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Ivana Margaretta Reg Number 4123131047 Chemistry Education Study Program


Submitted to fulfill The Requirement for Getting The degree of Sarjana Pendidikan








Ivana Margaretta (Reg Number : 4123131047) ABSTRACT

This thesis purposes the implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning using concept map on the teaching acid base topic. The objectives of research are to determine the difference of student’s outcomes in acid base topic by CTL using concept map compared to conventional model and to determine the influence the student’s outcome of CTL using concept map in learning acid base topic. The population of this research were all of students in grade XI, 2nd semester and academic year 2015/2016 in Indonesia. The samples are 2 classes from student in SMA N 11 Medan by purposive random sampling method. The experimental class is learned by CTL using concept map and control class is learned by conventional model. The instruments are using multiple choice test to see the student’s outcome. The instrument of research is standardized by expert validator and empiric validity. Data analysis is using manual calculation. The result of test is standardized and there are 21 items valid with reliability is 0.90474. The result data shows that the student’s outcome taught by CTL using concept map give higher significant difference than taught by conventional model. It can be seen from the average of gain and also proved with z-test, the normalized gain in experimental class (0.6388±0.1495) and control class (0.1958±0.1269). The statement support the research data result of hypothesis test is zcount = 14.2995 and ztable = 1.645. The calculation shows that Ha is received or H0 is rejected. Ha is student’s outcomes through Contextual Teaching and Learning used concept map media is higher than using conventional method in acid base topic, and H0 is student’s outcomes through Contextual Teaching and Learning used concept map media is less than using conventional method in acid base topic.



The greatest praise and thankfulness to the almighty God, Jesus Christ for His gracious and blessing who always provide health, spirit, strength, and everything to the writer in finishing this thesis well and accordance to the planning time.

This thesis title “The implementation of contextual teaching and learning using concept map on the teaching acid base topic” has been arranged to obtain of Sarjana Pendidikan in Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, State University of Medan.

In this opportunity, I would like to express the great appreciation for Prof.Dr.Albinus Silalahi,M.S as my thesis supervisor that gives so many guidance and suggestion to prepare this thesis and Prof.Dr.Retno Dwi Suyanti,M.Si , Dr.Ayi Darmana,M.Si , and Agus Kembaren,S.Si, M.Si as a thesis examiners for their advice, suggestion, guidance, comment, and correction for completing this thesis. And also to Prof.Dr.Retno Dwi Suyanti,M.Si as validator research instrument.

I also says thanks to Dr.Asrin Lubis,M.Si as the dekan faculty of Mathematic and Natural Science, State University of Medan, then Dr.Iis Siti Jahro,M.Si as head of Bilingual Program. And also to Nora Susanti, S.Si, Apt, M.Sc.,as the secretary of Bilingual Program.

I gratitude also thanks to principal of SMAN 11 Medan, Drs. K. Lumbantoruan M.Pd. Then also teacher, Dra. Jamaliah M.Pd who has given their helping, motivation and support to finish this research.

The deepest and special gratitude, appreciation and love to my beloved parents, Gustap Simanjuntak and Mawar Hutasoit,S.Pd for their endless love, support, prays, motivation, and careness, and also to my beloved brothers, Michael Simanjuntak, Candro Jenriko Simanjuntak, and Agustian Simanjuntak, and also my beloved sister, Tasya Amanda Simanjuntak for their motivation and support and give me the meaning of true family.

And special thanks to my boyfriend Henriman Sianturi (Man) that give me more support and motivation to finish my thesis. He is always angry if I am lazy to do the data calculation. But I know he is good boy for me and always be there for me. Thank you a lot of.



Especially to my “Geteks” (Witha Locka Siregar, Fridayuni Simanjuntak, Rolina Pandiangan), Descey Simbolon, Rimbun Hutagaol that accompany me during in university, always with me through in happy and sad time during be a student.

