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DEVELOPING ENGLISH READING MATERIALS BASED ON

PROBLEM BASED LEARNING FOR FIFTH GRADE OF

SDN 060812 MEDAN

A THESIS

Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement For the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

By:

RIZKA FAHRINA DAULAY Registration Number: 2123121045

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

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i ABSTRACT

Daulay, Rizka Fahrina. Registration Number: 2123121045. Developing English Reading Materials Based on Problem Based Learning for Fifth Grade of SDN 060812 Medan. A Thesis. English Educational Program, State University of Medan, 2016

This study aims to design English reading materials needed for fifth grade students of SDN 060812 Medan and developed English reading materials for fifth grade students of SDN 060812 Medan. This research was conducted by Research and Development (R & D) based on Problem Based Learning design through six phases; need analysis, evaluating the existing syllabus and English reading materials, developing the syllabus and new English reading materials, validating by experts and field-testing the new English reading materials, revising the new English reading materials and dissemination and implementation. It was conducted in SDN 060812 Medan, especially fifth grade students. The data of this study was English reading materials for fifth grade of SDN 060812 Medan. The sources of data sources of this study were the existing syllabus, interview the

English teacher’s result and English reading materials for fifth grade of SDN 060812 Medan. The results proved that the students needed to be taught descriptive text but the existing English reading materials were not appropriate to

the students’ need which were like speaking materials. The new English reading

materials have been validated by experts. The average scores were 4,37 from the English lecturer and 4,03 from subject teacher. It mean the new English reading materials categorized as relevant or appropriate for fifth grade of SDN 060812 Medan. The new English reading materials were already introduced to the students at the field-testing stage. The new English reading materials were design

to meet the students’ need especially in learning reading. Then, the new English

reading materials were implemented in the school as recommended materials.

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ii

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The researcher would like to acknowledge her countless thanks to the most gracious and merciful, the almighty God, Allah SWT and the prophet, Muhammad SAW for love, blessing, and strangeness so the researcher has finally completed this thesis. This thesis is submitted to the English Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for taking the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan.

During the process of completing this thesis, the researcher has worked with a great number of people, through their guidance, suggestions and comments for which the researcher would like to extend her sincere gratitude and special thanks to:

Prof. Dr. Syawal Gultom, M.Pd., Rector of State University of Medan. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M.Hum., the Dean of Languages and Arts Faculty. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., the Head of English Department, and her

Thesis Examiner.

Nora Ronita Dewi, S.Pd.,S.S.,M.Hum., the Head of English Educational Study Program, and her Second Thesis Advisor.

Prof. Dr. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd., her First Thesis Advisor and her Academic Consultant. The researcher said thank you for his times, suggestion, kindness, advices, and warm welcome along she started to study here until she finished her college.

Dr. Anni Holila Pulungan, M.Hum., her Thesis Examiner.

Dra. Jamilah, the Principal of SDN 060812 Medan, and Armin Kelana, S.Pd., the English Teacher of SDN 060812 Medan.

Her beloved grandmother, Alm. Hj. Siti Hajar Lubis, thank you for everything, for advice, love and warm hug every night.

Her beloved family, her father, H. Fachruddin Daulay; her mother, Hj. Risnawati Nasution, S.Pd., thank you for the biggest support in prayer, love, motivation and fighting along her life.

Her beloved sister, Fitri Amalia Daulay, S.Pd; her beloved brother, Raja Fahmi Natigor Daulay, thank you for love, motivation, and support along her life.

Her beloved big family, Rosmaini Nasution, S.Pd., Suryani Nasution, S.Pdi., Khairul Nasution, H. Zulfan Idris Nasution, S.H., Darmayani Nasution, S.E.,M.M.,AAAIK., and All Family Members, thank you for help, pray and motivation along her life.

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Her close friends in Regular A 2012, thank you for Adi Sutrisno, Ayu Trisna, Dwi Mahartika, Nurul Soraya Saragih, Mega Miranda, Mariani Simanjuntak, Wike Idola Fitri, Fajriah Hasanah and all members of Regular A 2012, thank you for experiences along these four years.

Her close friends during PPl, thank you for Hikmatul Fadhilla Shandy, Lulu Fajarwati, Rahmi Damayanti, Siti Nurzannah, Fahmi Khalehar, and Panji Sapto Setyo, thank you for friendship.

Her friends from another class, thank you for Fariza Yusrizal, Fransiska Insani Rahesty Sinaga, Rini Lestari, Rizki Mandasari, thank you for helping to complete her thesis.

Euis Sriwahyuningsih, M.Pd., thank you for help her to complete the administration during the process of thesis.

Finally, the researcher admits that this thesis still far from being perfect. Therefore, the researcher would like to invite readers to give suggestion for the improvement of this thesis and she hopes this thesis will help the reader to conduct his or her research.

