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Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and

Concept Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

SKRIPSI

Submitted as Partial Fulfillment and Requirement to Obtain Bachelor of Education Degree

International Program on Science Education

Written by: Afif Naofal Pramana

0902259

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ON SCIENCE EDUCATION FACULTY MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

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SHEET OF LEGITIMATION

Contextual Teaching to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill in Changing of

Matter Topic for Junior High School By:

AFIF NAOFAL PRAMANA

0902259

APPROVED AND AUTHORIZED BY:

Supervisor I

Dr. Wawan Setiawan, M.Kom NIP. 196601011991031005

Supervisor II

Dr. Galuh Yuliani, S.Si., M.Si. NIP. 198007252001122001

Head of Study Program of

International Program on Science Education

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SHEET OF DECLARATION

I, the undersigned, hereby declare that this research paper which entitled “Contextual

Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School” is entirely pure result of my own original ideas and the research paper contains no plagiarism. The opinions or findings of others which is contained in this research paper have been quoted or referenced based on scientific code of conduct and accordance with an ethical science that

applies in scholarly society. Accordingly, I shall be solely responsible for taking penalty as the case of any action against this statement

Bandung, February 2014

Declarant,

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PREFACE

All of praises and gratefulness are always raised to Allah SWT for all His mercy and grace so the writer finished of the research paper to fulfillment of the requirement for Bachelor Degrees of International Program on Science Education at Indonesia University of Education. This research paper entitled “Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve

Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept Comprehension in Changes of Matter

Topic for Junior High School”. Shalawat and salam may always devoted to our Big Prophet Muhammad SAW, who has given us kindness and bring to the Islamic era, to all his

families, and we are as Muslims that obey to the lesson that he has taught.

This paper was conducted to examine the effect of contextual teaching towards students’ critical thinking skill and concept comprehension. This research paper is the requirement for all university students in educational major to finish and obtain Sarjana Pendidikan (S, Pd.).

The perfection belongs to Allah SWT, the author realizes that what has been done in this paper still has so many weakness that have to be improved. Therefore, the writer expects any comments and suggestions to improve the quality of learning process in the future and the ability of writer especially. Hopefully the results that presented in this research paper can be useful and can be more improved by the other researcher.

Bandung, April 2014

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

This research paper is made possible through the help and support of those to whom I dedicate my acknowledgment. Sincere gratitude is hereby extended to the following who never ceased in helping and supporting until this research paper has well arranged:

1. Dr. Wawan Setiawan, M.Kom and Dr. Galuh Yuliani, S.Si., M.Si. as supervisors for their most guidance, support, encouragement and invaluable detailed advices for my research. 2. Dr. Diana Rochintaniawati, M.Ed. as head of IPSE Study Program for her tireless

patience and sensitivity in supporting and encouraging me during the whole study in

IPSE.

3. Both of my parents, Mrs. Epin Mintarsih and Mr. Dadih Prihana for the unwavering moral, emotional and financial support. And all of your kindness and valuable lessons have been given.

4. All of IPSE lecturers and staff for sharing positive insight and helping during study in IPSE.

5. Mrs. Euis Rauhillah, S.Si., teachers and staff of Daarul Qur’an International School who made the research is possible to be implemented.

6. My colleagues in International Program on Science Education year 2009 for their kindness, friendship, faith and support.

7. All of students of Darul Qur’an International School, especially for secondary 1 potential students who willing to follow my lesson during taking the research data.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu LIST OF CONTENT

SHEET OF LEGITIMATION ……….……… i

DECLARATION OF ORIGINALITY……..……….. ii

ABSTRACT………. iii

PREFACE ……….. iv

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT …..………... v

TABLE OF CONTENT………...….. vi LIST OF TABLE….………….……….. ix

LIST OF FIGURE………...……….. x

LIST OF APPENDICES ………...………….... xi

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background………... 1

B. Problem of Research... 3

C. Objective of Research………... 4

D. Significance of Research …... 5

CHAPTER II CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING, CRITICAL THINKING, ACHIEVEMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION A. Contextual Teaching Learning ... 6

B. Critical Thinking..…... 10

C. Learning Activity………... 18

D. Learning Achievement………... 20

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

F. Contextual Teaching Enhance Students’ Critical Thinking Skill

………….………..……….……… 23

G. Concept Analysis of Changes of Matter….……… 24

H. Rationale Framework ….………. 27

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. Location and Subject ………….……….. 29