Finally, writer hope this thesis would be useful for everyone who like to explore more about learning method and learning media that suitable to learn acid base topic and another subject in chemistry. The writer realize that this thesis is still far from being perfect therefore critique and suggestion are needed for further improvement of this thesis.

Medan, Juni 2016


Ivana Margaretta













1.1 The Background 1

1.2 Problem Identification 4

1.3 Research Scope 4

1.4 Problem Formulation 5

1.5 Research Objective 5

1.6 Research Benefits 5

1.7 Operational Definition 6


2.1Learning 7

2.2Learning Model 7

2.2.1 Contextual Teaching and Learning Model in Chemistry 8 Contextual Teaching and Learning Definition 8 The Characteristics of Contextual Teaching and Learning 9


vii The Procedure of Contextual Teaching and Learning 13

2.3Learning Media 14

3.7Technique of Data Analysis 30


3.7.2 The Homogeneity Test 31

3.7.3 Normalized Gain 31

3.7.4 Hypothesis Testing 32


4.1 Research Result 33

4.2 Result of Contextual Teaching and Learning Using Concept Map 33

4.3 Data Analysis of Research Instrument 33

4.3.1 Validity Test 34

4.3.2 Reliability Test 34

4.3.3 Difficulty Test 34

4.3.4 Discrimination Index 35

4.4 Achievement of Research Result 35

4.4.1 Data Analysis of Achievement Test before Teaching Treatment 35

4.4.2 Data Analysis of Achievement Test after Teaching Treatment 36

4.4.3 Normalized Gain of Research Data 36


5.1 Conclusion 43

5.2 Suggestion 43




Table 3.1 The Design of Research 27

Table 4.1 Data Analysis of Achievement Test before Teaching Treatment 35

Table 4.2 Data Analysis of Achievement Test after Teaching Treatment 36

Table 4.3. Average Value of Normalized Gain 37

Table 4.4. Percentage of Student’s Outcome 37

Table 4.5. Normality Data of Pretest by Excel 2010 38

Table 4.6. Normality Data of Posttest by Excel 2010 38

Table 4.7. Homogeneity Data of Pretest by Excel 2010 39

Table 4.8. Homogeneity Data of Posttest by Excel 2010 39






Appendix 1. Syllabus 47

Appendix 2. Lesson Plan 51

Appendix 3. Table grille Material Test Acids and Bases 74

Appendix 4. Instrument Test 86

Appendix 5. Key Answer 97

Appendix 6. Media for Research 98

Appendix 7. Manuscript Material 99

Appendix 8. Validity Test 121

Appendix 9. Reliability Test 125

Appendix 10. Difficulty Test 128

Appendix 11. Discrimination Index 132

Appendix 12. Data of Student’s Outcome 136

Appendix 13. Normalized Gain 139

Appendix 14. Normality Test 141

Appendix 15. Homogeneity Test 145

Appendix 16. Hypothesis Test 146

Appendix 17. Table of Critical Value from r Product Moment 147

Appendix 18. Table of Chi-Square Value 148

Appendix 19. Table of F Value Distribution 149

Appendix 20. Z – TABLE 152


1 especially in Indonesia be able to produce a cadre of qualified nation, intelligent,

independent, critical, creative, and innovative. This of course meant that the

nation's future can face all the problems of the times and be able to compete with

the world. Therefore, education should be adapted to the culture in Indonesia so

the education is embedded within the community that students can make them

recognize, appreciate, and utilize existing resources as well as possible. It has

been realized that the quality of a nation is determined by the quality of human

resources available. Therefore, education is the most important aspect in

improving the quality of human resources in Indonesia.

The effort made by the government was not a little to improve the quality

of education in Indonesia. One of them with changes the curriculum’s structure

refers to the content standards and competency standards. In the old curriculum of

learning tend in one direction from teacher to students (teacher centered), while

students are less active role in learning. In this case students are required to play

an active role in learning (student centered), while the teacher acts as a facilitator,

motivator and evaluator. Thus, students are expected to be active, creative,

critical, intelligent, and independent in search of information to build knowledge.