Medan, Agustus 2016 The Researcher

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E. The Significance of the Study ... 7

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE ... 8

A. Theoretical Framework ... 8

1. Reading Materials ... 8

2. Genres Based Approach ... 11

3. Materials Development ... 17

4. Materials Evaluation ... 19

5. Need Analysis ... 21

6. Problem Based Learning ... 23

7. Problem Based Learning Materials Design... 26

8. Connection Between Problem Based Learning Materials Design and Research and Development (R & D) ... 29

9. English for Elementary Students ... 30

B. Relevant Studies ... 32

C. Conceptual Framework ... 34

CHAPTER III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 36

A. Research Design ... 36

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v

C. The Subject of Research... 37

D. The Instrument of Collecting Data ... 37

E. Techniques of Collecting Data ... 38

F. Procedures of Materials Development ... 38

CHAPTER IV. MATERIALS DEVELOPMENT ... 41

A. Need Analysis ... 41

B. Evaluating the Existing Syllabus and ERM ... 43

C. Developing the Syllabus and New ERM ... 46

D. Validating and Field-testing the New ERM ... 48

E. Revising the new ERM ... 51

F. Dissemination and Implementation... 52

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS ... 53

A. Conclusions ... 53

B. Suggestions ... 54

REFERENCES ... 55

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vi

LIST OF TABLES

Pages

Table 2.1. Types of Genre ... 12

Table 2.2. Necessities, Lacks and Wants ... 23

Table 4.1. Evaluation Result of Existing English Reading Materials ... 45

Table 4.2. English Lecturer’s Validation Score ... 49

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vii

LIST OF FIGURE

Page

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viii

LIST OF APPENDICES

Pages

Appendix A. Teacher’s Interview Result ... 58

Appendix B. Existing Syllabus ... 59

Appendix C. Evaluation Checklist ... 61

Appendix D. Existing English Reading Materials ... 63

Appendix E. Evaluation Result of Existing English Reading Materials ... 73

Appendix F. New Syllabus ... 75

Appendix G. New English Reading Materials ... 78

Appendix H. Experts Validation ... 90

Appendix I. Field-testing Result ... 98

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Study

Teaching materials play an important role to the English language teaching.

Due to the children’s overall development; social emotional, cognitive and

physical, as well as language development, the English for young learners require

a distinctive consideration. At this point, teacher must be aware to young learners’

physical and psychological needs in providing an appropriate language instruction.

Foreign language classes through the fifth grade level of elementary

school are part of a larger goal to familiarize children with foreign languages,

lifestyles and cultures, rather than focusing on teaching a foreign language in a

formal way. English should be taught in a fun and natural way, using activities

such as songs and games. Some communities may not be ready to introduce

English at an earlier age, but would like their children to be more internationally

minded and have introduced as international understanding education for younger

learners.

Materials play a key role in language education. Materials can be used to

facilitate the learning of a language. Materials can inform learners about the

language, materials can provide experience of the language in use, Materials can

stimulate language use or materials can help learners to make discoveries about

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Materials of reading for elementary school become substantial in learning

English. English reading materials should be developed based on the students’

needs and related to the students’ real life instead to make the students understand

the materials easily.

Students in elementary school are needed to be taught with appropriate

materials based on their need and level. Some of the materials especially for

English reading materials are not related to the students’ needs and level. This

problem is trying to solve to make sure students can learn the appropriate English

materials. Because studying appropriate English materials especially in English

reading materials can help the students to do the tasks well.

There are many irrelevant materials and burdened subjects must be learnt

by the students (Wedhaswary, 2012). Based on the researcher’s observation and

analysis of syllabus and teaching materials used by the students of SDN 060812

Medan especially for fifth grade, the researcher was found that the reading

materials on the book they used “Bahasa Inggris untuk Sekolah Dasar dan

Madrasah Ibtidaiyah” published by CV. Thursina in 2010 did not completely

fulfill the students’ needs. The reading materials for elementary school especially

for fifth grade students need to be taught about descriptive text but the materials

from the textbook that the teacher use are not appropriate to the students’ needs. It

was proven by the data that taken by the researcher from the book that the school

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Title: Where are my glasses?

Cici is often forgetful. She forgets to put her shoes. She forgets to put her pens. She forgets where she put her new watch. Now, she forgets where

Dad : “Maybe they are next to the computer.”

Cici : “No, they aren’t.”

Dad : “Cici, your glasses are on your head.”

Cici : “Oops, thank you, Dad.”

The data showed that the reading materials were not appropriate to the

fifth grade elementary school and not fulfill the students’ need. The considerations

why the materials are not appropriate to the fifth grade elementary school are the

text was not descriptive text which was needed to be taught by the fifth grade

students, the topic of the text is about preposition which is not related to describe

particular things and also the text is using dialogs which was appropriate to the

speaking materials without showing to describe something. The title should be my

classroom to show that the text is descriptive text which is to describe place.

