaching and learning process.
There are some methods of teaching in teaching and learning English, one of them is Cooperative Learning. Based on Wendy Jollife “Cooperative learning
requires pupils work together in small groups to support each other to improve their own learning and that of others”.3 It means in cooperative learning students study together and solve problems together, students have a sense of responsibility to themselves and also to their friends in teaching and learning process to accomplish the goals. In cooperative learning individuals look for the outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all group members. Cooperative Learning has many benefits which are related to students, according to Carolyn
Kessler “Cooperative Learning classes are often more relaxed and enjoyable than
traditional classes. This creates a positive learning environment, with more students attentive to assigned tasks. As a result, academic achievement increases for all students”.4
Cooperative Learning has some general or variation methods. As Donald
R. Cruickshank, Deborah Bainer Jenkins, and Kim K. Metcalf stated ”Some
variations on the theme of Cooperative Learning: Students Teams-Achievement Divisions (STAD), Teams Games Tournaments (TGT), Team Accelerated Instruction (TAI), Jigsaw, and Cooperative Integrated Reading and Composition
In this research Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) will be used.
Furthermore, Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique originally was developed by David DeVries and Keith Edward. According to Robert E. Slavin
“Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) originally developed by David DeVries and Keith Edward, was the first of the John Hopkins Cooperative Learning methods. It uses the same teacher presentations and team work as in STAD, but replaces the quizzes with weekly tournaments, in which students play academic games with members of the teams to contribute points to their team score.6
Based on the explanation above, this research took a title as “The Effectiveness of Using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in Teaching Reading
Wendy Jolliffe, Cooperative Learning in the Classroom, (London: Paul Chapman Publishing, 2007), p. 3.
Carolyn Kessler, Cooperative Language Learning, A Teachers’ Resource Book, (London: Prentice-Hall, 1992), p. 3.
Donald R. Cruickshank, Deborah Bainer Jenskins, Kim K. Metcalf, The Art of Teaching 4th Edition, (Boston: The McGraw-Hill, 2006), p, 238.
of Narrative Text (A Quasi-Experimental Study at second grade of SMPN I Pakuhaji)
Identification of the Problem
Based on background of the study above, the problems could be identified as follow:
1. Some students of SMPN I Pakuhaji face difficulties to achieve the goal in learning reading material.
2. Some students of SMPN I Pakuhaji face the difficulties to understand
the message or information of the narrative text because there are many long sentences and lack of vocabulary.
Limitation of the Problem
Based on the explanation of the problems above, the writer limits the study on the Effectiveness of Using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in Teaching Reading of Narrative Text in Second Grade of Junior High School in SMPN I Pakuaji.
Formulation of the Problem
Based on the explanation above, the research problem is formulated as: “Is
Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) effective to use in Teaching Reading of Narrative Text?
Objective of the Study
Significance of the Study
This research is expected to give some benefits for people in teaching and learning process such as teachers and students. For the students, they are expected to be more excited in learning English. They feel easier in reading English text,
and they can explore their ability. And for the teachers, they can be more creative in teaching English by exploiting Cooperative Learning Method so that good atmosphere can be felt by the students. Further, this research is expected to be useful for other researchers who conduct the research on teaching reading
This chapter provides some theories related to the study. The theories focused on cooperative learning, narrative text, and teams games tournaments. This chapter also provided the relevant studies, framework of thinking, and research hypotheses.
The General Concept of Cooperative Learning
Definition of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning is the term used to describe instructional procedures whereby learners work together in small groups and are rewarded for their collective accomplishments.1 In cooperative learning students learn together in the groups share the material which taught in order to achieve the goals of teaching and learning process. Roy Killen said that “Cooperative learning is an
instructional technique in which learners work together in small groups to help one other achieve a common learning goal”.2 It means in cooperative situations, individuals seek outcomes that are beneficial to themselves and beneficial to all other group members.
Cooperative learning enhances students’ enthusiasm for learning in order to get academic success. Slavin, one of the founders of cooperative learning, believes that the group focus of cooperative learning can changes the norm of youth culture and make it more acceptable to excel in academic learning tasks.3
In addition, cooperative learning encouraged the students to work together
and responsible for all comprehension of the groups’ members. According to Donald R. Cruickshank, Deborah Bainer Jenkins, and Kim K. Metcalf, they stated that:
Donald R. Cruickshank, Deborah Bainer Jenskins, Kim K. Metcalf, op. cit., p, 238. 2
Roy Killen, Effective Teaching Strategies 4th Edition, (South Melbourne: Cengage Learning, 2007), p, 181.