B. Research Design ………….………. 29

C. Research Method ……….……… 30

D. Operational Definition ……….……… 30

E. Instructional Materials ……….… 31

F. Instruments ……….………. 32

G. Instrument Development Process .………... 33

H. Data Analysis Technique ….………. 39

I. Research Procedure……….. 43

J. Scheme of Research ……….... 45

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION 4.1.Students’ critical thinking improvement …….………... 46

4.2.Students’ concept comprehension improvement ….……… 49

4.3.Correlation and regression between students’ critical thinking and concept comprehension ………....………….. 55

4.4.Students’ respond towards contextual teaching approach ... 56

a. Students’ respond towards changes of matter concept.. 58

b. Students’ respond towards implementation of CTL … 59 c. Students’ respond towards critical thinking ……….… 61

CHAPTER V CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. Conclusion ………...…………... 63

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

REFERENCES………..………..……….

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu LIST OF TABLES

Table 2.1 Critical Thinking Skill (ability) ……….. 12

Table 2.2 Critical Thinking Skill Aspect in this Research ………..15

Table 2.3 Rationale Framework………... 28

Table 3.1 Pre-Test and Post-Test design ……….. 29

Table 3.2 Classification Validity Coefficient ………33

Table 3.3 Reliability Value ……….. 35

Table 3.4 Criteria of Difficulty Level……….……….. 36

Table 3.5 Criteria of Test Item Discriminating Power ………. 37

Table 3.6 Recapitulation of Validity Test Item in Concept Comprehension …... 37

Table 3.7 Observation Sheet to Measure Students’ Critical Thinking …………. 38

Table 3.8 Recapitulation of the Questionnaire ………. 39

Table 3.9 Category Scale of Students’ Understanding ……….... 40

Table 3.10 Criteria of N Gain Improvement ……… 41

Table 3.11 Percentage of Lesson Implementation ………..… 42

Table 3.12 Interpretation of Questionnaire ………. 43

Table 3.13 Interpretation of Correlation Coefficient………….………. 43

Table 4.1 Average of students’ achievement ……… ..………… 49

Table 4.2 Improvement of students’ comprehension for each aspect ………….. 51

Table 4.3 The result of pretest and posttest on concept comprehension…..…… 53

Table 4.4 the result of correlation and regression between students’ critical thinking and concept comprehension ………. 56

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Changing in State of Matter………...……….. 27

Figure 3.1 Steps of Research Method ………., 45

Figure 4.1 Diagram of students’ critical thinking skill improvement ..………... 47

Figure 4.2 Diagram of students’ critical thinking aspect ………...…. 48

Figure 4.3 Diagram of the students’ achievement improvement ………... 50

Figure 4.4 Graph of Students’ Comprehension improvement ion C1, C2 and C3

aspects ……….. 51 Figure 4.5 Graph of students’ comprehension improvement based on gain and normalized gain in C1, C2, and C3 aspect ………... 52

Figure 4.6 Percentage of Students’ Respond towards the Implementation of Contextual Teaching Learning Approach ……….………... 57

Figure 4.7 Percentage of Students’ Respond towards Changes of matter concept

………58

Figure 4.8 Percentage of students’ response towards the implementation of

contextual teaching learning approach ……….……… 60

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu LIST OF APPENDICES

A.1. Lesson Plan ……….. 65

A.2. Learning Scenario ……… 67

A.3. Students’ Worksheet ……… 75

B.1. Critical thinking Skill Test Blueprint……… 78

B.2. Critical Thinking Skill Test Draft ………. 85

B.3. Achievement Test Blueprint ………. 91

B.4. Achievement Test Trial Draft...………. 96

B.5. Achievement Test Draft ………..100

B.6. Observation Sheet ………... 104

B.7. Student Questionnaire ……… 107

C.1. Instrument Analysis of Achievement Test ………. 109

C.2. Interpretation of Achievement Test Instrument Analysis ……….. 117

C.3. Judgment Result ………. 119

D.1. Data Distribution of Pretest ……… 121

D.2. Data Distribution of Posttest ……….. 123

D.3. Normalized Gain Analysis for Achievement Test ………. 125

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

D.5. Normalized Gain Analysis for Understanding Domain ………..127

D.6. Normalized Gain Analysis for Applying Domain ……….. 128

D.7. Recapitulation of Teacher and Students’ Activities ………129

D.8. Data Distribution of Questionnaire result ……… 130

E.1. Research Document

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

CONTEXTUAL TEACHING LEARNING TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ CRITICAL THINKING SKILL AND CONCEPT COMPREHENSION IN

