MEDIA SOSIAL DAN CYBERBALKANIZATION

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MEDIA

SOSIAL DAN

CYBERBALKANIZATION

Media Sosial Pemecah Persatuan Bangsa?

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• Yohanes Widodo, S.Sos, M.Sc

• Nickname: Masboi

• Ayah dua orang puteri: Anjelie dan Anjani

• S1: Ilmu Komunikasi UAJY 1993-1999

• S2: Applied Communication Science, Wageningen University, NL 07-09

• Pendiri SKM PASTI, Redaksi TEROPONG, Ketua SEMA FISIP UAJY, Pemimpin Umum JONG Indonesia.

• Bekerja di Radio Sonora Palembang 1999-2007

• Pendiri Radio Internet www.radioppidunia.com

• Dosen Jurnalisme, Prodi Ilmu Komunikasi FISIP UAJY, sejak Januari 2010

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Dua Sisi Internet

Utopia-Optimists

Net is ParticipatoryNet yields

Personalization

a “Global villageHeterogeneity /

Diversity of Thought

Net breeds

pro-• Net is PolarizingNet yields

misuse & abuse

10/23/20

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Balkanization

, or

Balkanisation

,

is

a pejorative geopolitical term, originally used to

describe the process of fragmentation or

division of a region or state into smaller regions or states that are often hostile or uncooperative with one another.[1][2] Balkanization is a result of foreign policies creating geopolitical

fragmentation as can be seen at times in the Western Balkans with respect to the Ottoman

empire, the Austro-Hungarian empire, the Third Reich, the United Nations and NATO.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Balkanization

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Cyberbalkanization

Fenomena di mana orang mencari

orang lain yang sesuai dengan

pemikirannya (like-minded people), dan dari situ dia menutup diri dari ideologi yang berbeda, pemahaman yang berbeda, dan diskusi yang tidak disukai.” (Putnam, 2000)

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“The Internet enables us to confne

our communication to people who

share precisely our interests – not just other BMW owners, but owners of BWM 2002s and perhaps even owners of turbocharged 1973 2002s. […] A comment about thunderbirds in a BMW chat group risks being famed as ‘of topic’” (Ibid.)

in short: the division of users into

groups that do not interact with each others

10/23/2018 Yohanes Widodo l UAJY l @masboi

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Autonomous Cyberbalkanization

Causes:

Disintermediation = the

elimination or simply the cutting out

of the middlemen

Consequences:

Daily Me = personally tailored

virtual newspaper customized for an

individual’s taste (Negroponte, Being Digital (1995))

10/23/2018 Yohanes Widodo l UAJY l @masboi

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Heteronomous

Cyberbalkanization

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Heteronomous

Cyberbalkanization

Causes:

Lost sovereignty: to select from a

certain ofer, which was transferred from the Internet users towards code based search algorithms, as, for

example, Google’s click signals and

Facebook’s Edge Rank

10/23/2018 Yohanes Widodo l UAJY l @masboi

ONLINE CLICK SIGNALS OFFLINE CLICK SIGNALS

search history, information of other Google services as G-Mail, GoogleDocs, Picasa and further Google lock-in products, etc.

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Political Consequences

Echo Chambers

• ruang di Internet di mana orang-orang

yang memiliki pemikiran yang sama (like-minded people) hanya mau

mendengarkan hanya orang-orang yang sudah sepakat dengannya (people who already agree with them).

• informasi baru bukan untuk menambah

wawasan, namun menjadikan kita overconfdent.

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Group Polarization

phenomenon that after

deliberating with one an-other,

people are likely to move toward a more extreme point of view in the direction to which they were

already inclined.

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Group Polarization:

limited argument pool

repeated exposure to nearly the same

information

people want to be perceived favorably by other

group members

biased assimilation (people assimilate new

information in a selective fashion  supporting information = considerable weight, while

undermining information will be dismissed

Cybercascades:

tremendously fast spreading of information irrespective

whether they are true or false

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Endangered Public Discourse

normative goal of net utopists was

deliberative democracy (Jürgen Habermas) and, as said before, the global village

deliberative democracy:

argumentatively, well-reasoned,

communication-oriented consultation of citizens with heterogeneous views

all preconditions in the Internet age are

fulflled: public fora with equal chances to participate, the ideal speech

situation, etc.

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Study of Wexler/Putnam

in a study of 60 political sites only

nine (15%) provide links to sites with opposing views, whereas thirty-fve

(almost 60 per cent) provide links to like-minded sites.