Groups must be heterogeneous in terms gender, academic ability,
opportunity to learn, since “talent” is about equally distributed to each group. Finally, heterogeneity is fostered because students with lower abilities are more likely to improve their achievement in mixed group than in homogeneous groups.4
From the statements above, it can be said that members of groups in Cooperative Learning method consist of various background ability. It conducted to make the students feel better and accept the others. Moreover, students with lower abilities will improve their achievement because they will learn with the students of higher abilities in the same group.
Characteristic of Cooperative Learning
Cooperative learning has some characteristics. According to Carolyn Kessler the characteristics of Cooperative Learning are:
First, Positive Independence. Positive independence occurs when the gains for one individual are associated with gains for others: that is, when one student achieves, others benefit, too. Second, Team Formation. Positive independence implies the grouping has occurred, either by assignment or by change. Students can group
themselves: “leaders” can take turns selecting teammates: or
teachers can assign students to teams. Informal or spontaneous grouping is less desirable in many situations than formal or planned grouping methods. Four types team formation: heterogeneous, random, interest, and homogeneous/heterogeneous language ability. Third, Accountability. Research shows that both individual and group accountability is important for achievement in Cooperative Learning setting, and most scholars (e.g., Slavin, 1990) consider this to be a defining characteristic of Cooperative Learning. Methods which use only a group grade or a group product without making each member accountable do not consistently produce achieving gains (Slavin, 1983b). Students may be made individually accountable by signing each student a grade
on his or her own portion of the team project or by the rule that the group may not go on to the next activity until all the team members finish the task. A primary way to ensure accountability is through testing. Forth, Social Skills. Johnson et al, (1986) include teaching social skills as a defining characteristic of Cooperative Learning. Social skills teaching, however, are not always an element in some of the most widely researched Cooperative Learning procedures, such as Students Teams Achievements Divisions (STAD) discussed in Slavin (1983a). And the last, Structuring and Structures. Structures are generic, content-free ways of organizing student interactions with content and with each other. For example, (Step 1) one student talks while other listen, the (Step 2) the next
Improves comprehension of basic academic content. Reinforces social skill. Focuses on success for everyone.6
In addition, Carolyn Kessler said that McGroarty (1989) identifies six primary benefits of Cooperative Learning students acquiring English. Cooperative learning offers:
a. Increased frequency and variety of second language practice through different types of interaction.
Carolyn Kessler, Cooperative Language Learning, A Teachers’ Resource Book
(London: Prentice-Hall, 1992), pp, 8-14. 6
b. Possibility for development or use of the first language in ways that support cognitive development and increased second language skills.
c. Opportunities to integrate language with content-based instruction. d. Opportunities to include a greater variety of curricular materials to
stimulate language as well as concept learning.
e. Freedom for teachers to master new professional skills, particularly those emphasizing communication: and
f. Opportunities for students to act as resources for each other, thus assuming a more active role and their learning.7
The General Concept of Narrative Text
Definition of Narrative
As written in the book entitled Text Type in English that written by Mark and Kathy Anderson. “Narrative is a text that tells a story and, in doing so, entertains the audience. The purpose of a narrative, other than providing entertainment, can be to make the audience think about an issue, teach them a lesson, or excite their emotion”.8
Moreover, according to Donald Pharr and Santi V. Buscemi “The narrative is the oldest structured form of human communication. The ability to process the standard elements of a narrative seems to be genetically hardwired into the human system. Parents teach language to very young children by telling them the story. Moreover, people spend the rest of their lives telling stories”.9
In addition, narrative has a general purpose, according to Betty Mattix
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3, (South Yarra: MacMillan Education Australia PTY LTD, 2003), p. 3
Donald Pharr and Santi V. Buscemi, Writing Today, Contexts and Options for the Real World, (New York, McGraw-Hill Companies, 2005), p. 174.
and fiction. Commonly, the fact narrative can be used to persuade the audience or the reader. And the fiction one can be used to amuse the reader.
Furthermore, based on Betty Mattix Dietsch “Every narrative must have a point – a valid reason to be told or written. Whether the point is stated or unstated, it always shapes the narrative. If the purpose is to inform, the main idea, fact, or event is often stated first. When writes probe into causes or motives underlying an
event or experience, they may place the point at the end”.11
From some definitions above, it can be said that narrative text is a text that
tells the story by the purpose to entertain the audience, furthermore, the purpose of narrative text can be to reflect, inform, or persuade the audience. Narrative text has a point, the point of narrative text can be stated point and unstated point.
Definition of Text
As Anderson stated “when words are put together to communicate a meaning, a piece of text is created”.12 So it means when people speak or write to communicate a message, people are constructing a text. Moreover, creating a text needs the proper words to deliver the message correctly.