CHANGES OF MATTER TOPIC FOR JUNIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Afif Naofal Pramana Indonesia University of Education International Program on Science Education

ABSTRACT

Nowadays, almost all science education always given only transfer of knowledge from teacher to students with remembering or formulas, only to pass the examination or answer the question, but usually students cannot describe what they have learned with the environment. Implementation of contextual teaching to improve students’ critical thinking skill in changes of matter concept has been conducted. The study adopted a weak-experimental method using "one group pretest-posttest design". The purpose of this study is to describe the implementation of contextual teaching in improving the students’ critical thinking skill. Population in this research are 15 students in grade 7 of junior high school students at one of International School in Bandung. The sample was taken by using availability sampling method. The research data was gained through item tests that were given in pre-test and post-test. The Questionnaire was also applied to get information on students’ responses for the contextual teaching. The result

indicates an increasing in students’ critical thinking and concept comprehension. The relationship is when the improvement of critical thinking skill influence to

improvement of concept comprehensive. Students are able to identify the problems that exist in the environment issues and determine the solution of the problems, also applying the solution. Besides, the students’ achievement has been passed the minimum criteria of completeness.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

People and education are two things that related to each other. Hence education must have contact with humanity. The essence of education is to reach a students’ high quality of life. According to that, education must be able to take apart and develop all students’ humanity potential until they can survive in the future that has more complex problem than now. Also the education itself must give the students’ chance to establish their skills or to create new things within the curriculum. In other words, the purpose of education is to improve students’ critical thinking.

Especially in science education, with all of unique and characteristics of it, science help the students to be more creative. This purposed students to get an idea or reason to survive in society (now and in the future). Science is among ways of thinking to understand nature indication, as one method to find nature phenomenon and as base that gain from research. Science education will invite students to be near with nature as their place for life (Aikenhead 2005).

But until now, almost all science education always given only transfer of

knowledge from teacher to students with remembering or formulas, only to pass the examination or answer the question, but usually students cannot describe what

they have learned with the environment. It is expected that science education gives a skill to students to take a part in efforts to solve problem in their environment. Education in Indonesia is regarded to unable students’ critical, the scene only focus on remembering facts, rather than understanding and applying the concepts.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

connection between subjects learnt in class with students’ daily life. According to Parnell (2001), Contextual teaching and learning is basically a respond to behaviorism approach which emphasizes on the concept of stimulus response of this mechanical drill. To be able to use the language naturally as in the real world life and in the various situations, critical thinking and meaningful learning are needed. When students can relate the lesson got in their school to daily live, they

will be aware of the learning benefit.

Contextual teaching and learning is a concept of teaching and learning emphasizing on the relation between teaching- learning material and the real world (Johnson 2002). The students relate and apply the competence of learning outcome on the everyday life. Furthermore, the teacher uses learning material to teach for the students in order to improve their knowledge and to reach the goal of teaching and learning process.

Even now, many people give the perspective that the science learning process is still running as teacher centre, caused science education has less of meaning and cannot be able to give solution for students when they come to the environment problem. Especially for the “changes of matter” concept that appears many problems. One of them is about the “how is the impact of using kind of properties to the environment?” Usually students only understand if there are dangerous for the environment and prevent to use it. The best solution to prevent that problem is how to reduce the impact of those dangerous properties and make the environment more safety.

In fact the impact of using properties must know kind, contains, molecules and so on. They look like have not a responsibility to the next issues and by this Contextual Teaching they can fully understand also care to environment

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

playing games with their friends. There will not find a human who makes destruction to the nature even not intentional.

In science learning that kind of innovation must be delivered to the students. When teacher explain about Changes of Matter and how to use them, the innovation that has reached also the technique will give them a critical thinking. Why should be used kind of that technique, students can get their concept by

using technology. The curiosity of students to this issue will appear when Contextual Teaching conducted to the learning process. Not only in this part of concept but also the other concept that given to the students.

Actually in this part the teacher will become a guide for the students and full responsible to the concept that given for the future of students also the environment that become the main focus. According to elaboration above, it is necessary to implement the study which is entitled “Contextual Teaching to

Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and knowledge comprehension in

Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

B. Problem of Research

According to the background which is described above, the research problem of this research is: “How is the improvement of Contextual Teaching Learning towards the improvement of students’ critical thinking skill and knowledge comprehension in Changes of Matter topic?”

