THE REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL ACTORS IN THE 1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA : A Critical Discourse Analysis.

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THE REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL ACTORS IN THE 1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

A Research Paper

submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for Sarjana Sastra degree

Reza Ardian

0707994

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS EDUCATION

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The Representation of Social Actors in the 1945

Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia:

A Critical Discourse Analysis

Oleh

Reza Ardian

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana

pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Reza Ardian 2013

Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Oktober 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

Skripsi ini tidak boleh diperbanyak seluruhnya atau sebagain,

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

THE REPRESENTATION OF SOCIAL ACTORS IN THE 1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA: A CRITICAL DISCOURSE ANALYSIS

By: Reza Ardian

0707994

Approved by:

First Supervisor Second Supervisor

Drs. Sudarsono M.I., M.A. Ruswan Dallyono S.Sos., M.Pd. NIP. 196607051994031004 NIP. 197008032005011002

The Head of English Education Department Faculty of Language and Art Education

Indonesia University of Education

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ABSTRACT

As the supreme source of law, the 1945 Constitution is the most important written discourse of the Republic of Indonesia. This study is conducted to reveal the ideological postures behind representations of the social actors in it, employing social actor network in van Leeuwen’s framework of discourse as recontextualization of social practice (1993). The analysis is separated into two stages, those are, the analysis of the preamble part and the analysis of the body part.

The result shows that the 1945 Constitution presents 29 social actors in total. In the preamble part, civilians and the executive agent are presented as the main actors. Civilians in this part are represented in total inclusion and specification, thus as the more dominant actor than the executive agent that is presented in partial exclusion and genericization. The preamble part therefore introduces some elements of socialism, as in socialism civilians are more dominant topic of discussions than the executive, and it constitutes as the most dominant ideological posture. In the body part, civilians, the executive, legislative and judicative agents are presented as the main actors. The executive, legislative and judicative agents tend to be represented in inclusion, activation, and functionalization. Consequently they are conceived as the most dominant actors among others. On the other hand, civilians are inclined in partial exclusion, assimilation, and classification, thus as the minor actor. This suggests that the text of the body part introduces some elements of democracy, as in democracy the state actors are more dominant topic of discussions than civil actors. In addition, the body part attempts to establish democracy as the most dominant ideological posture. As a result, interestingly, the body part tends to alter the ideology of socialism that is previously introduced in the preamble part, into the ideology of democracy. It indicates, to some extent, that the ideological posture in the text of preamble part is not in conformity with the ideological posture in the text of body part.

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ABSTRAK

Sebagai sumber hukum tertinggi, Undang-undang Dasar 1945 merupakan diskursus tertulis yang paling penting di Republik Indonesia. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengungkap postur ideologi di balik representasi aktor sosial di dalamnya, menggunakan jaringan aktor sosial dalam kerangka diskursus van Leeuwen, yaitu rekontekstualisasi praktek sosial (1993). Analisis penelitian ini dibagi ke dalam dua tahap, yaitu analisis bagian pembukaan dan analisis bagian batang tubuh.

Hasil analisa menunjukkan bahwa UUD ‘45 memperlihatkan 29 aktor

sosial secara keseluruhan. Di bagian pembukaan, aktor sipil dan agen eksekutif digambarkan sebagai aktor utama. Pada bagian ini, aktor sipil digambarkan dalam inklusi total dan spesifikasi, sehingga menjadi aktor yang lebih dominan daripada agen eksekutif yang digambarkan dalam eksklusi parsial dan generikisasi. Dengan demikian, bagian pembukaan UUD ’45 mengandung beberapa elemen sosialisme, karena dalam sosialisme aktor sipil merupakan topik diskusi yang lebih dominan daripada aktor eksekutif, dan sosialisme ini menjadi postur ideologi yang paling dominan di bagian pembukaan. Di bagian batang tubuh, aktor sipil, agen eksekutif, legislatif, dan yudikatif cenderung digambarkan dalam inklusi, aktifasi, dan fungsionalisasi. Sebagai konsekuensinya, mereka dipahami sebagai aktor-aktor yang lebih dominan daripada aktor-aktor lain. Di sisi lain, aktor-aktor sipil cenderung digambarkan dalam eksklusi parsial, asimilasi, dan klasifikasi, sehingga menjadi aktor minor. Ini memberi kesan bahwa bagian batang tubuh mengandung beberapa elemen demokrasi, karena dalam demokrasi aktor negara menjadi topik diskusi yang lebih dominan daripada aktor sipil. Lebih jauh, bagian batang tubuh