Over all there are two main categories of text. According to Anderson: There are two main categories of text- literary text and factual text. Literary texts include Aboriginal Dreaming stories, movie scripts, limericks, fairy tales, plays, novels, song lyrics, mimes and soap operas. They are constructed to appeal to our emotions and imagination. Literary texts can make us laugh or cry, think about our own life or consider our beliefs. There are three main text types in this category: narrative, poetic and dramatic. Media texts such as films, videos, television shown and CDs can also fall in this category. In contrast, Factual texts include advertisements, announcements, internet web sites, current affairs shows, debates, recipes, reports, and instructions. They present information or ideas and aim to show, tell to persuade the audience. The main text types
in this category are recount, response, explanation, discussion, information report, exposition and procedure.13
Based on the characteristics of text above, it can be said that different
types of text have particular characteristics, depend on the purpose what people are made for. For example, an advertisement and a novel both are have different characteristic of language because each made for different aim. The language that used in the advertisement introduce the product, meanwhile, the language that used in the novel make the readers go into the story and feel the emotions of the story.
Furthermore, a text is divided toward two types that are spoken text and written text. Sanggam Siahaan and Kisno Shinoda stated that a spoken text is any meaning spoken text. It can be a word or a phrase or a sentence or a discourse. A spoken discourse can be monolog or a dialog or a conversation. It can be a song or poetry or a drama or a lecture, etc. a written text is any meaningful written text. It can be a notice or a direction or an advertisement or a paragraph or an essay or an article or a book etc.14
Definition of Narrative Text
According to Anderson, the definition of Narrative text is “Narrative text type tells a story using spoken or written language. It can be communicated using radio, television, books, newspaper, or computer files, picture, facial expression, and camera angles can also be used to help communicate meaning. Narratives are
usually told by story teller”.15
In addition, in the other book, Anderson also said that “The narrative text type tells a story, its purpose is to present a view of the world that entertains or informs the reader or listeners”.16
Ibid., pp. 1-3
Sanggam Siahaan and Kisno Shinoda, Generic Text Structure, (Yogyakarta; Graha Ilmu, 2008), p. 1
Anderson, op. cit., p. 2. 16
Here is an example of the narrative text:
A long time ago, there lived an old man in the Penanggungan Mountain. His name was Kiai Gede Penanggungan. He had supernatural power. Kiai Gede Penanggungan prayed days and nights for her daughter to have a husband. One day, a young handsome man came to his place. The name of the man was Jaka
Pandelengan. He wanted to be Kiai Gede Penanggungan’s student.
Kiai Gede agreed to have Jaka as his student with one condition that he would marry her daughter. Jaka Pandelengan and Dewi Walangangin soon get married. Kiai Gede Penanggungan taught many things.
After several years, now it was time for the couple to live separately from Kiai Gede Penanggungan they would move to another village. Kiai Gede gave some seeds of pari or paddy to the couple. He asked the couple to plant the seeds. He also warned the couple not to be arrogant when they were rich. He wanted the couple to help poor people. The couple started new life. The planted the seed. Soon, the seed grew and became a lot of rice. Now the couple became very rich. The poor neighbors came to the couple to ask for the some pari seeds but the couple refused to help them.
Kiai Gede heard about the couple’s bad behavior. Soon he
visited the couple. He met them when the couple as working on the field. Kiai Gede talked to the couple. He reminded the couple not to be arrogant. But the couple ignored him. They said nothing to
Kiai Gede. Kiai Gede got very angry. Then he said “You two are like temples. You didn’t listen to me. Right after he said those words, an incredible thing happened. Slowly, Jaka and Dewi turned into temple. Because the temples stood among the pari, people named them as Pari Temple.17
Characteristics of Narrative Text
Based on Anderson, the characteristics of narrative text as below:
The Narrative scaffold: First, Orientation, in this paragraph the narrator tell the audience who is in the story, when it is happening, where it is happening and what is going on. Second, Complication, this the part of the story where the narrator tells about something
what they do. Forth, Resolution, in this part of the narrative the complication is sorted out or the problem is solved. And the fifth, Coda, the narrator includes a coba if there is a moral or message to be learn from the story.18 Fiction, History Fiction, Mystery, Fantasy, Science Fiction, Diary-novel, and
Those are some types of narrative text. Each can stands alone and can be
combined. Instance, romance narrative can be combined through mystery narrative and etc. the writer sets the scene of the action, event, or conflict that will take place. Readers need to know basic facts about the place, era, culture, and conditions that prevail. The “Who” means a narrative usually revolves around people, although an animal take the central role. The
“What” means whether one event or a series occur, action, conflict,
and change are essential to the story. The “How” of a narrative often involves cause and effect. The “Why” of a narrative is the reasoning or motivation, usually of the central character, that propels the action.21
Mark Anderson and Kathy Anderson, Text Types in English 3, (South Yarra: MacMillan Education Australia PTY LTD, 2003), p, 4.