1. Research Questions

The research problem above is described with the following research questions to make this study focus:

a. How is the improvement of students’ critical thinking by using contextual teaching learning?

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

c. How is the improvement of students’ concept comprehension by using contextual teaching learning?

d. Is there a relationship between students’ understanding and students’ critical thinking skill?

e. What is student’s respond towards the contextual teaching in changes of matter concept?

2. Research Problem Limitation

The limitations of this research are:

a. The topic that will be used as medium to achieve the objective of the research that is to improve low critical thinking in Changes of Matter that contain according to substances form and applications in daily life concept.

b. The students’ achievement that is going to be measure to standard minimum of completeness in this research is learning achievement in cognitive.

c. Students’ response toward the improvement contextual teaching towards students’ in daily life is focusing on experiencing. The measurement of students’ response is done by using questionnaire.

C. Objectives

The main purposes of this paper are:

a. To find out the improvement of students’ critical thinking by using contextual teaching learning.

b. To find out critical thinking aspect mostly improved by using contextual teaching learning.

c. To find out the improvement of students’ concept comprehension by using contextual teaching learning.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

e. To find out student’s respond towards the contextual teaching learning in changes of matter concept.

D. Significance of Research

After this research hopefully that can be used as reference for alternative learning model in particular science concept. The writer hopes this research could

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Location and Subject

This research is implemented in one of International School in Bandung which applied KTSP in the learning process. The subjects of this research are 15

students in secondary 1(grade 7). The sampling method that is carried out is availability sampling method where the selection of subject with this method is not regarding to the aspect of strata, random or region, but subjects are selected based on its availability. In fact, this form of sampling is the most common type in educational research since probability samples, particularly in experimental studies, are maybe impossible (McMillan and Schumacher, 2001).

B. Research Design

Method that is used in this research is weak-experimental with one class pre-test post-test design. Because the number of classes that given treatment is only one class in the absence of control class. In this design, observations are done before and after treatment given. Observations were conducted before the treatment is given is called the pre-test, whereas the observations made after the treatment given is called the post-test.

Table 3.1

Pre-test and post-test design

Pretest Treatment Post test

O1 X O1

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu With:

O1 = Pre-test before treatment is given O2 = Post-test after treatment is given X = Instruction with Contextual Teaching

C. Research Method

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu D. Scheme of Research

Figure 3.1

Steps of Research Method

Determine subject topic based on standard and basic competence Literature review of

critical thinking skill

Designing instrument Designing Lesson plan

Observation Questionnaire

Validation Invalid

Valid

Data Collection

Data Analysis

Result and Conclusion Literature review

of Contextual Teaching

Research implementation

Pre-test

Contextual treatment

1. Relating

2. Experiencing (experiment) 3. Applying

4. Cooperating 5. Transferring

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu E. Operational Definition

1. Contextual Teaching Learning

Contextual Teaching Learning is an educational process that aims to help students see meaning in the academic material they are studying by connecting academic subjects with the context of their personal, social,

and cultural circumstances. To achieve this aim, the system encompasses the following eight components: making meaningful connections, doing significant work, self- regulated learning, collaborating, critical and creative thinking, nurturing the individual, reaching high standards, and using authentic assessments (Sitinjak, 2002).

In this research contextual teaching learning is used as an approach which carried out by giving students a problem that relating with surrounding and asking students to make product or opinion to solve the problem.

2. Critical Thinking Skill

Critical thinking skill is critical thinking as a permitted of individual to do these cases: exactly know main issue and supposing plan to find the connection of issues and make inferential and appropriate formula better than announce the data, and then give interpretation a conclusion with data (Pascarella and Terenzini, 2005).

The critical thinking that by using critical criteria include of was identified and formulated criteria of possibility answer, identify conclusion, use procedure, ability to give reason, hypothesis, concept

application, and consider of alternative solutions. The data of critical thinking was gained by students’ objective test.

3. Changes of Matter Concept Comprehension

The concept comprehension in this research is seen from the

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post-Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

test score that will be interpreted into category of improvement according to Hake (1998).

