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Julinton Sianturi Reg. Number 408131063 Chemistry Education Study Program


Submitted to Fulfill the Requirement for getting the Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan






Praise and gratitude author say to God almighty, for all grace and his

blessing that provide health and wisdom to author, so this study can be done well

and accordance with the planned time. Title of this thesis are “The implementation model of Basic technology education (BTE) to improve the entrepreneurship spirit of students’ on chemistry learning at pharmacy vocational high school” that arranged to obtain the degree of chemistry, faculty of mathematics and natural

sciences State university of Medan (UNIMED).

In this opportunity, the writer would like to express him greatest thanks to

Drs Rahmat Nauli, M.Si as her thesis supervisor for his advices, guidance

comment, during the process of completing this thesis and his gratitude is also

expresses to Dr Iis Sit jahro, M.Si, Dr Zainuddin Muhtar, M.Si, Dr Mahmud,

M.Sc as his reviewer counselor for their advice, suggestion, guidance and

constructive comment in this process of completing this thesis.

The writer also thanks to Dr Retno Dwi suyanti, M.Si as the validater of

test instrument in this research, Drs Jamalum Purba, M.Si that give the great spirit

in arranging thesis in English form and as the Headmaster of chemistry

department, Dra Ani Sutiani, M.Si as the head of study program of chemistry

education, Drs P.M Silitonga, M.S. as academic counselor and to all lecture in

chemistry department. And also the writer addresses his thanks to Drs Alexander

Tarigan as headmaster of GBKP senior high school in Kabanjahe, Dra Rotua

Napitupulu as the supervisor chemistry teacher in validity of instrument multiple

choice. The writer also thanks to Desiyanti.,S.Fam, Apt as headmaster of

pharmacy vocational high school, Dra Nurmalis, M.Si as lecture and as the

supervisor chemistry teacher and Fino Yoharde as Chemistry Teacher and

assistance of Dra Nurmalis, M,Si, and to all teacher who helped the writer to do

his research well.

In addition, his special gratitude is devoted to his beloved parents,

Nahasan Sianturi and Gestariana Simanjorang and also to all dearest brothers and

sisters (April Sianturi, Desmon P. Sianturi, Uafribin Sianturi, S.Si, S.Pd, Masta

Sianturi, S.S, S.Pd, Verawaty sianturi, Tumpal Simanjorang, S.Pd) for their love,



The writer special thanks also goes to Wiro Naibaho, S.Pd and Saronom

Silaban, S.Pd, M.Pd, Sansah Sinaga, Rudyanto Sinaga, Andri situmorang, Rudi

Panjaitan and Raja Hiskia S, Hotman H, S.P and Angga Pradinata, S.P as my best

brother and Suriany Sitorus, Damieta Sumbayak, Winarti Sitorus, Kristina

sianturi, Lia Kemit as my best sister that give great inspiration, motivation in my

life. To my small group (Nova Sinaga, Laurent S, Rosmala S, Ruth F Ginting) on

UKMKP UNIMED. Smart and beautiful group (Corry PS, Rany HL Siburian, Rosdiana S), Marumpak Group, Chemstic Group, apa adanya group and all his friend in class of B education 2008, my friend in class of non-education 2008

(Willy F Sitanggang, Ronald Juvent, Wesly P, Eko Ahmad Samosir, Rocky T),

Bilingual 2008 (Amelia Yesika, Agustina, Dian, Jane E, Bintang Simaremare etc),

Bilingual Education 2010, B education 2009 (Tumpal Simalango, Dewi Sinaga,

juliyanti, ougest Sianturi, etc), and education 2010 (Elika Tarigan, Elsi S, Fenny

Saragih, Kartomo, etc), my all best friend PPLT at GBKP senior high school of

Kabanjane (Wery Agusnius Sinaga, Jeckson Sitorus, Albert Jeffersen S, Abadi

Einstein, Anggel Dewi P) for all their help, to togetherness, attention, and

prayers, you are My spirit Guy !. Thanks also to my best big family “IKBKK”

community for supports and prayers And to all whose name that cannot be mentioned one by one, the writer would to say “thanks for everything”

Finally, the writer hopes this thesis would be useful for those who would

like to explore more about ownership of the concept and science process skills,

especially for the students college of the chemistry department, The writer realizes

that her thesis is still far from being perfect therefore, criticism, and suggestion

are needed for further improvement of this thesis.