19Ibid ., p. 18. 20
Betty Mattix Dietsch, Reason and Writing Well, a Rhetoric, Research Guide, Reader, And Handbook 4th Edition, (Boston, McGrew-Hill Companies, 2006), p. 125.
Those are the elements of the narrative text. A good narrative text can be presented if those elements can be contained in the text. Furthermore, narrative text has some purposes, and to be close to the purpose, narrative text should have some points to make the readers easy to understand the message of the text. In addition, According to Clouse Barbara, he stated that “a narration usually includes
the answers to the journalist’s questions who, what, when, where, why, and how. The narrative explains who was involved, what happened, when it happened, where it happened, why it happened, and how it happened”.22
The General Concept of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)
The Understanding of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)
According to Roy Killen, “TGT was Slavin’s original version of cooperative learning (DeVries & Slavin, 1978). It is similar to STAD in that teachers present information to learners and then they have one another learn. The difference is the quizzes are replaced with tournaments in which learners compete with members of other teams in order to gain points for their home team”.23 So based on the Roy Killen definition, Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) has similarity with STAD but clearly the quizzes that used in STAD are replaced with tournaments in TGT.
In addition, Slavin stated that “TGT is the same as STAD in every aspect but one: instead of the quizzes and the individual improvement score system, TGT
uses academic tournament, in which students compete as representatives of their teams with members of other teams who are like them in past academic
performance”.24 In other word, TGT and STAD have the same several elements but different in using quizzes, STAD uses the common quizzes, while TGT uses academic tournament.
Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning, Theory, Research, and Practice, 2nd Edition
The Principles of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)According to Slavin, TGT have five principles as follows:
a. Class presentation, what does mean class presentation in TGT is the same as class presentation in STAD, materials are introduced here. Slavin said that this is often the direct instruction or a lecture-discussion conducted by the teacher.
b. Teams, teams in TGT is also same as teams in STAD, teams are composed of four or five students who represent a cross-section of the class in terms of academic performance, sex, and race or ethnicity, the major function of the team is to make sure that all team members are learning, and, major specifically, to prepare its members to do well on the quizzes. After the teacher present the material, the team meet to study worksheets or other material. Most often, the study involves students discussing problems together, comparing answer, and correcting any misconceptions if teammates make mistakes.
c. Games, the games are composed of content-relevant questions designed to test the knowledge students gain from class presentations and team practice. Games are played at tables of three students, each of whom represents of different team. Most games are simply numbered questions on ditto sheet. A students a numbered card and attempts to answer the question corresponding to the number. A challenge rule permits players to challenge one
d. Tournaments, the tournament is the structure in which the games take place. It is usually held of the end of a week or a unit, after the teacher has made the class-presentation and the team has had time to practice with their worksheet. Thus, the teams have a good preparation in participation the tournament.
e. Team Recognition, team scores are computed based on teams’ members improvement scores, and individual certificated, a class newsletter, or a bulletin broad recognize high-scoring team.25
The Procedures of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)To use TGT in teaching and learning process, follow these steps:
a. Divide the learners into groups of four or five.
b. Give the learners an outline of what they will be learning and why. c. Present new academic information to learners either verbally, in
writing, or through other means such as videotape.
d. Give the learners worksheets or other study devices to help them master the academic materials. These worksheets should guide
them through the materials and show them how they can help one other learn through tutoring, quizzing one another, or team discussing.
e. Give the learners sufficient time to work together to understand the ideas you have presented-several periods if necessary.
f. While the learners are learning in their groups, review your records of their learning progress over the past few lessons so that you can classify each learner as a low, medium, or high achiever at this time and for their aspect of their learning.
g. When it is time to check on what the learners have learned, select
three at a time for the „tournament’, the three learners should be
from some category (low, medium, or high achiever), but from different group.
h. Pose a series of questions (perhaps four) to the „contestant’ who will be trying to be the first to answer.
i. At the end of the round the winner earns one points for his/her team regardless of how many questions they answered correctly or how difficult the questions were.26
From the explanation above, known that for the first section teachers should present the material, then, divide the students into several groups based on
their ability, students can be classified as low students achiever, medium students’ achiever, and high students’ achiever. When conducting the tournament, students will compete with the students who have the same level ability. After dividing students into groups, give them several periods to learn together. The last, conducting the tournament and the scoring.
The Advantages of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)As one of the teaching technique in teaching and learning process, Teams Games Tournament (TGT) has some advantages as follow:
a. Students can interact in the small group.
b. Giving the opportunities for the students to solve problems together.
c. Students will have good attitudes because beside they are responsible of their own selves, they also responsible of the team.
d. Increase the students’ desire in learning.
e. Motivating the students to compete.
f. Provides the teachers to use new variation in teaching. g. Provides the teachers to make good assessment. h. Provides the good atmosphere in the class.