Students are expected not only memorized and understanding of concepts and

principles, knowing the facts, but it is expected that students can apply in daily


Problems often arose in the study was from the students themselves as a

student. The absence of its own preparation of students before receiving the

learning and understanding of the concepts are still less its cause the student only

receives the information presented by teacher. This will cause the students quickly



information that presented is very less. Activity of student as critical thinkers has

not done well and students are less sensitive to incoming information.

Lack of preparation in students will make students less creative in dealing

problems. Creative attitude of students who are lacking can be seen from how the

students seek information on the subject those materials. This causes the students

tend not produce a lot of ideas to solve the problem because lack of learning

resources obtained by students.

Competence of student’s outcome is very important to be considered by

educators to face an era full of challenges. Students are required to always active

in dealing the problems in the era of globalization that full of competition and the

higher complexity of the problems in all aspects of life. The development of

creativity abandoned in formal education, but more meaningful for the

development of children's potential and for the advancement of knowledge, arts

and culture (Dewey,John, 2006)

Chemistry as science subjects have characteristics based on practice and

experimentation. Therefore, students are required not only to feel understood the

material and concepts but can be practiced by answering questions, conduct

experiments and solve problems in daily life. This of course requires students to

be sensitive to the existing problems by actively searching for a lot of resources to

get a solution or problem-solving ideas from various perspectives.

Chemistry teaching methodology in schools that have implemented the

educational unit level is considered to be quite varied in addition, with the various

facilities such as a chemical laboratory and an adequate library as a source of

student learning allows students to learn by looking for as much information. This

course will help students to be more active in dealing the problems that exist.

With active the students are expected to solve problems with more open attitude,

systematic, logical, and produce a lot of ideas. The process of thinking like this

will make students more independent learning with developing them own


Based on discussions with teachers of chemistry student issues still tend to

solve problems using methods delivered by teachers, students often forget the

subject matter, and the lack of preparation of the students before the lesson begins.

This cause the students are less prepare in solving problems (especially chemical

matters). Students are also less sensitive to their environment issues related to

chemistry. For example, from waking up to going to bed back students certainly

faced with chemicals, such as soap, toothpaste, detergent, food and fruits,

cosmetics, fuel, clothing, and so forth. Surely this is a problem that must be

followed and it was time held innovation in teaching chemistry to boost traffic

critical and creative thinking.

To dealing these problems one of which is the teaching methodology

presented by the teacher that the teacher should know the right step in the present

study include the approaches, methods, strategies, media and student learning

resources. Among them by using an instructional activities that provide

opportunities for students to think freely, directing students seek information from

various sources, guiding students to be sensitive to problems, critical in solving

the problem in various ways and from different angles ( Hamalik, 2008 ).

One approach to learning that is considered appropriate in learning

problem through the CTL is a learning system based on the philosophy a learner

will be able to absorb the subject matter if they are able to absorb the meaning of

the lesson. CTL on learning approach will help students in making connections

between the subject matter with real life, so that students will get the meaning of

what they learned as Johnson said that contextual teaching and learning enables

students to connect the content of academic subject with the immediate context of

their daily lives to discover meaning. It enlarges their personal context

furthermore, by providing students with fresh experiences that stimulate the brain

to make new connection and consequently, to discover new meaning.

CTL using concept map are expected to help students in improving

learning outcome of students. The Problem that is raised will challenge students to



creative in finding resources, put forward good ideas, and solutions solving of

various viewpoints.

CTL is a system that stimulates the brain to arrange the patterns from the

meaning. CTL system learning that suitable with brain that produce meaning in

relating academic charge with context from student’s daily life.Through by CTL

using concept map, students are expected to be trained to improve learning

outcome. Concept in teaching-learning process also determine the influence how

the protege easy to catch the material topic. So one way is concept map. Concept

map give the keyword of topic, save keyword is easy to solve the problem.