F. Instructional Materials

The instructional materials that will be used in this research includes lesson plan, learning scenario, instructional tools, media and sources. The lesson

plan is made according to the Scheme of Work (SOW) of Secondary 1 Science used in school which is derived from the Cambridge Combined Science Syllabus 2012. The learning scenario is then constructed according to the weekly lesson plan that has been made. The learning scenario itself is made to make the planning of the lesson is more specific and detailed.

In an instruction tools, media and sources are essential. By the presence of those three, the instruction can be made more effective in achieving the desired objectives. The instructional tools that are used in the implementation of Contextual Teaching are projector, laptop and board. The Medias that will be used

are power point slides and students’ worksheet.

G. Instruments

The research instruments which are designed and used in this study are in the form of tests and non-test. Associated with the data needed, the test instrument to be used consists of achievement test, while non-test instrument to be used consists of observation sheet towards students’ learning activities that cannot be observed by observation, observation sheets for Contextual Teaching such as:

1. Test

A test is commonly defined as a tool or instrument of measurement that is

used to obtain data about a specific trait or characteristic of an individual or group.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu 2. Non Test

In this research, non-test instrument that will be used is in form of observation sheets as follow:

a. Observation sheet towards Contextual Teaching implementation

Use the observation sheet to measure implementation of teacher and the activity levels and criticality of students in the learning process as the objects.

Observation sheet contains the learning stage which is used to view the activities teacher and students.

b. Questionnaire of students’ response toward the implementation of Contextual Teaching Learning.

This instrument will be used to record the students’ response toward the

implementation of Science Technology Society. Students are required to choose one of five scale (strongly disagree, disagree, undecided, agree and strongly agree) for each statement

H. Instrument Development Process Analysis of Test Instrument

Before being used in research, test instrument need to be judged and tried first. The result from the trial will then be analyzed based on its validity, reliability, difficulty level, and discriminating power.

a. Validity

According Arikunto (2012), a test is said to be valid if the test measures what it intends to measure. Test has high validity if the results are in accordance with the criteria, in the sense of alignment between Contextual Teaching and

criteria. Using a measuring instrument intended to measure a certain aspect that will not give an error. Valid measurement tools that will have a small error rate so

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

To measure the validity of each test, using the Coefficient of Product Moment Karl Pearson, there is:

∑ [ ∑ ∑ ]

√[ ∑ ∑ ][ ∑ ∑ ]

With,

: Correlation coefficient between x and y variable n : Amount of student

x : Total score in test item y : Total score of student

Interpretation about will be divided into different categories based on

Guilford.

Table 3.2

Classification Validity Coefficient

Value Interpretation

0,90 ≤ ≤ 1,00 Very high validity 0,70 ≤ <0,90 High validity 0,40 ≤ < 0,70 Medium validity 0,20 ≤ < 0,40 Low validity 0,00 ≤ < 0,20 Very low validity

< 0,00 Invalid

(Arikunto,2010) Instruments are validating by the expert then trial test measure realibility, difficulty index, and discriminating power was conducted.

b. Reliability

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

measure the degree of target consistently measured. Reliability is expressed as a number, usually as a coefficient. High coefficient means high reliability. it can be concluded that reliability is a constancy of a test to measure or observe something that is the object of measurement.

The reliability coefficient can be obtained by using K-R 20 formula in Sugiyono (2008). The value is then interpreted according to its criteria.

( )

(Arikunto,2012) r11 = Instrument reliability

k = Amount of test item

∑pq = Multiplication result of p and q s = Deviation standard

Table 3.3 Reliability Value

Reliability coefficient Criteria

0.00 < x ≤ 0.20 Very low 0.20 < x ≤ 0.40 Low

0.40 < x ≤ 0.60 Satisfactory

0.60 < x ≤ 0.80 High

0.80 < x ≤ 1.00 Very high

(Arikunto,2012) c. Difficulty level

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

(Arikunto, 2012)

P = Difficulty index

B = Amount of student who answer question with the right answer JS = Total amount of students who undertakes the test

Table 3.4

Criteria of Difficulty Level

P Value Category of test P > 0.7 Very Easy

0.3 ≥ P ≥ 0.7 Medium

P < 0.3 Difficult

(Arikunto,2012) d. Discriminating power

Discriminating power of a test item is the ability of an item test to differentiate high achiever students with low achiever students. The value that shows differentiating power is called discrimination index. This index is in between 0.00 until 1.00. The value which is obtain is interpreted according to discriminating power criteria in Arikunto (2012)