UUD ‘45 berusaha membentuk demokrasi sebagai postur ideologi yang paling

dominan. Hasilnya, bagian batang tubuh cenderung merubah ideologi sosialisme yang sebelumnya dikenalkan di bagian pembukaan, menjadi ideologi demokrasi. Ini mengindikasikan, pada tahap tertentu, postur ideologi pada bagian pembukaan tidak sesuai dengan postur ideologi pada bagian batang tubuh.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.7Organization of the Paper 10

CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FOUNDATION 11

2.1 Discourse and Discourse Analysis 11

2.2 Critical Discourse Analysis 13

2.3 Van Leeuwen’s Framework: Discourse as Recontextualization of Social

Practice 15

2.4 Representing Social Actors: van Leeuwen’s Social Actor Network 17

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CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY 39

3.1 Research Design 39

3.2 Data Collection 42

3.2.1 Issues on the Data 43

3.3 Data Analysis 45

CHAPTER IV FINDINGS AND DISCUSSIONS 54

4.1 Findings 45

4.2.1 Social Actors and Their Linguistic Representations 84

4.2.2 Social Actors and Their Representation Trends in the Preamble

Part 85

4.2.3 Social Actors and Their Representation Trends in the Body Part 91

4.2.4 The Conformity of the Ideological Postures of Social Actor

Representations in the Preamble and the Body Parts 99

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS 103

5.1 Conclusions 103

5.2 Suggestions 105

BIBLIOGRAPHY 107

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents an introductory section of the study. It covers the

background of the study, the research questions, the aims of the study, and the

limitation of the study, as well as the research methodology which includes data

collection and data analysis, clarification of key terms, and organization of the

paper.

1.1 Background

Reality is constructed by practices which are performed continuously in

social contexts. According to van Leeuwen (2008), these practices shape

discourse because information about discourse is based on doings (=practices),

rather than beings. As van Leeuwen (2009, cited in Wodak and Meyer, 2009:144)

argues, for instance, “knowledge about what „leadership‟ is, is ultimately based on

what leaders do”. However, a discourse will alter these practices, for instance by obscuring some aspects of practices that are less important. In addition, evidence

for the discourse comes from texts because manifestation of language which is an

irreducible part of reality, as Fairclough (2003) posits. Hence texts provide

evidence for the existence of reality.

In providing evidence of reality, a text exercises language to represent

some aspects of reality. Consequently, a text never displays reality in an intact

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Wodak and Meyer, 2009) a text needs to be reconstructed to retrieve reality that a

text draws on.

Van Leeuwen (1993) provides a method for reconstructing discourse.

Building on the work of Foucault (1977), van Leeuwen uses discourse as social

cognition, as “socially constructed ways of knowing some aspect of reality”

(2009, cited in Wodak and Meyer, 2009:144). In this sense, discourse is used to

recapture social practices that form reality. In its process, discourse undergoes a

sort of transformation, or recontextualization in Bernstein‟s term (1981, 1986, cited in van Leeuwen, 2008). This is what van Leeuwen (eg. 2008) proposes as

discourse as recontextualization of social practice.

In his approach to discourse as recontextualization of social practice, van

Leeuwen (1993) introduces elements of social practice that are transformed when

represented in a discourse. These elements are contained in actual social practice.

Those are actions, actors, performance modes, presentation styles, times, spaces,

resources, and eligibility. However, these elements, for instance elements that are

less important as discussed above, are then selected (deleted or added) and

substituted when represented in a text.

Among those elements, actions and actors are the central discussion to the

approach, as van Leeuwen (2009) allows a question to be asked: what kinds of

actions are attributed to what kinds of actors. He then formulates the social actor

network (1993). The network presents possible representations of actors in a

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activated, subjected, generalized, collocated, associated, using what

categorization, or using overdetermination. This formulation can be used to

analyze how actors are represented in a discourse.

In my study, the above-mentioned framework was drawn upon to

investigate the ideological posture beneath the 1945 Constitution of Indonesia.

This constitution is the central discourse in the Republic of Indonesia as a

constitutional state, specifically with regard to the authority discourse. As stated

in the 1945 Constitution itself, Chapter 1, Article 3, Indonesia is a constitutional

state. Consequently, the system of government is based on constitution

(Rechtsstaat), not on power (Machtsstaat). In this system, therefore, the 1945

Constitution is crucial as a rule that covers all practices in Indonesia. This means

all kinds of authority in the Republic of Indonesia are limited by the 1945

Constitution. Any practice that does not agree with it is unconstitutional and

therefore illegal before the law.

The 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia was established on

August 18, 1945, or a day after the proclamation of independence, and until today

it has undergone four amendments: in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. It outlines the

regulations that are the source of all kinds of laws in the Republic of Indonesia.

My analysis using van Leeuwen‟s framework will reveal three things. First, it examines the social actors in the 1945 Constitution. Second, it investigates the

linguistic representation of social actors in the text. Finally, it reveals the

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understanding of the ideology of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of

Indonesia.