The Disadvantages of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT)Teams Games Tournament also has some disadvantages for some side in teaching and learning, such as:
a. Wasting the time, the tournament will take a long time.
b. The absences of the students during tournament period will disturb the
successful of the tournament.
Teaching Narrative Text Using Teams Games Tournaments
In teaching narrative text using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) teachers should apply some procedures. Firstly, teachers should prepare the
learning material and explain it in the class. Secondly, teachers divide the students in some groups, each groups should contain of some level students, high, medium, and low ability. Then, teachers give the opportunity to the groups of the students
to study and deal with the learning materials.
After discussing, teachers conduct the tournaments, before conducting the tournaments teachers were already prepared the table tournaments and some questions which taken from the learning materials.
Here are some relevant studies that related to my study: first, the „Skripsi’ by Fadillah. She has written a „skripsi’ in 2011 entitled “Improving Students’ Understanding of Narrative Text by Using Cooperative Learning”.27 In her
„Skripsi’ she tried to find out the significance improvement of students’
comprehension of Narrative text in second grade of Mts. Manartul Islam Jakarta. She used a cooperative learning method in her study. She used Classroom Action
Research to solve students’ problem in understanding Narrative Text. She also used test as the instrument of the study, she used both pre-test and post-test. By the end of the study she concluded that students improved their understanding of narrative text during the teaching and learning process.
There are similarities and differences between Fadilah’s study and writer’s study. The similarities between us, both of us used test as the instrument of the
study and conducted the study toward junior high school and narrative text
subject. The differences between Fadilah’s study and writer’s study are in the
method, design, material, objective, and place of the study. Fadilah used Classroom Action Research (CAR) to solve students’ problem in understanding
narrative text and the writer used experimental study to solve students’ problem in
understanding narrative text.
Second „Skripsi’ by Saputra. He has written a „skripsi’ in 2011 entitled
“Improving Students’ Ability in Reading Narrative Text Through Jigsaw
Technique”,28 he conducted the study at second grade of SMP Al-Hidayah Lebak Bulus. His „Skripsi’ purpose is to find out the improvement of students’ ability in reading narrative text using jigsaw technique. He used classroom action research. He conducted the research through two cycles with two meeting in every cycle.
The result of his study is through jigsaw technique students’ ability in reading
narrative text can be improved. He proved it by some data that he got.
The study above had similarities and differences with writer’s study. In the
similarities side, both of us conducted the study toward junior high school students and conducted the study in the reading narrative text. Saputra and the writer used the test as the instrument of the study. In the other hand, the
differences between us occurred in the method, design, material, objective, and
place of the study. Saputra’s used Classroom Action Research and Jigsaw
technique in his study but the writer used experimental study and used Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique in teaching narrative text.
And the last relevant study, „skripsi’ entitled “Teaching the Simple Past
Tense by Using Teams Games Tournaments”29
written by Sofwan in 2010. He was conducted the research at second grade of SMP Islam Al-Mukhlisin Bogor, and the result of his study is teaching simple past tense through Teams Games Tournaments technique more effective and can improved the students’ understanding of simple past tense. Sofwan’s study andthe writer’s study had the
similarities and differences. The similarities between Sofwan and the writer used Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) as the teaching technique and the study conducted in the junior high school. In the differences side, Sofwan used Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique in teaching simple past tense but the writer used Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) technique in teaching in teaching narrative text.
Framework of Thinking
From the theories that have been discussed above, it can be concluded that reading is a skill that should be acquired by English language learners. Reading is a skill to develop one’s knowledge and language skill. Reading is an activity or process in which the readers make an effort to get information from what they read. Students’ purpose when they read a text is to comprehend the meaning and interpret the ideas from the text, so they can get the actual information and message that the writer tries to convey.
In reading English language text, some problems are faced by students, such as some students face difficulties to achieve the goal in learning reading
materials, in the learning process they like read the text loudly but they do not understand the messages or information of the text. It can be caused of some factors such students’ lack of vocabularies; the materials are too complex, and too
difficult. It can be made them de-motivated. It problems might lead to students’ failure in comprehend the text.
Moreover, English students in Indonesian often do not have sufficient chance to increase their social skill because teachers mostly use classical technique in teaching and learning process to deliver the material to the students. In this case, teachers prefer their students to sit properly on their chair, and pay attention to the teachers’ explanation. This technique does not allow students to interact with their classmates about the material that are being discussed because
when students talk to their friend, they will be seen as students who are not paying attention to the teacher’s explanation.