Medan, July, 2012 Author





Julinton Sianturi (Reg Number 408131063)




1.2. Problems Identification 4

1.3. The Scope of Research 4

1.4. The Problem Statement 5

1.5. The objective of Research 5

1.6. The significance of Research 6

1.7. Operational Definition 7


2.1. Overview Of the Study 9

2.1.1. Understanding of learning 9

2.1.2. Learning Activities 10

2.1.3. The essence of chemical and chemistry learning 11

2.1.4. Learning Outcomes 12 Varieties of learning outcomes 13

2.1.5. Conventional model 14

2.1.6. Basic technology education (BTE) 15 How to learning activities of students through the

BTE (Basic technology education) model 16 How the students’ to learn through the BTE model 17

2.1.7. Science Process Skill (SPS) 21

2.1.8. Ownership of the concepts 25

2.1.9. Chemical representation 27



2.1.11. Vocational high school 29

2.1.12. Entrepreneurial 30

2.1.13. Entrepreneurial motivation 31

2.1.14. Description of study materials 32

2.2. Conceptual Framework 42

2.3. Hypothesis 44


3.1. Location and time of research 46

3.2. Population and sample of research 46

3.3. Variable of research 46

3.4. Instrument of Research 47

3.5. Design of Research 48

3.6. The instrument Analysis 52

3.7. Technique of data analysis 55

3.7.1. Science process skills (SPS) 55

3.7.2. Ownership of the concepts 58 Student Learning Outcomes Data 58 Improve Learning Outcomes (gain) 58

3.7.3. Level of mastery or understanding of microscopic, macroscopic

and symbolic 59

3.8. Analyzing of Data 60

3.8.1. The Normality of Test. 60

3.8.2. Two Variances Similarity Test (Homogeneous) 61

3.9. Hypotheses Test 61


4.1. Result or research 65

4.1.1. Instrument of data analysis The Validity of the test 65 The Reliability test 66 The Difficulty level of Instrument 66 The Discrimination Index of Instrument 66

4.1.2. The description of data 66 Ownership of the concepts 66 Percantages of ownership of the concepts 68 Chemical representation 69



4.1.3. Description of data analysis 72 The Normality of Test 72 The Homogeneity of Test 73

4.1.4. Testing of hypothesis 74

4.1.5. Entrepreneurship Aspect 75 Behavior assessment 75 Product assessment 76 Eentrepreneurship Yen 76

4.2. Inventions of research 76

4.3. Discussion 77


5.1. Conclusions 87

5.2. Suggestions 88





Page Table.2.1. Five types of Learning Outcomes and the Performances Made

Possible by Learners, with examples. 13

Table 2.2. Indicators of science process skills 21

Table 2.3. Comparasion properties of colloid, solutions and suspension 33

Table 2.4. Types of collloids 34

Table 2.5. Dissimilarity between hydrophilic sol and hydrophobic sol 40

Table 3.1. Design of research 48

Table 3.2. The Guidelines of scoring 55

Table 3.3. Interpretation category of IPK in learning process 57

Table 3.4. The calculate result then converted science skills process 58

Table 3.5. Assessment indicators of Level of Mastery or understanding of

Microscopic, macroscopic and symbolic 60

Table 4.1. Averages pre test, post test and N-Gain in control and experiment

Classes 66

Table 4.2. Percentage of ownership of the concepts before and after learning

Process 69

Table 4.3. The %chemical representation at pre test condition 70

Table 4.4. The %chemical representation at post test condition 70

Table 4.5. Averages initial condition, final condition and N-gain in

control and experimental classes 71

Table 4.6. The Normality test at ownership of the concepts aspect 73

Table 4.7. The normality test at science process skills aspect 73

Table 4.8 The homogeneity test of research data of ownership of the concepts

Aspect 73

Table 4.9. Summary data hypothesis I and II 74

Table 4.10. Summary data hypothesis III. 74

Table 4.11. Analysis instrument table (Difficulty index) 77

Table 4.12. Percentage SPS at initial condition 83





Figure 2.1. Laboratory room sketches of BTE (Basic technology education) 18

Figure 2.2. Three level of representation in chemistry (Chittelborough, 2004) 28

Figure 2.3. Interaction between fat, water and soap 28

Figure 2.4. solution, suspension, and colloid ( Source :, accessed on 12th

Feb 2012, o’clock 15:39 pm) 32

Figure 2.5. Tyndall effect process Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 11.00 pm) 35

Figure 2.6. Brown motion Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 11.30 pm) 36

Figure 2.7. Electrophoreses Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 11.45 pm) 36

Figure 2.8. Adsorption process Source :, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 14.06 pm) 37