Some studies have been conducted employing van Leeuwen‟s framework and focusing on the representation of the social actors. In his study entitled

“Discourse and Ideology: Democracy in the Election Manifestoes of New Labour 1997-2005”, Farrelly (2009) tried to analyze the way Labour Party construes democracy in the texts of general election manifestoes year 1997, 2001, and 2005.

He focused on the inclusion-exclusion category of van Leeuwen‟s Social Actor Network. The findings indicated that although the tendency seems to have become

less pronounced in New Labour election manifestoes over time, the state actors

tend to be included in the context of democracy more often than do other actors.

He found that the power relations of democracy are inverted and at the same time

the inversion is hidden under particular exclusions and inclusions of state and

other actors.

Another study focusing on the representation of social actors was

conducted in 2005 by Labarta and Dolón. The study entitled “The Discursive Construction of Identities: A Critical Analysis of the Representation of Social

Actors in Conflict” analyzed the representation of two different social groups in Spanish-newspapers corpus of a conflicting urban construction project. In their

corpus, Labarta and Dolón found that pro-project actors are basically included in

the text mostly through the plural “we” and through the name of the person or

naming of the institution they represent. Identity exclusion of the actors only takes

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in such context de-emphasizes their responsibility, or in other words, not

accepting responsibility. On the contrary, anti-project actors basically tend to be

excluded in the text, and this exclusion is to ignore the negative social impact that

the project has on the neighborhood.

The two studies above both focus on the representation of social actors in

specific discourse. None of it attempts to reveal the ideological posture behind the

representation. The present study focuses on the representation of social actors in

specific discourse and attempts to reveal the ideological posture behind the

representation.

1.2 Research Questions

The current study attempts to answer these following questions:

1. Who are the social actors in the 1945 Constitution?

2. How are the social actors represented linguistically?

3. What are the ideological postures behind the representation?

1.3 Aims of the Study

The aims of the study are as follows.

1. Examine the social actors in the 1945 Constitution

2. Investigate how the social actors are represented

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1.4 Limitation of the Study

The study focuses on analyzing the representation of social actors in the

discourse of the 1945 Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia and the ways they

are represented in the text. In addition, the present study is concerned with the

ideological postures behind the ways the social actors are represented in the text.

The framework of the investigation of the study is van Leeuwen‟s theory (1993 and 2008) of discourse as recontextualization of social practice. The

analysis begins with the identification of social actors in the discourse of the 1945

Constitution. The analysis continues with the investigation of how the social

actors are represented. The data found, then, were used to reveal the ideological

posture behind the ways the social actors are represented.

1.5 Research Methodology

The general approach used in this research is primarily qualitative. As a

framework of analysis of the data and of discussion, the present study employs

Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA). As Paltridge (2006) states, “there is no single view of what critical discourse analysis actually is, so it is difficult to present a

complete, unified view on this”. However, most scholars, such as Fairclough (1989), van Dijk (2009), and van Leeweun (2009), agree that this is an

interdisciplinary approach to language and that it views language as social

practice, and that its ultimate goal is to uncover the ideologies behind the use of

language. Hence this method was used to uncover the ideologies behind the use of

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meanings of language use in a discourse. One of many ways to do that is by

employing Halliday‟s Systemic Functional Grammar theory as the tool, as van Leeuwen (1993) did in formulating his framework.

The data collection and analysis are elaborated below:

1.5.1 Data Collection

The data of this current study were taken from the 1945 Constitution of the

Republic of Indonesia. This document was retrieved from the official Web site of

High Court of Indonesia: www.mahkamahkonstitusi.go.id on June 27, 2011. Until

today, The Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia has experienced four

amendments: in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The text used as the data source of

the present study was the latest text that has undergone the fourth amendment.

1.5.2 Data Analysis

The Constitution text was analyzed using van Leeuwen‟s approach to

critical discourse analysis. The basis of van Leeuwen‟s framework is the view that

discourse is the recontextualization of social practice; that social structures are

constructed by actions that are evidenced linguistically and sociologically in texts.

In van Leeweun‟s terms, the approach to text analysis takes account of attribution and representation of social elements (action, performance mode, actor,

presentation style, time, space, resource, eligibility, deletion, substitution and

addition). However, van Leeuwen‟s approach involves more deeply with the

action and actor (or participant) as van Leeweun proposed two ultimate questions

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what kinds of participants, and (2) what kinds of actions tend to be objectivated,

de-agentialized, and so on (van Leeweun, 2009, in Wodak and Meyer, 2009).

Van Leeuwen‟s approach to CDA begins with the identification of social actors of social actions in the text. It is then followed by the examination of the

ways they are represented linguistically based on the category of representation he

proposed, called Social Actor Network. Then it is enclosed by the interpretation of

the results of the previous steps. These results will contribute to the interpretation

of the given discourse in order to answer the research questions of the present

study.