Descriptive text is a kind of text with a purpose to give information. The context

of this kind of text is the description of particular person, place or thing.

Descriptive text has generic structure and grammatical features.

According to the syllabus, fifth grade of elementary students should be

taught about descriptive text which is still in the school context. The topics should

close to their daily life to make the students easily to represent it into their daily

activities. Based on the observation, the students did not know how to describe

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reading materials in the textbook that the students use were not related to the

students’ real life and the skill to comprehend the reading does not the students

get.

In this research, the researcher tried to develop English reading materials

fully concern to the students’ need based on the syllabus of fifth grade elementary

school. The English reading materials developed according to the students’ level

and related to the students’ real life. Appropriate materials can be motivating

because they are proof that the language is used for real-life purposes by real

people (Nuttall, 1996:172). The appropriate materials will interest the student and

may even encourage further reading or reading for pleasure. The more the student

reads, the better a reader the student will become, not only improving the student

language level but also confidence. If the material interests the student, it can also

be related to student own experiences.

The reason for reading depends very much on the purpose for reading. The

use of appropriate materials in the classroom is discussed, with the student

benefiting from the exposure to real language being used in a real context

(Berardo, 2006). Other aspects which prove positive when using appropriate

materials are that they are highly motivating, giving a sense of achievement when

understood and encourage further reading.

The researcher can also develop learning materials on the basis of the

students needs (Pinter, 2006). This situation would happen when a teacher is

facing new students. In order to meet the students’ needs of English, an English

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After knowing the English competence that the students want to achieve, the

teacher develops the learning materials to help the learners achieve the English

competence they want.

Having the appropriate materials makes the achievement of reading will be

increase. Achievement of reading is success in reaching particular goal or status or

standard in learning reading process, especially by effort, skill, and courage

(Fadhila, 2014: 7). Students’ achievement in reading is a factual proof of their

success in learning. It is measured from their scores and how they can solve the

problem during the learning process. So that is why the appropriate materials can

increase the students’ achievement in reading.

One of the aims of appropriate materials is to help the students react in the

same way first language speakers react in their first language. Students who live

in the target language environment, once outside of the classroom will encounter a

variety of situations in which different reading purposes or skills are required.

Berardo (2006) stated that the main advantages of using appropriate materials in

the classroom therefore include:

a. having a positive effect on student motivation;

b. exposing students to real language;

c. relating more closely to students’ needs;

To solve the problem, the researcher needed to develop the English

reading materials by using problem based learning. Problem based learning

embeds students’ learning processes in real-life problems. During the problem

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problem-6

solving skills as well as self-directed learning skills while working toward a

solution to the problem.

The problem is crucial to its implementation. Problems should be adapted

to the knowledge level of the students. They should engage students’ interests,

motivate them to search for more knowledge independently, and allow them to

relate the new concepts being introduced to previous knowledge (Suh, 2004).

Firstly, problem should be ill-structured, be ambiguous, incomplete, confusing or

conflicting, and additional information will be needed. There is usually a

prescribed way to proceed in solving the problem (Wee, 2004).

B. The Problems of the Study

Based on the background of the study, the problems of the study can be

formulated in the form of questions as follows:

1. what English reading materials are needed by the fifth grade students of SDN

060812 Medan?

2. how are English reading materials for fifth grade students of SDN 060812

Medan developed?

C. The Objectives of the Study

Based on the problems stated above, the objectives of the study are:

1. to investigate the English reading materials are needed for fifth grade students

of SDN 060812 Medan according to the students’ needs.

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D. The Scope of the Study

This research is focused on developing English reading materials based on

Problem Based Learning. The object of the study is limited on elementary

students at the fifth grade of SDN 060812 Medan, particularly descriptive text

materials. There are three kinds of descriptive text which describes a particular

person, place or thing. In this research, the researcher tries to develop particular

place and thing according to the topic of the book that the school used.

E. The Significance of the Study

This study is expected to have both theoretically and practically.

1. Theoretically, the findings of the study will extend and enrich the horizon in

theories which related to the areas to investigate the English reading materials

are needed for fifth grade students of SDN 060812 Medan according to the

students’ needs and also on how to develop English reading materials for fifth

grade students.

2. Practically, the findings of the study can be recommended English reading

materials for the fifth grade students of SDN 060812 Medan, as it motivates

the students’ enthusiasm to study English according to their needs. Beside, the

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53 CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTION

Based on the result and analysis of the reserch in the previous chapter,

some conclution remarks and suggestion are as follows.

A. Conclusion

1. The existing English reading materials do not appropriate to the fifth grade

elementary. The fifth grade elementary students need to be taught about

descriptive text but the existing English reading materials do not display that.