Figure 2.9. Coagulation Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 14.20 pm) 37

Figure 2.10. Purification of water Source: chemistry book for grade XI natural

Science 38

Figure 2.11. Dialysis process Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 14.25 pm) 38

Figure 2.12. Ice cream Source:, accessed on

14thFeb 2012, o’clock 14.30pm) 39

Figure 2.13. Soap Source:, accessed on



Figure 2.14. Structure formula of Soap Source : accessed on

2ndFeb 2012, o’clock 15:15 pm 41

Figure 2.15. Conceptual Framework 43

Figure 3.1. The scheme of research steps 51

Figure 4.1. Score averages of pre test, post test and N-gain percentage between

control and experiment classes 67

Figure 4.2. Graph of concepts between control and experiment classes 69

Figure 4.3. Diagram of chemical representation before and after teaching and

learning process 70

Figure 4.4. Score averages of pre test, post test and N-gain percentage between

control and experimental classes 72

Figure 4.5. Animation about tyndall effect (Colloidal properties) 81

Figure 4.6. Appearance video about colloidal phenomena of ice cream to improve





Appendix 1. Syllabus 92

Appendix 2 . Lesson Plan 98

Appendix 3. Test Instrument 132

Appendix 4. Key of the answer 139

Appendix 5. Specification of Instrument 140

Appendix 6. Test Instrument to identification students’ initial concepts 141

Appendix 7. Key of the answer to identification students’ initial concepts 143 Appendix 8 . Specification of instrument to identification students’ initial concept 150

Appendix 9 . The calculation of instrument test 151

Appendix 10. The calculation of data samples 165

Appendix 11. Students’ learning outcomes data 168

Appendix 12. The calculation of ownership of the concepts improvement or gain 170

Appendix 13. The calculation of standard deviation, variances for control and

experimental classes 173

Appendix 14. The calculation of Normality test 179

Appendix 15. The calculation of test Homogeneity 185

Appendix 16. The calculation of chemical representation 189

Appendix 17. Capability improvement percentage of chemical representation 197

Appendix 18. Hypothesis Test 202

Appendix 19. The calculation of science process skills 207

Appendix 20. The calculation gain at science process skills aspect 212

Appendix 21. The calculation of science process skills (SPS) 215

Appendix 22. The calculation of standard deviation, variances for control and



Appendix 23. The calculation of test homogeneity at science process skills aspect 226

Appendix 24 Hypothesis II 229

Appendix 25 Hypothesis III 233

Appendix 26 The calculation of test correlation 237

Appendix 27 From of behavior assessment 239

Appendix 28 From of product assessment 241

Appendix 29 Scale measure of entrepreneurship yen 244

Appendix 30 Documentations of research 249

Appendix 31 Chi Square values 255

Appendix 32 The value of r Product Moment 256

Appendix 33 Table of distribution-t (Table-t) Values 257

Appendix 34 List of distribution precentile value 258





5.1. Conclusion

Based on the result of research and the analysis of data, it could be

concluded as explanation below:

1. Implementation model of basic technology education (BTE) can be

improving the ownership of students’ concept of students’ on colloidal

systems matter that proved with T-Test, averages gain in Experiment class is

(76.09±8.33) and control class (55.62±8.92) at significance level 5% Ha

received and refuse Ha (tcount (9.22) > ttable(1.55))

2. Implementation model of basic technology education (BTE) can be

improving Science process skills of students’ on colloidal systems matter.

That proved with T-Test, averages gain in Experiment class is (80.64±7.89)

and control class (64.47±6.91) at significance level 5% Ha received and

refuse Ha (tcount (9.43) > ttable(1.70))

3. There is relation that linier and significance between two variables, those are

science process skills and ownership of the concepts. The equation regression

is 26.59 +0.71x and correlation value of it 68.57%. It means very high

correlation between two variables. The yen of students’ in entrepreneurship

case in experiment class is 23.33%, which categorized high, 6.67%, which

categorized enough, 20%, which categorized less, while in control class is

13.33%, which categorized high, 10%, which categorized enough,

53.33%,which categorized less and 23.33% students’ at control class is not

interest to be an entrepreneur.



5.2. Suggestion

Based on the calculations of this study, the authors can provide advices as


1. Chemistry teachers, especially in pharmacy vocational high school

APIPSU of Medan could apply model of basic technology education

(BTE) as an alternative model to improve entrepreneurship spirit of

students’ on chemistry learning

2. Readers and the other researcher, as a new information and references to

do a sort research in other time

3. It is need to do the next research with the other subject matter as an




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