1.6 Clarification of Terms

There are several terms that need clarification in this study. The terms are

as follows.

1. Social actors (van Leeuwen, 1993 and 2008)

Van Leeuwen uses the term „social actor‟ in sociological sense, not in

grammatical one. Consequently it refers to human beings engaging in or

involving with social interaction, not to entity standing as grammatical

participants which can be concrete or abstract, animate or inanimate, as

understood in Hallidayan Systemic Functional Grammar. Furthermore, in

van Leeuwen‟s framework, social actor has a broader sense where it is not only a person or group who does a particular action (agent), but also

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person(s) or group(s) who benefit from an action, whether in positive or

negative sense (beneficiary).

2. Ideological posture

Ideology can be comprehended in two senses: first as theory and

second as view of life. As theory, ideology is defined as a set of ideas,

practices and consciousness. De Tracy introduced the term “ideology” in 1796 to signal an analytical science that perceives ideas. Althusser (1969,

cited in Gray, 2005) defines it as “a dynamic set of practices in which all

groups and classes participate.” Marx and Engels (in Rehmann, 2007) understand it as “inverted consciousness.”

As view of life, ideology is defined comparatively similarly by

linguistic scholars. Van Dijk uses ideology as “shared, fundamental and

axiomatic beliefs of specific social groups” (cited in Wodak and Meyer, 2009:65). Reisigl and Wodak see it as “an one-sided perspective or world view composed of related mental representations, convictions, opinions,

attitudes and evaluations, which is shared by members of a specific social

groups” (Wodak and Meyer, 2009:88). Meyer defines it as “coherent and relatively stable set of beliefs or values” (Wodak and Meyer, 2009:8).

In this study, ideology is used in the second sense. As a view of

life, ideology is a set of ideas, beliefs or values that constitute and

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ideology and social life are inseparable; that practices and doings which

shape social life must contain ideology.

Posture in this study is comprehended as opinion, as a way in

which a government or other organization thinks about and/or deals with a

particular matter. Ideological posture in this study, then, refers to a belief

system that underlies the construction of the preamble and guides the text

of the 1945 Constitution.

1.7 Organization of the Paper

This paper is organized into five chapters; each is subdivided into sections

which elaborate issues under focus. Chapter 1 provides the introduction to the

present study in general; it deals with the background of the study, research

questions, research methodology, data collection and data analysis, clarification of

terms and organization of the paper. Chapter 2 introduces the theoretical

foundation that serves as the framework for investigating the data of the study.

Chapter 3 presents the procedure of the study that covers the research problem,

research design, data collection and data analysis. Chapter 4 provides analyses of

the data and the findings, and discusses it in a detailed comprehension. Chapter 5

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

The chapter describes the research methodology which was applied in the

present study. It includes the research problem, the research design, data

collection, and data analysis.

3.1 Research Design

The approach of this current study is mixed methods. By using the mixed

methods approach, I combined quantitative and qualitative designs, involving the

collection, analysis, and integration of methods in a single or multiphase study

(Hesse-Biber, 2010). In this approach, quantitative data such as numbers or

percentages are combined with qualitative data such as description. In this current

study, the percentage, for instance, of social actors’ appearances in the corpus

acquired from descriptive statistics method, was combined with description and

critical interpretation acquired from exploration and investigation of language

data.

According to Greene, Caracelli and Graham (1989, cited in Hesse-Biber,

2010), there are five reasons why mixed methods approach needs to be used. The

first reason is triangulation, i.e. the use of more than one method to observe the

same dimension of a study. In this study, I used descriptive statistics of the

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intended to obtain more comprehensive insights about the representation and

distribution of the use of transitivity by social actors in the text investigated. The

second reason is complementarity, which allows a researcher to achieve a fuller

understanding of the study and/or to clarify the result, as do in this study in which

the interpretation of data exploration qualitatively clarify what the percentage of

exclusion or inclusion of social actors mean. The next motive is development,

whereby results of one method, for instance the percentage of exclusion and

inclusion of social actors as the result of quantitative method, often help develop

results of the other method, for instance the interpretation of it. The fourth reason

is initiation; the study using mixed methods approach can initiate a new study

because the findings of the representation of social actors linguistically in the

1945 Constitution may raise questions or contradictions. The last is expansion; the

study using mixed methods approach might lead to a completely new research

topic that is to extend the breadth and range of the inquiry from this current study.

As the tool of analysis and investigation, the present study employed van

Leeuwen’s framework (1993 and 2008) of CDA. The central idea of this

framework is a conception of discourse as recontextualized social practice.