Because of this problem, the existing English reading materials are not related

to the students’ need. The students need the materials that are designed by

authentic materials based on problem based learning. In teaching and learning

process, the students are more active and get more enthusiasm in learning

reading and this impact to the students’ score.

2. New English reading materials are designed through problem based learning.

The problem based learning is provided by group activity, so that the students

are more active while learning English. In order to rich the students’

vocabulary, the materials are designed by done the activity of to find out the

meaning of the words to the library and the words should be related to the

topic and to make sure the students more understand and can apply what they

have already got from the material to their daily life, the text should also use

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B. Suggestion

In line with the conclusion above, some points suggested such as.

1. It is suggested that the English teacher should teach the English reading

materials that the contents are related to the students’ need and provide

appropriate English materials for students in order to fulfill the students’ need.

2. It is suggested that the development materials should consider and concern to

the students’ need and background and relate the materials to the students’ real

life.

3. It is suggested that the learning materials should design in such way such as

problem based learning in order to make the students understand the materials

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55 REFERENCES

Berardo, S. A. (2006). The Use of Authentic Materials in the Teaching of Reading. Journal of the Reading Matrix, 6 (2) 60-69.

Block, D. (1991). Some Thoughts on DIY Materials Design. ELT Journal, 45 (3) 211-217.

Borg, W. R. & Gall, M. D. (1983). An Introduction Educational Research Fourth Edition. New York: Longman.

Bridges, E. M. & Hallinger, P. (2007). A Problem-Based Approach for Management Education: Preparing Managers for Action. Netherlands: Springer.

Dudley-Evans, T. & St. John, M. (1998). Developments in English for Specific Purposes. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Fadhila, A. R. (2014). The Effect of Group Mentoring Technique on Students’ Achievement in Writing Hortatory Exposition. Medan: State University of Medan.

Fitri, S. J. (2013). Analysis of English Teaching Materials Used at Elementary School in Kecamatan Padang Utara. Journal of English Language Teaching, 1 (2) 1-12.

Halim, S. S. (2010). Becoming a Creative Teacher: A Manual for Teaching English to Indonesian Elementary Students. Jakarta: LBI FIB UI.

Harsono, Y. M. (2007). Developing Learning Materials for Specific Purposes. TEFLIN Journal, 18 (2) 169-179.

Hasibuan, R. F. (2015). Developing ESP Teaching Materials for the Students of the Software Engineering Based on Problem Based Learning at the Al-Washliyah Teladan Vocational School. Medan: State University of Medan.

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Hutchinson, T. & Waters, A. (1987). English for Specific Purposes. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press.

Hyms. (2012). Problem-Based Learning at HYMS a Guide for Students by Students. United Kingdom: The Hull York Medical School.

Kustaryo, S. (1988). Reading Techniques for College Students. Jakarta: Depdikbud.

Mathews-Aydinli, J. (2007). Problem-Based Learning and Adult English Language Learners. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.

Miekley, J. (2005). ESL Textbook Evaluation Checklist. Journal of the Reading Matrix, 5 (2) 1-9.

Mukundan, J., Nimehchisalem, V. & Hajimohammadi, R. (2011). Developing an English Language Textbook Evaluation Checklist: A Focus Group Study. International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, 1 (12) 100-106.

Nuttall, C. (1996). Teaching Reading Skills in a foreign language (New Edition). Oxford: Heinemann.

Pardiyono. (2007). Pasti Bisa! Teaching Genre-Based Writing. Yogyakarta: CV. ANDI OFFSET.

Pinter, A. (2006). Teaching Young Language Learners. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Richey, Rita C. Klein. (2007). Design and Development Research. London: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. Inc.

Rosmen. (2013). Developing English Reading Materials for Students of SDS IKAL Medan. Medan: State University of Medan.

Sari, I., Ulgu, S. & Unal. S. (2014). Materials Evaluation and Development: Syllabus, Setting and Learner Needs. International Journal of Teaching, 2 (2) 60-65.

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Septiani, F. (2014). Developing Reading Text Materials for Vocational School. Medan: State University of Medan.

Sinaga, R. R. (2015). The Development of ESP-Hospitality English Speaking Materials Through Task-Based Learning at Medan Tourism Academy. Medan: State University of Medan.

Sudirman, M. (2015). Developing Reading Materials for Higher Education of Informatics and Computer Management Potensi Utama Medan. Medan: State University of Medan

Sugiyono. (2011). Metode Penelitian Kuantitatif Kualitatif dan R&D. Bandung: Alfabeta.

Tomlinson, B. (2013). Developing Materials for Language Teaching Second Edition. London: Bloomsbury.

Wulansari, L. (2010). Bahasa Inggris untuk Sekolah Dasar dan Madrasah Ibtidaiyah. Bandung: CV. Thursina.

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