(Arikunto, 2012) D = Discriminating power

JA = Amount of high achiever JB = Amount of low achiever

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

BB = Amount of low achiever who answers question with the right answer PA = Proportion of high achiever who answers question with the right answer PB = Proportion of low achiever who answers question with the right answer

Table 3.5

Criteria of Test Item Discriminating Power Discriminating power

interval

Criteria of discriminating power Negative Test item is not

appropriate

0.00 < x ≤ 0.20 Poor

0.21 < x ≤ 0.40 Satisfactory 0.41 < x ≤ 0.70 Good

0.71 < x ≤ 1.00 Excellent

(Arikunto, 2012) Table 3.6

Recapitulation of Validity Test Item in Concept Comprehension

Item No.

Cognitive domain

Validity Difficulty level Discriminating

power Decision

Value Category Value Category Value Category

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Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

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9 C1 0.174 Very low 0.72 Easy 0.57 Good Used 10 C5 0.293 Low 0.40 Medium 0.29 Satisfactory Used 11 C2 0.126 Very low 0.36 Medium 0.43 Good Used 12 C2 0.334 Low 0.52 Medium 0.57 Good Used 13 C4 0.425 Satisfactory 0.44 Medium 0.57 Good Used 14 C3 0.653 High 0.60 Medium 0.57 Good Used 15 C2 0.168 Very low 0.44 Medium 0.29 Satisfactory Used 16 C3 0.471 Satisfactory 0.56 Medium 0.29 Satisfactory Used 17 C2 0.222 Low 0.36 Medium 0.14 Poor Used 18 C1 0.416 Satisfactory 0.40 Medium 0.14 Poor Used 19 C5 0.010 Very low 0.28 Difficult -0.14 Not used 20 C4 0.190 Very low 0.36 Medium 0.14 Poor Used

e. Observation sheet analysis

In this research, there are observation sheets toward students’ learning

[image:30.595.75.526.606.726.2]

activities, observation sheets toward learning interaction pattern and observations sheets toward the implementation of Contextual Teaching. These instruments are evaluated by supervisor first and judged by lecturer before it is used in the research.

Table 3.7

Observation Sheet to Measure Students’ Critical Thinking

Indicator No Criteria Checklist

Definition and classification of

problem

1 Identify problem

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu Assess information

related to the problem

1 Find causes of problem

2 Assess impact of problem

3 Predict the effects of further

Designing solution

based on problem 1 Design solution based on problem

f. Questionnaire analysis

In this research, the questionnaire will be used to measure students’ response toward working as a team, toward games in science and toward reading infusion. The questionnaire is evaluated by supervisor and judged by lecturer before it is used in the research. Questionnaire is given to students to give the checklist sign according of statements.

Table 3.8

Recapitulation of the Questionnaire

Indicator Question Number Students opinion towards states of matter concept in

physics

1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7

Students opinion towards Contextual Teaching 8, 9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, and 15

Students opinion towards critical thinking 16, 17, 18, 19, and 20 .

I. Data Analysis Technique

1. Data analysis on students concept comprehension

Steps to assess the students gain of concept understanding is comparing between pre-test and post-test. Then the scores convert into percentages

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Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

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Table 3.9

Category scale of students’ understanding

Score Category

S ≤ 20 Very poor

21 ≤ S ≤ 40 Poor

41 ≤ S ≤ 60 Satisfactory

61 ≤ S ≤ 80 Good

81 ≤ S ≤ 100 Excellent

Gain score of the students was obtained from the differences between pre-test and post-pre-test as the effect of the intervention. This calculation of gain is to

determine the students’ achievement improvement by using this formula:

(Hake,1998) G = Gain

= Post-test score

= Pre-test score

The effectiveness Contextual Teaching in increasing students’ achievement of concept comprehension in states of matter will be seen from the result of the normalized gain that achieved by students during the learning processas follows:

(Hake, 1999) <g> = Normalized gain

G = Actual gain

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu Sf = Post-test score

Si = Pretest score

[image:33.595.230.396.226.332.2]

Then, the value of <g> is determined based on criteria below: Table 4.10

Criteria of N Gain Improvement N-Gain (g) Improvement

Criteria 0,00 – 0,29 Low

0,30 – 0,69 Medium

0,70 – 1,00 High

(Hake,1998) Analyzed results of the test the level of concept understanding. Data gained from values that obtained by students, which are divided by the number of students in the class in order to obtain the average test which can be formulated:

Then the final result can be compared between pretest and posttest.