Hence, to solve this problem, teachers may use teams games tournaments (TGT) technique in the class to give the students opportunity to understand text they are reading by interacting with their friends about the text. According to
Robet E Slavin, “Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) has many of the same dynamics as (STAD), but adds a dimension of excitement contributed by the use of the games. Teammates help one another prepare for the game by studying worksheets and explaining problems to one other”.30 It means the teams games tournaments (TGT) technique allows the students to comprehend a text by understanding this text in their own group. The teams games tournaments (TGT) technique also allows students to communicate with their teammate about the material so they can develop their reading skill, and also their communication skill.
In other word, the writer assumes the teams games tournaments (TGT) technique can help students to get better understanding in reading by allowing students to interact in the small group about the material that being discussed, Giving the opportunities for the students to solve problems together, they will
have good attitudes because beside they are responsible of their own selves, they also responsible of the team, increasing the students’ desire in learning process, motivating the students to compete, providing the teachers to use new variation in
Robert E. Slavin, Cooperative Learning, Theory, Research, and Practice, 2nd Edition
teaching, providing the teachers to make good assessment, providing the good atmosphere in the class.
The aim of this study is to get the evidence whether teams games tournaments (TGT) technique is effective in teaching reading of narrative text or not. Therefore the research hypotheses are designed as follow:
The Null Hypothesis (Ho)
There is no significant difference in teaching reading of narrative text using teams games tournaments (TGT) and teaching reading of narrative text without teams games tournaments (TGT) in second grade of SMPN I Pakuaji.
The Alternative Hypothesis (Ha)
There is a significant difference in teaching reading of narrative text using teams games tournaments (TGT) and teaching reading of narrative text
This chapter explains the methodology of the study. It consists of place
and time of the study, population and sample, method of the study, instrument of the study, procedures of the study, technique of data collection, technique of data analysis, and statistical hypotheses.
Place and Time
This study was conducted at SMPN1 Pakuaji. It is located on Jl. KH. Sa'adullah Km. 01 Pakualam, Tangerang Regency-Banten. SMPN 1 Pakuhaji is a public school. There are twenty-seven classrooms. In SMPN 1 Pakuaji teaching and learning process divides into two part times, morning and afternoon class. Most of students at first Grade study in the morning class but two classes study in the afternoon, while all students at second grade and third grade study in the morning. The focus of this study was second grade junior high school.
This research was conducted on August 2014. The writer conducted 6 meetings for each both experimental class and controlled class. The first meeting was used to give the pre-test in five classes, next, second meeting until fifth
meeting used to teach in experimental class and controlled class. The writer used the treatment in the experimental class. The last meeting was used by the writer to give the post-test. Then, the writer collected all the data and analyzed them.
Method of the Study
The study used quantitative research. Furthermore, this study used a quasi-experimental study. Quasi-quasi-experimental is an quasi-experimental study in which the unit of the objects are not decide in randomly conditions.1 In the process of the study,
the writer taught two classes, one class as a controlled class and the other one as experimental class. In the process of the study the experimental class was taught
through Teams Games Tournaments
(TGT) technique. On the other hand, the controlled class was taught through the traditional method which the original
teacher commonly uses in the teaching and learning process.
The writer gave the pre-test for five classes in the beginning of the study. It conducted to decide which classes became experimental class and controlled class. After giving pre-test writer decided the experimental class and controlled class, then, gave the treatment in experimental class, and at the end step of the study writer gave post-test in order to reach a result whether the students in experimental class have significance improvement in understanding narrative text or not.
Population and Sample
The population of this study was the second grade students of SMPN 1 Pakuhaji academic year 2014-2015. The amount of students of the second grade in this school is 400 students and divided into 10 classes. The sampling strategy to determine the sample used in this research was purposive cluster sampling. The writer was only allowed to take five classes as the sample of
this study. Then, the writer took two classes as the sample based on their last averages score. Furthermore, the classes which are took the last averages score
divided into experimental and controlled class.
distributed the post-test in both classes and hopefully the experimental class got highest score then controlled class.
Instrument of the Study
The writer used the test as the instrument of this study. The test was divided into two parts that were pre-test and post-test. The result of pre-test and post-test became the result of this study. The writer also conducted the observation and the interview. These observation and interview was conducted in the school before doing the study to get the important relevant information that related to this study.
The test that used in this study was pre-test and post-test. Pre-test distributed in five classes 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, and 8H class to know the averages score for each class. The result of the test used to determine the experimental class and controlled class. Meanwhile, post-test distributed to both experimental class and controlled class after experimental class got the treatment from the writer in the teaching and learning process in the class. The treatment is Teams Games Tournament (TGT). The post-test distributed to know the significance achievement of experimental class in reading narrative text. The questions that used in this study were multiple choices.