Recontextualization, or transformation, as van Leeuwen uses them

interchangeably, implies that some elements of social practice, such as civilians as

one of the social actors in the 1945 Constitution, may be substituted, deleted,

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In van Leeuwen’s framework of CDA, the elements of social practice that

are transformed in a discourse, although not all are always represented, include

social actors and its eligibility conditions, actions/reactions, performance modes,

presentations styles, times, locations and its eligibility conditions, and resources

and its eligibility conditions. To investigate the possible ways of representing the

first element of social practice, i.e. social actor, in a discourse, then, van Leeuwen

(1993) formulates the social actor network.

In formulating this network, van Leeuwen (1993) builds on the work by

Halliday (1985) called the theory of transitivity. It is a grammatical system which

construes the world of experience, including participants or social actors of social

practice, into a manageable set of process types (Halliday, 2004:170). This

enables participants of social practice be classified into van Leeuwen’s network.

The investigation of exclusion-inclusion, activation-passivation,

genericization-specification, personalization-impersonalization, individualization-assimilation,

and other categories in van Leeuwen’s classification may contribute to the

interpretation of the representation of social actors in the 1945 Constitution.

The substitution of the civilians in the 1945 Constitution, for example,

means something different from the deletion of them. As well, the deletion of

them means something different from the rearrangement of them. In the end, all

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investigation would give evidences to the real social practice depicted by

Indonesian State’s 1945 Constitution.

3.2 Data Collection

The data used in this current study were composed of a corpus of the 1945

Constitution of the Republic of Indonesia. This document was retrieved from the

official Web site of Constitutional High Court of Indonesia:

www.mahkamahkonstitusi.go.id. The 1945 Constitution has undergone four

amendments; in 1999, 2000, 2001, and 2002. The text used as the data of the

present study was the latest text that has undergone the fourth amendment.

The 1945 Constitution is the written basic law of the Republic of

Indonesia. According to the 1945 Constitution, Chapter 1, Article 3, Indonesia is a

constitutional state. Consequently, the system of the government is based on

constitution (Rechtsstaat), not on power (Machtsstaat). In this system, therefore,

the 1945 Constitution is crucial as a rule that covers all practices in the Republic

of Indonesia. This means all kinds of authority in the Republic of Indonesia are

regulated by the 1945 Constitution (Erwina, 2006).

The 1945 Constitution is also the only source of law in the

administration’s system of Indonesian state. It is the source for laws,

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based on 1945 Constitution will be considered to be unconstitutional, and

therefore illegal before the law. For its crucial positions as the central discourse

and the only source for laws in Indonesia, I therefore selected the corpus of the

1945 Constitution to be investigated and analyzed in this present study.

The 1945 Constitution consists, after the fourth amendment, of Preamble,

Body, Transitional Provisions (Aturan Peralihan), and Additional Provisions

(Aturan Tambahan). The Preamble consists of four paragraphs; the Body consists

of 20 chapters, 37 articles, and 194 sub-articles; the Transitional Provisions

consist of 3 articles; and the Additional Provisions consist of 2 articles. In total,

the 1945 Constitution consists of 206 clauses or clause complexes. Since the

purpose is to investigate the social actors and its characterizations in the 1945

Constitution, and the ideological posture behind it, the study uses the whole text

which includes 206 clauses or clause complexes.

3.2.1 Issues on the Data

In relation to the data collection, it is important to note an issue that the

data is in Indonesian. This is an important concern because van Leeuwen’s

formula of social actor network, which the data were identified by, is in English. It

would be questioned, then, whether van Leeuwen’s formula could be applied for

data in other languages, such as in Indonesian. Answers for such a question can be

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Van Leeuwen (2009:148) states, “…the study of the way discourses

transform social practices… derives to a large degree from the work of

Halliday…” The work of Halliday that van Leeuwen indicates on this statement

refers to the transitivity system. He continues, “…theory of transitivity made it

possible to interpret differently worded representations of the same reality as

different social constructions of that reality.” In other words, the theory of

transitivity enables the interpretation of texts which represent a reality as different

social constructions (van Leeuwen, 2008).

The transitivity system is the theory for language, all languages, and is not

specifically for only English. On one of his statements, Halliday suggests:

The minor process types appear to vary more across languages than the major ones. For example, in certain languages (English being one of them), existential clauses appear as a distinct type, but in other languages they may be very close to possessive and/or locative relational clauses (2004:171)

This implies that in formulating the theory of transitivity, Halliday makes it

applicable not only for English, and thus it applies for all languages. This makes

van Leeuwen’s social actor network applicable as well for all languages, including

for Indonesian.

In addition, two researchers from University of Valencia, Spain, Labarta

and Dolón, in 2005 conducted a study entitled “The Discursive Construction of

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They based their analysis on a corpus of, amongst others, opinion articles

published in press, and it all was in Spanish.