4. The implementation of Contextual Teaching to measure the students’ critical thinking

To measure students’ critical thinking in this research is used an observational sheet. The fulfillment of the observational sheet is given the check

list mark on the available coloum that representative of appereance of students’

activity based on the indicator. The observer will observe students appereance of critical and guided by observational sheet. Data obtained from observational sheet using percentage by this formula:

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu R = Actual response observed

[image:34.595.158.471.213.345.2]

Rmax = Maximum possible response

Table 4.11

Percentage of lesson implementation

Percentage Category

80% or more Very Good

60%-79% Good

40%-59% Satisfactory

21%-39% Poor

0%-20% Very Poor

(Arikunto, 2010)

5. Data processing in questionnaire

Contextual Teaching is an approach to enhance critical of students. This treatment measured by questionnaire, there will be 20 questions with 2 optional answers. The fulfillment of the questionnaire is given check list mark on the available coloum that representative of yes and no.

Data obtained from the questionnaire using percentages by formula below:

(Arikunto,2010) P = Response percentage

R = Actual response observed Rmax = Maximum possible response

Percentage of students responses were interpreted using a qualitative interpretation of the questionnaire below:

Table 4.12

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu Percentage Interpretation 0% Nothing

1% - 25% A small portion 26% - 49% Nearly half 50% Half 51% - 75% Majority 76% - 99% In general 100% Entirety

(Arikunto, 2010) 4. Correlation a regression between students’ critical thinking and concept

comprehension.

[image:35.595.213.411.111.229.2]

Correlation analysis was perfomed to find the value of r or it called by correlation coeficient. Correlation analysis can be seen by using IBM SPSS 20. Correlation analysis can be interpreted in some category in this table below:

Table 4.13

Interpretation of Correlation Coeficient Correlation coeficient Interpretation 0,0 – 0,29 Very low

0,30 – 0,49 Low 0,50 – 0,69 Medium 0,70 – 0,89 Strong 0,90 – 1,00 Very strong

(Arikunto,2010) After that is calculation of coeficient determination is done by using the formula shown in table below:

(Arikunto,2010) R = Coefficint determination

r = correlation

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Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

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There are three phases of research procedure in this research, such as: 1. Preparation

In this phase is the first what the researcher will do. This is also important because it will make the purpose of the paper. Researcher may focus on problem, searching information and then design the new method that researcher want to improve weakness from the problem. This is the procedure determine by steps:

a. Determining teaching material that will be used in this research. b. Designing teaching learning.

c. Making research instrument. d. Instrument Validation. e. Revising instrument. f. Preparing research license. g. Determining research subject

2. Implementation

This implementation phase is the action of design that researcher did. Design given to students such as solves of the problem. So there is a treatment in

the experimental class such as construct the students’ concept to make their respect to the real life of that problem (actually for all the subjects) which about states of matter. In the class must do pre-test and then in the end post-test. In this stage researcher will analyse the differences of pre-test and post-test.

3. Analysis

In this phase, this is what researcher waiting for. After doing all of activities and got the data, they will be analysed using statistical analysis.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. Conclusion

The research about the effect of Contextual Teaching towards students’ critical thinking and concept comprehension has been conducted systematically. Based on the result of the research it can be concluded that the

implementation of contextual teaching towards students’ critical thinking and concept comprehension can be seen below:

a. The profile of students’ critical thinking based on the observational sheet results which is 56% of students can explore their critical thinking through Contextual Teaching. The critical thinking of students shows a positive impact to the result of Contextual Teaching in term of visualization and audiolization.

b. Average of students’ critical thinking skill result is in the high

improvement. The high categories are in identify conclusion, ability to give reason, concept application, and consider of alternative solution while improvement the indicator of identified and formulated criteria of possibility answer, use procedure, and hypothesis are in the medium

category

c. The implementation of Contextual Teaching can improve students’ concept comprehension, it can be noticed by processing the differences between pretest and posttest score. The differences score of pretest and posttest can be seen by calculate normalized gain which is 0,30 which include as medium category. There is a significant effect of Contextual Teaching towards students’ concept comprehension.

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School

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e. The respond of students towards the implementation of Contextual Teaching shows the positive respond. Based on the indicator the majority of students like changes of matter concept, Contextual Teaching and critical thinking through Contextual Teaching.