Before conducting the pre-test the writer already made 30 multiple choice questions that consist of the narrative text materials. All the questions had passed the validity and ratability test. Validity of a test is a test in which the test should measures about what it has to measure and nothing else.2 In the validity test, the
writer used item test validity. Through item test validity excellent and good remarks are absolutely taken as the questions. The poor remarks revised as the
new one became the questions for students. Here are the criteria of the validity test3:
J.B. Heaton, Writing English Language Tests, (New York: Longman Inc., 1990), p. 159. 3
Table 3.1 Validity Test Table
VE = Very easy >0.80
ME = Moderately Easy 0.71 – 0.80
ID MeDi = Medium Difficult 0.51 – 0.70
MoDi = Moderately Difficult 0.31 – 0.50
VeDi = Very Difficult 0.00 – 0.30
E = Excellent 1.0 – 0.40
G = Good 0.30 – 0.39
DP M = Mediocre 0.20 – 0.29
P = Poor 0.00 – 0.19
W = Worst <-0.01
Procedure of the Study
These were some steps that writer used while conducting the study:
1. Asking permission to the head master of the school and regular English
teacher to do the study.
2. Distributing the pre-test in the class 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G, and 8H.
3. Teaching in the experimental class using Teams Games Tournament (TGT) technique, by contrast, teaching not using Teams Games Tournament in the controlled class.
Technique of Data collection
In this study, the writer used the quantitative research. Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) used in teaching narrative text to get the data. There were tests as the main instrument that used in this study to see the effectiveness of
Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in teaching narrative text. To collect the data the writer applied the steps as follows:
Pre-test was given to five classes 8D, 8E, 8F, 8G and 8H before the writer decided the experimental class and controlled class and gave the treatment of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in teaching narrative text in the experimental class.
Post-test was the last test that given to the both classes 8E and 8H after giving the treatment of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in the experimental class. The aim of the giving post-test was to know the
effectiveness of Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in teaching narrative text.
Through implementing the pre-test and post-test, it can be seen the
progress of the students and the effectiveness of using Teams Games Tournaments (TGT) in teaching narrative text.
Technique of Data Analysis
= Mean of Variable X
= Mean of Variable Y
SE = Standard Error X = Experimental Class Y = Controlled Class N = Students
= t observation
Prior the calculation of the T-test there are several steps to be taken, they are as follow:
a. Determining the Mean of Variable X, with formula:
b. Determining the Mean of Variable Y, with formula:
c. Determining the Standard Deviation Score of Variable X, with
d. Determining the Standard Deviation Score of Variable Y, with formula:
f. Determining the Standard Error Mean of Variable Y, with formula:
g. Determining the Standard Error of different Mean of Variable X and Mean of Variable Y, with formula:
h. Determining to, with formula:
i. Determining the Degree of Freedom (df), with formula:
Before deciding the result of the hypotheses, the writer proposed two hypotheses to be tested:
a. Ho: there is empirical evidence that the use of Teams Games
(TGT) Technique is not effective in teaching reading in second grade SMPN 1 Pakuhaji.
b. Ha: there is empirical evidence that the use of Teams Games
(TGT) Technique is effective in teaching reading in second grade SMPN 1 Pakuhaji.
And then, the criteria used as follows:
a. If ≤ ttable, in significant degree of 1%, the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is
accepted and Ha or Hypothesis Alternative is rejected. It means that
that there is not empirical evidence that the use of Teams Games
(TGT) Technique is effective in teaching reading.
b. If ≥ ttable, in significant degree of 1%, the Null Hypothesis (Ho) is
rejected and Ha or Hypothesis Alternative is accepted. Therefore, there
This chapter describes research findings and discussion of the study, it consists of research findings and interpretation of the data.
Description of the Data
The data were framed into two tables which are from controlled class and experimental class. Each table consists of students’ score test which given by the writer. Here are the score of pre-test, post-test, and gain score.