The applicability of the theory of transitivity, which van Leeuwen’s social

actor network is built on, for all languages and the example study by Labarta and

Dolón, which used data not in English, suggest that van Leeuwen’s framework to

CDA, discourse as recontextualization of social practice, can be used as the tool of

analysis for a study that bases on data in Indonesian. Thus, they confirm the

validity of this current study.

Another issue that needs to be highlighted is the way this present study

communicates its findings to the readers. Since the data were in Indonesian,

presenting the textual evidence is a particular predicament in a paper written in

English. First of all, because this study is submitted in partial fulfillment of the

requirements for Bachelor of Arts degree, the intended readers are, for now, those

who the first lingua franca is Indonesian. Hence in presenting the textual

evidence, I did not translate it to English but kept it in the original form, which is

in Indonesian. Perhaps such a way of communicating may be different when the

current paper is to publish in a journal format and to intend readers who speak not

only Indonesian but other languages.

3.3 Data Analysis

In analyzing the data, as the first step, the 1945 Constitution was rewritten

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numbered. There are 206 clauses or clause complexes in the 1945 Constitution,

which includes four clause complexes in the preamble, 197 clauses and clause

complexes in the body, three clause complexes in the transitional provisions, and

two clause complexes in the additional provisions.

The next step was identifying the social actors and its characterizations, or

how they are represented linguistically in each clause or clause complex, using

van Leeuwen’s (1993) categorizations on social actor called social actor network.

This step was conducted in two stages. The first stage was identifying the social

actors and its characterizations in the preamble part. The identification revealed

the ideological posture behind the linguistic representation of social actors in the

preamble. The second stage was identifying the social actors and its

characterizations in the remaining parts: the body, transitional, and additional

provisions. The identification revealed the ideological posture behind the

linguistic representation in these parts.

The process was executed in such a way because the preamble is the

ultimate part of the 1945 Constitution. It cannot be amended because it includes

five principles of Indonesian ideology, i.e. Pancasila. In short, it is the most

important part of the Constitution. The remaining parts (body, transitional and

additional provisions) are based on this. That is why it is important to separate the

process of analyzing them; the part in which other parts are based on, and the

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Finding

FIGURE 2. The procedure of identifying social actors

The ideological postures revealed in the preamble and in the remaining

parts were then compared to see whether the ideological postures in the body,

transitional and additional provisions are in conformity with the ideological

posture in the preamble. The ideological postures revealed in both parts, and the

conformity of it would be the findings of the current study. The illustration of this

procedure can be seen in Figure 2.

The process of identifying the social actors and its characterizations

employed van Leeuwen’s categorization of social actor network (1993). Table 3.1

displays the example of identification of social actors and its characterizations.

The labels used in the table correspond to van Leeuwen’s (1993) labeling. It

tabulates the social actors as well as the categories of van Leeuwen’s social actor

network. The table consists of ten columns, which the description of each of it is

explained in the following paragraphs.

The first column displays number. The second column introduces the

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numbering of the clause complexes in the text under investigation (see Appendix

A). The third column of the table displays the actors of clause complexes from the

text. The fourth column records the activities in which the social actors involve, as

they have been referred to in the text. The next column, Column 5, labeled

“EXCL.”, records the type of exclusion of social actors that takes place; whether

they are suppression or reduction, and if the latter occurs, what kind of reduction

that take place (backgrounding or elision). The following abbreviations are used:

SUPPR. Suppresion BACKGR. Backgrounding ELIS. Elision

The sixth column (ROLE) records, for all cases in which social actors are

included, whether they are activated or passivated; if they are passivated, what

kind of passivation that is used in the representation (subjection or

beneficialization). The following abbreviations are used:

ACT. Activation SUBJ. Subjection BENEF. Beneficialization

The seventh column (GEN.) presents all instances of genericization

(GEN.). The next column (COLL.) records whether social actors are

individualized or assimilated, and in the latter case, what kind of assimilation that

takes place; aggregation or collectivization. In addition, this column records the

instances of indetermination and differentiation. The following abbreviations are

used:

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AGGR. Aggregation

overdetermination; whether the representation utilizes inversion (anachronism or

deviation), symbolization, connotation, or distillation. The following

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Below is the example of analysis.

The analyzed text (the Body part, Chapter III: Kekuasaan Pemerintahan

Negara):

Article 4

13.(Ayat 1) Presiden Republik Indonesia memegang kekuasaan pemerintahan

menurut Undang-Undang Dasar.

14.(Ayat 2) Dalam melakukan kewajibannya Presiden dibantu oleh satu orang

Wakil Presiden.

Article 5

15.(Ayat 1) Presiden berhak mengajukan rancangan undang-undang kepada

Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat.