Keyword easy to remember than all the material. ( Johnson, 2009 ).

Based on the above reasons, the researcher is interested to conduct

research under the title “The Implementation of Contextual Teaching and Learning Using Concept Map on The Teaching Acid Base Topic”.

1.2 Problem Identification

Based on the background above, problem identification of this research as


1. Nothing self-preparation of students before receive the learning and

understanding of the concepts are still less its cause the student only receives

4. The lack of student’s participation in learning process.

5. Learning models that are less varied as required by the subject matter.

1.3 Research Scope

Based on the scope of problems identification above, this research will be


1. Arranging the teaching materials in the form of syllabus and lesson plan


2. Preparing the discussion material that taught by CTL and concept map.

3. Instrument test will be reviewed and revised by the lecturer from the

Department of Chemistry Education.

1.4 Problem Formulation

The problem formulations of this research are:

1. Is there difference of student’s outcomes in acid base topic by CTL using

concept map compared to conventional model?

2. Is there influence the student’s outcome of CTL using concept map on student’s outcomes in learning acid base topic?

1.5 Research Objective

The objectives of this research are:

1. To know the difference of student’s outcomes in acid base topic by CTL using

concept map compared to conventional model.

2. To know the influence the student’s outcome of CTL using concept map in

learning acid base topic.

1.6 Research Benefit

The benefits of this research are:

1. Provide the broad outlines of innovative learning to the science teachers,

especially in using the CTL with concept map in learning process.

2. Provide the learning reference that can be used in high school on the material

acid base.

3. Help students to learn through active learning to foster their interest and

motivation to learn.



1.7 Operational Definition

The operational definitions in this research consist of:

1. Contextual Teaching and Learning

Contextual teaching and learning is a conception of teaching and learning that

helps teachers relate subject matter content to real world situations; and motivates

students to make connections between knowledge and its applications to their

lives as family members, citizens, and workers; and engage in the hard work that

learning requires (Hudson, 2000).

2. Concept Map

Concept Map is part of a concept or idea as a basic material that aims to build

students' knowledge in a systematic study (Istarani, 2011).

3. Learning Outcomes

Student learning outcomes measured on cognitive realm by giving pretest as

initial knowledge and posttest as end knowledge after treatment.

4. Media

Media education in general is a teaching and learning tool. Multimedia application

design offers new insights into the learning process of the designer and forces him

or her to represent information and knowledge in a new and innovative way

(Agnew, Kellerman & Meyer, 1996).

5. Conventional Model

According Djamarah (1996), conventional teaching methods are traditional

learning methods or collectively, the lecture method, because since the first of this

method has been used as a means of oral communication between teachers and

students in the learning process and learning. In the conventional method of

teaching history is marked with lectures, accompanied by an explanation as well

as the division of tasks and exercises. Learning the conventional method, learners

are more listened to the teacher in front of class and perform tasks if teachers

provide practice questions to students. Are often used on conventional teaching

methods include lectures, question and answer method, discussion method, the


43 Based on the above result, can conclude that:

1. Student’s outcome taught by CTL using concept map is significant better than student’s outcome taught by conventional with manual calculation, Z calculation is 14.2995, it means z calculation > z table, (1.645), Ha is accepted and H0 is rejected.

2. The influence student’s outcome of CTL using concept map is better

than conventional, because the percentage student’s outcome in

experimental class is higher than control class (63.88 % > 19.58 %), it

means there is have increasing.

5.2 Suggestion

Form the result of the research, there are some suggestion must be raised :

1. Chemistry teaching can use contextual teaching and learning using concep map on the tesching acid based topic to increase the student’s outcomes in learning process.

2. Another researcher that want to implement contextual teaching and




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Table 3.1 The Design of Research

Table 3.1

The Design of Research p.10