B. Recomendation

There are some recomendation based on the finding of the research that has been conducted and the consideration that implementation is still need to be improve. The recomendation and suggestion thet necesary to be conveyed by the researchers are:

1. Before designing the instrument to measure the critical thinking, the analysis of the indicator based on the expert has to be more spesific so it can be appropiate to concept.

2. Realizing Contextual Teaching in the class takes time, considering the time management is a must.

3. Analizing students’ ability before making a group should be done.

Considering that heterogen of students’ ability in every group can improve

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Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

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REFERENCES

Aikenhead, Glen S. (2005). Research into Contextual Teaching and Learning of

Science Education. London, California University Press.

Arikunto, S., (2010). Prosedur Penelitian Suatu Pendekatan Praktik. Jakarta: Rineka Cipta.

Arikunto, S., (2012). Dasar-Dasar Evaluasi Pendidikan. Jakarta: Bumi Aksara.

Bartholomew, H., Osborne, J., Ratcliffe, M. (2004). Teaching pupils ‘ideas -about science’: Five dimensions of effective practice. Science Education. Newyork: Putnam.

Ben and Ericson, (2001). Science, Technology and Society in School Science

Education. Arvada, CO: Arvada West High School.

Beyer, (1985). Multiple Intelligence; the Theory in Practice: A Reader. Atalanta, GA: Southern Regional Education Board.

Bloom (1956) Classification of Intellectual Skill in Learning Achievement.

Caine & Caine, (1993). State Contextual Education Consortium for Teacher

Preparation. Newyork: Addison-Wesley.

Cornell, (1989) What sort of science education do we really need?

International Journal of Science Education. Bowling Green

University.

Crawford, (2001) Contextual Teaching and Learning. A New Paradigm in

Science Education. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision

and Curriculum Development.

Darroch, L., (1997) Modifying Humanities Courses to Enhance the Success of

Professional-Technical Program Students. Gresham, OR: Mt,

Hood Community College.

Dass, Pradeep M. (2005). Using a Contextual Teaching and Learning Approach

to Prepare Reform-Oriented Science Teachers:The Case of a Secondary Science Methods Course. Secaucus, NJ: A Birch Lane

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Afif Naofal Pramana, 2014

Contextual Teaching Learning to Improve Students’ Critical Thinking Skill and Concept

Comprehension in Changes of Matter Topic for Junior High School Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

Dimyati, (2009). Penerapan Pendekatan Kontekstual dalam Pembelajaran IPA

sebagai Upaya Peningkatan life skill Peserta Didik

Ennis, Dawyer (2007). How to Improve Learning Skill. Del, Ind, CA: Point Mean Publishing.

Hake, R. R., (1998). Interactive Engagement Methods in Introductory Mechanic

Corse. Dept. of Physics, Indiana University. 1-4

Johnson, Elaine B., (2002). CTL-Contextual Teaching and Learning. Cincinnati, OH: South-Western Educational Publishing.

Jordan, S.,(1994). The Heart of Teaching: Strategies, Skills, and Tips for

Effective Teaching. Del, Mar, CA: Turning Point Publishing.

Kinsley, C. W., & McPherson, K., (1995). Enriching the Curriculum through

Service Learning. Alexandria, VA: Association for Supervision

and Curriculum Development.

Marlina and Shaharom, (2007) Challenges to Education: Implication for Science

Teacher Education.

McMillan, J. H. & Scummacher, S., (1998). Research in Education: a

Conceptual Introduction Second Edition. Longman.

Nik Aziz, (1994) Preservice Science Teacher Beliefs About Science Technology

and Their Implication in Society. Waco, Tx: Center of

Occupational Research and Development.

Parnell, D., (2001) Contextual Teaching Works. Waco, Texas: Center foe Occupational Research and Development.

Pascarella and Terenzini, (2005) the Rhythmic Claim of Freedom and

Disciplines in the Aim of Education.

Pintrich & Schunk, (1996) the Aim of Education and Other Essays. Portland, OR: Author.

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dalam Sains dan Masyarakat

Sitinjak, (2002) Pendekatan Pembelajaran Melalui Belajar Aktif

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Souders, J., & Prescott, C., (1999) A case for Contextual Learning. School in

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Gambar

Table 3.1 Pre-test and post-test design
Figure 3.1 Steps of Research Method
Table 3.2
Table 3.5 Criteria of Test Item Discriminating Power
+5

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