16.(Ayat 2) Presiden menetapkan peraturan pemerintah untuk menjalankan

undang-undang sebagaimana mestinya.

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The process of identifying the data would reveal the social actors in the

text under investigation, and how they are represented linguistically. The next step

was interpreting those already-processed data by using van Leeuwen’s framework

of CDA.

In his framework, van Leeuwen (1993) sees discourse as

recontextualization of social practice. Recontextualization is the process of

moving something from its original site of production to another site where it is

altered. In this context, social practice is moved to text. Thus, discourse is not

synonymous with text but evidence for the existence of social practice will have to

come from text. The representation of social practice in text provides the

experience of activities that enables the interpretation of text to be conceptualized

and analyzed. Hence, van Leeuwen’s framework of CDA identifies and interprets

text for the way it depicts social practice.

In identifying text, van Leeuwen’s framework employs Halliday’s theory

of transitivity. The theory of transitivity enables the analysis of texts which

represent social practice as different social constructions. In interpreting text, van

Leeuwen’s framework builds on Foucault’s view of discourse. In this view,

discourse is seen as social cognition, as socially constructed ways of knowing

social practice, and the process of knowing social practice is done by using text to

reconstruct it. How van Leeuwen’s framework of CDA and Halliday’s theory of

transitivity are applied in the analysis and interpretation is shown in the following

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The whole process of data analysis would result in the revelation of the

ideological posture of the text under investigation. For example, identifying

Presiden Republik Indonesia memegang kekuasaan pemerintahan menurut Undang-Undang Dasar would reveal the social actor in the given clause, i.e Presiden Republik Indonesia. Presiden Republik Indonesia in this clause is

presented by activation category in van Leeuwen’s social actor network, being

represented as active and dynamic force in the activity of “memegang” since it is

coded as the actor in the material process in the transitivity system. Consequently,

by looking only at the given clause, the president in the Republic of Indonesia has

a great power and authority, and it does not agree with the democratic ideology in

which the power and authority are in people’s hand.

In the second example, Presiden is presented by elision, being elided in

the action “melakukan”. Dalam melakukan kewajibannya phrase has no direct

reference of actor, but it can be inferred from Presiden in the same clause

complex. In some cases, elision has significance, but it does not in this case. In the

current clause complex, elision is a predictable and natural pattern of construction

of a hypotactic clause complex; that is for the sake of effectiveness that the actor

of the given action does not need to be mentioned twice. For that reason, the

elision only plays a grammatical role and not a social role, thus has no

significance.

In the next example, again, Presiden is presented using activation

category. In this example, Presiden is given the active grammatical role of the

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action implies that the actor to whom it is given is a powerful party in the

discourse because, according to van Leeuwen (1993) and Fairclough (1989),

material action needs certain power to do. The opposite to it, Dewan Perwakilan

Rakyat which manifests the civilians in a democratic state such as Indonesia is a

less powerful party because it is presented by beneficialization category, being the

beneficiary of the actions under focus. Furthermore, it is presented using

collectivization, while Presiden using individualization. According to van

Leeuwen (1993 and 2008), elite parties or people tend to be individualized, while

ordinary parties or people be collectivized. Hence, this clause complex alone

implicitly legitimizes that Presiden is a powerful party in Indonesia, while Dewan

Perwakilan Rakyat a less powerful one.

The last example affirms the findings of the previous clause complexes. In

here, too, Presiden is activated in every action attached to it; “menetapkan” and

menjalankan. Presiden is the active and dynamic force of the material action menetapkan”, implying that it is the Presiden which determines and regulates the

government rules. As well, it is the active and dynamic force in the material action

menjalankan undang-undang”. At the same time, it is not mentioned who does

write or arrange the undang-undang, and is not given more detailed information

about “sebagaimana mestinya”, in other words, the eligibility condition of it is

deleted. For this, one might question: how the president must enforce the laws?

These deletions of some social aspects of discourse imply that it is something that

is not further to be questioned and exercised.

The complete and more comprehensive findings will be discussed in the

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions

The present study is conducted to examine the social actors in the 1945

Constitution, investigate their linguistic representation, and reveal the ideological

postures behind the representations. The analysis finds that there are 29 social

actors in the 1945 Constitution. They include civilians and Indonesian State’s

administration in the preamble part, and include the executive agent, the legislative

agent, the judicative agent, the state, and civilians in the body part. In the preamble

part, civilians are linguistically represented in inclusion, activation and association,

while Indonesian State’s administration is in exclusion and activation. In the body

part, civilians are represented in exclusion, activation and assimilation, while the

executive is in inclusion, activation and individualization. The analysis also reveals

ideological postures that can be inferred from the representation of the social actors

are socialism, religion, and democracy.