• interestingly those opposing pages were linked in order to illustrate how dumb and contemptible the views of the adversaries really are!

BUT: common experience, meaning to

understand the stance of others, is an

indispensable ingredient for fnding a consensus.

Citizens have to reach beyond their (often somewhat)

narrow horizon – otherwise the ideal of deliberative democracy and public discourse will be compromised.

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“Technology is neither good or

bad, nor is it neutral.”

(Kranzberg’s frst law)

Bukti empiris mengindikasikan trend

cyberbalkanization eksis dan merusak proses demokrasi.

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The Internet has neither

transformed towards a global

village, nor has it fostered diverse public discourse.

Heteronomous (algorithm driven)

fltering increases fragmentation on

the Web.

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Civic virtue: curiosity to learn

about others arguments,

self-criticism and open-mindedness can be harmed by

cyberbalkanization

Transparency: search

algorithms and flter bubbles are intransparent and we do not even choose to use or enter them – not meaning that they do not exist

therefore users should know how flter algorithms work!

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Creativity/Serendipity:

cyberbalkanization and flter

algorithms are anything but engines of inspiration and creative thinking.

“Google is great at helping us fnd

what we know we want, but not at fnding what we don’t know we

want.” (Pariser, 2011)

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Media Sosial

Berbagai perangkat dan layanan

yang memungkinkan interaksi pengguna secara langsung.

Konsep yang berpusat pada

read-write web di mana audience tak lagi

bersikap pasif namun turut berkontribusi pada konten.

Apa saja yang menggunakan Internet

untuk memfasilitasi percakapan.

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Perangkat (yang disebut) Media

Sosial `

blogs, intranets, podcasts, video sharing

(misalnya YouTube), photo sharing (misalnya Shutterbug, Flickr), social networks, wikis (misalnya Wikipedia),

gaming, virtual worlds (misalnya Second Life), microblogging/presence applications (misalnya Twitter, Pownce, Plurk), text

messaging, videoconferencing, PDAs,

instant message chat, social event/calendar systems (misalnya Upcoming, Eventful),

social bookmarking (misalnya Delicious), news aggregation/RSS, dan e-mail (Eyrich et.al, 2008).

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Dampak Media Sosial

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Internet/Media Sosial: alat

untuk…

Menyebarkan

permusuhan, kebencian,

intoleransi, dan hal-hal yang bisa menyulut

konfik.

Menyebarkan

nilai kebaikan, kebenaran,

toleransi,

persahabatan, dan kasih

sayang.

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Konsekuensi Negatif

Media sosial berkontribusi besar

(memicu disintegrasi) dalam konteks agitasi, provokasi masyarakat karena orang bisa berbagi informasi dengan sangat cepat dan dampak yang luar biasa.

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http://www.republika.co.id/berita/koran/kesra/ 17/01/16/ojv24622-presiden-medsos-bisa-ancam-persatuan

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10/23/2018 Yohanes Widodo l UAJY l @masboi

"Di medsos kita sering lihat adanya hasutan, ftnah,

berita bohong, ujaran

kebencian yang kalau tidak

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http://news.okezone.com/read/

2016/07/30/340/1450999/postingan-di-media-sosial-penyebab-kerusuhan-tanjung-balai

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https://kumparan.com/nurul-hidayati/diamuk-massa-akibat-kabar-hoax-penculikan-anak

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Fake News is…

A type of yellow journalism

Consists of deliberate misinformation or

hoaxes

Spread via the traditional print,

broadcasting news media, or via Internet -based social media.

Written and published with the intent to

mislead in order to gain fnancially or politically.

Often with sensationalist, exaggerated, or

patently false headlines that grab attention.

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Fake News is…

Often employs eye-catching headlines or

entirely fabricated news stories in order to increase readership and, in the case of

internet-based stories, online sharing and Internet click revenue.[

Proft is made in a similar fashion to

sensational online "clickbait" headlines and relies on advertising revenue

generated from this activity, regardless of the veracity of the published stories.

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Bagaimana Mengenali Fake

News?

1. Baca Judul Berita

2. Cek media atau situs yang mempublikasikan.

3. Cek waktu dan tanggal publikasi. 4. Cek siapa penulisnya.

5. Cek link dan sumber atau narasumber yang dipakai.

6. Lihat kutipan dan foto yang meragukan.

7. Hati-hati dengan informasi yang bias. 8. Cek apakah media lain memberitakan. 9. Think before you share.

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Terima kasih. Berkah Dalem

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