The Data of Controlled ClassTable 4.1
Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the Controlled Class
STUDENTS SCORE GAIN SCORE
1 45 50 5
2 35 35 0
3 45 50 5
4 50 50 0
5 40 50 10
6 45 45 0
7 50 55 5
8 30 35 5
9 25 35 10
10 10 10 0
11 30 40 10
12 40 40 0
13 30 40 10
14 45 45 0
15 30 30 0
16 30 30 0
17 20 25 5
18 45 50 5
19 20 25 5
20 40 55 15
22 25 30 5
23 35 35 0
24 25 40 15
25 35 40 5
26 25 40 15
27 40 45 5
28 35 40 5
29 35 45 10
30 25 30 5
31 20 25 5
32 20 30 10
33 25 25 0
34 30 40 10
35 35 35 0
36 35 40 5
37 40 45 5
38 25 25 0
39 30 40 10
40 25 25 0
Σ n = 40 Σ Y0 = 1310 Σ Y1 = 1515 Σ Y2 = 205
AVERAGE 32.75 37.88 5.13
MAX 50 55
MIN 10 10
From the controlled class data shown above, it can be concluded that the highest score on the pre-test was 50 and the lowest score was 10 with an average
of 32.75. The average of the pretest increased on the post-test up to 37.875. The highest score of post-test was 55 while the lowest score was 10. It can be seen that
The Data of Experimental ClassTable 4.2
Score of Pre-test and Post-test of the Experimental Class
33 25 45 20
34 40 65 25
35 45 50 5
36 25 30 5
37 35 45 10
38 35 50 15
39 35 45 10
40 20 30 10
Σ n = 40 Σ Xo=1290 Σ X1=1650 Σ X2=360
AVERAGE 32.25 41.25 9
MAX 50 65
MIN 5 30
Based on the calculation result above, it is shown that the mean of pre-test in experimental class was 32.25 and the mean of post-test was 41.25. It means that the students had gained score about 9 points. It is also shown that the highest
score on pre-test was 50 and the lowest score was 5. While on the post-test result which the average of the post-test was 41.25, the highest score was 65 and the lowest score was 30.
Data Analysis and Hypothesis Testing
Analysis of Pre-test and Post-test
heterogeneous. These tests are valued using SPSS Statistics 17. The normality and homogeneity tests results can be seen as below:
Normality of Pre-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
N 40 40
Normal Parametersa,,b Mean 32.7500 32.2500
Std. Deviation 9.33356 9.80254
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute .122 .110
Positive .122 .091
Negative -.106 -.110
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z .770 .699
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .593 .713
a. Test distribution is Normal. b. Calculated from data.
The normality calculation above used One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. From the table above, it is shown the absolute difference (D) of controlled
class data is 0.122. It is much lesser than Dtable with the closest
Kolmogorov-Smirnov critical points of 40 = 0.210. It means the pre-test of controlled class is normal. And the absolute different (D) of experimental class data is 0.110. It is also much lesser than Dtable with the closest Kolmogorov-Smirnov critical points of
40 = 0.210. It also means that the pre-test of experimental class is normal.
Normality of Pre-test Using Lilliefors
Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
CONTROLLED .122 40 .138 .962 40 .198
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
*. This is a lower bound of the true significance.
Besides using the normality calculation of One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. The writer also using the Lilliefors test, it shows that the normality
is significant. It is shown the absolute difference (D) in Lilliefors table of controlled class data is 0.122 and the absolute different (D) in Lilliefors table of experimental class data is 0.110. Both absolute different (D) of controlled class data is 0.122 and the absolute different (D) of experimental class data is 0.110 are much lesser than Dtable critical points of 40 = 0.210. So, it can be concluded that
the data is normal as what has been written down exactly below the table.
Normality of Post-test Using One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test
N 40 40
Normal Parametersa,,b Mean 37.8750 41.2500
Std. Deviation 9.86365 8.30122
Most Extreme Differences
Absolute .160 .151
Positive .090 .151
Negative -.160 -.124
Kolmogorov-Smirnov Z 1.014 .953
Asymp. Sig. (2-tailed) .256 .323
a. Test distribution is Normal. b. Calculated from data.
The normality calculation of post-test above used One-Sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov Test. From the table above, it is shown the absolute
difference (D) of controlled class data is 0.160. It is much lesser than Dtable with
class data is 0.151. It is also much lesser than Dtable with the closest
Kolmogorov-Smirnov critical points of 40 = 0.210. It also means the post-test of experimental class is normal.
Normality of Post-test Using Lilliefors
Kolmogorov-Smirnova Shapiro-Wilk Statistic Df Sig. Statistic Df Sig.
CONTROLLED .160 40 .011 .952 40 .087
EXPERIMENT .151 40 .023 .922 40 .009
a. Lilliefors Significance Correction
The writer also using the Lilliefors test for normality of post-test, it shows that the normality is significant. It is shown the absolute difference (D) in Lilliefors table of controlled class data is 0.160 and the absolute different (D) in
Lilliefors table of experimental class data is 0.151. Both absolute different (D) of
controlled class data is 0.160 and the absolute different (D) of experimental class data is 0.151 are much lesser than Dtable critical points of 40 at degrees
significance 0.05% = 0.210. So, it also can be concluded that the data is normal.
Table 4.7 Pre-Test Homogeneity
Test of Homogeneity of Variance Levene
Statistic df1 df2 Sig.
VALUE Based on Mean .000 1 78 1.000