The preamble part of the 1945 Constitution presents two social actors, the

people that are represented by civilians and the executive agent that is represented

by Indonesian State’s administration. The people that are represented in inclusion,

activation and association are more dominant than the executive that is represented

in partial exclusion and activation. The dominance of the people together with their

representations suggests that the people are considered as the main subject of

discussions. The ideology that considers the people as the ultimate subject of

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elements of the ideological posture of socialism that constitutes as the most

dominant posture.

As the less dominant ideological postures, religion and democracy are as

well identified in the preamble part. The ideology of religion is realized by the

naming of God as the circumstance of the process of declaring independence, while

the ideology of democracy is realized by the mentioning of “kerakyatan

(democracy) in the fourth paragraph as the manner of the process of achieving the

socialist aspirations.

Meanwhile, the body part presents 29 social actors. There are four actors

that are more dominant than others: the executive agent, the legislative agent, the

judicative agent, and civilians. Among the four most dominant actors, the executive

that is represented in inclusion, activation and individualization is the most

dominant and outstanding one. The legislative and the judicative are the next most

dominant actors in the text. Different to that in the preamble part, civilians that is

represented in inclusion, nontransactive activation, and indetermination is less

dominant than the executive. This suggests that the main subject of discussions is

not civilians anymore but is shifted to the executive, the legislative and the

judicative. The ideology that is fundamentally characterized by such principle is

democracy. Thus, it can be inferred that the body part of the 1945 Constitution

depicts the ideological posture of democracy as the most dominant ideology.

It also can be inferred that the body part depicts the ideological posture of

religion. This is realized by the specific chapter that regards religion, i.e. Chapter

XI, meaning that the 1945 Constitution makes special place for religion. This is also

realized by the guaranty from the state for religious freedom. Finally, the ideology

of religion is inferred from the acknowledgments of religious value in nation

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Although the ideology of religion, which is previously established in the

preamble part, is consistently maintained in the body part, the ideological postures

depicted in the preamble part and in the body part in general are not in conformity.

The preamble part of the 1945 Constitution, which is the most influential discourse

because of containing Pancasila thus cannot be amended, shares some elements of

socialism as the most dominant ideology. However, this ideology tends to be altered

and shifted into democracy in the body part which until today has been amended for

four times since it was ordained and established in 1945.

5.2 Suggestions

One of the principles of critical discourse analysis is that CDA is a form of

social action that attempts to intervene and change socio-political practices. Thus,

analyzing the 1945 Constitution from linguistic perspective using van Leeuwen’s

Critical Discourse Analysis framework to reveal and uncover what is in it such as

ideologies is interesting and at the same time challenging task, since it is perhaps

the most important discourse of Indonesian country. The findings and interpretation

will enlighten and give the people linguistics-based knowledge about the text that

determines the practices and regulations in Indonesia country. However, to get to

that point, the study must be comprehensive. This current study only critically

analyzes the text using van Leeuwen’s social actor network, putting aside the social

action network and other discourse elements such as performance modes,

presentation styles, times, spaces, resources, and eligibility conditions. I suggest the

future study to analyze the 1945 Constitution using the representation of other

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Analyzing the 1945 Constitution by examining two elements of discourse at

the same time such as actors and actions will contribute in a more thorough

interpretation and a better credibility. The study will be even more thorough and

credible if the all elements of discourse are analyzed.

I also suggest the future study to analyze the derivative discourses of the

1945 Constitution, such as laws (undang-undang) about specific issues, president’s

decrees (dekrit presiden/peraturan pemerintah), and minister’s official regulations

(peraturan menteri), to compare the findings in the 1945 Constitution and in the

derivative discourses. This is because, very possibly, the findings of the present

study may raise further questions about other discourses that precede and follow the

discourse of the 1945 Constitution. As well it is very possible that the findings of

the present study and the following studies emerge contradictions.

Such study then will initiate more new studies, and in turn will contribute to

a better comprehension of the consistency of the ideologies found in the 1945

Constitution as the highest source of laws and regulation in the Republic of

Indonesia. Such study as well will in turn contribute in enlightening and educating

the people, in mitigating and eliminating social wrongs, in improving the condition

of human being, and finally in the development of the nation.

Finally, I suggest the future study to analyze the 1945 Constitution using

discourse-historical approach. The historical orientation will allow the

reconstruction of how recontextualization functions as an important process

connecting texts and reality intertextually and interdiscursively over time. The

historical context and the understanding of the socio-political condition at the time

the 1945 Constitution was established and ordained, in turn, may contribute to the

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Figur

FIGURE 2. The procedure of identifying social actors

FIGURE 2.

The procedure of identifying social actors p.26
TABLE 3.1: Example of Identification of the Social Actors and its Characterizations in the Text

TABLE 3.1:

Example of Identification of the Social Actors and its Characterizations in the Text p.29

Referensi

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