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16/02/18 17.43 Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

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Impact (Cites per

doc)

- 0.40

(

SCImago, SJR

2016

)

ICV 2016

= 104.84

Print ISSN-

0974-2441

Online ISSN-

2455-3891

Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical

Research

AJPCR (Asian J Pharm Clin Res) is peer reviewed, Monthly (Onward Jan 2017) open access

Journal. This journal publishes original research in the field of Pharmaceutical and Clinical

Sciences. The Journal has been designed to cover all the fields of research, which has any

correlation and impact on Pharmaceutical Science. It aims to publish all the original research in

field of science so a correlation can be made between these researches. Knowledge gained by

such researches can be exposed to all and it can be brought in real utilization as all the

branches of science are correlated and will assist all the researchers to potentiate their research

capabilities.

Abstracting and Indexing

SCOPUS, Google Scholar, Elsevier, EBSCO, EMBASE,

SCI mago(SJR)

,

CNKI (China

Knowledege Resource Integrated Database)

, CAS, CASSI (American Chemical Society), ICAAP,

Scientific commons, PSOAR, Open-J-Gate, Indian Citation Index (ICI), Index Medicus for WHO

South-East Asia (IMSEAR), OAI, LOCKKS, OCLC (World Digital Collection Gateway), UIUC.

UGC Listed Journal

Innovare Academic Sciences

Vision:

Impart in quality knowledge and innovation is most important radical for human welfare.

Mission:

IAS contribute to human development through support to organization in getting

accreditation/approval for quality education, quality research dissemination, research to

innovations and finally to IPR and extension activities.

Goals:

The goals of innovare academics sciences are:

To provide support to industry and academic institute to enhance their intellectual

property.

To spread knowledge for innovations.

To help in getting organization accreditation/approvals status.

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16/02/18 17.43 Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

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M O S T

D O W N L O A D E D A R T I C L E S

PREGELATINIZED CASSAVA STARCH...

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF HYDROLYZED...

ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF DATURA METEL...

BUCCAL PENETRATION ENHANCERS-AN OVERVIEW

DIPEPTIDYL PEPTIDASE-IV INHIBITORY...

TURMERIC: NATURE’S PRECIOUS MEDICINE.

ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF THE...

To provide business designs in pharma and others.

To join hands with various organizers of the conference to provide a common platform for

experts, researchers, educational managers, policy makers and industrialists.

To keep a record of the state-of-the-art research and to promote study, patents, design for

business, accreditation and approval within its various specialities.

Assoiciate Conferences

Recent Trends in Biomedical Sciences-2018 (Visit Here)

Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences (LSPPS) at Lovely

Professional University is going to organize a national conference on

Recent Trends in Biomedical Sciences 2018 (RTBS-2018) on 16th

March 2018.

J O U R N A L M E T R I C S

Source Normalized Impact

per Paper (SNIP): 0.567

Impact per Publication (IPP): 0.588

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR): 0.277

Cite Score: 0.51

Print ISSN: 0974– 2441 Online ISSN:

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16/02/18 17.43 Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research

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A REVIEW: LOVASTATIN

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ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON

SELECTED...

Our Journals || Open Access Policy || Publication Ethics

The publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY) . View Legal Code

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16/02/18 17.44 Editorial Board

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Impact (Cites per

doc)

- 0.40

(

SCImago, SJR

2016

)

ICV 2016

= 104.84

Print ISSN-

0974-2441

Online ISSN-

2455-3891

Editorial Board

Editorial Board

AJPCR is committed to have dynamic and potential advisory-editorial board. Those established

in the field can directly send their resume. New people are first needed to serve as referee

before being considered member of advisory-editorial board. Email your resume to

editor@ajpcr.com

Editor-in-Chief

Dr. Anurekha Jain

Dept. of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Jyoti Mahila Vidyapeeth University, Jaipur, Rajasthan

Email: editor@ajpcr.com

Associate Editor

Dr. Neeraj Upmanyu

Peoples Institute of Pharmacy & Research Center, Bhopal, MP, India

Email: drneerajupmanyu@gmail.com

Dr. Vikas Sharma

Shri Rawatpura Sarkar Institute of Pharmacy, Datiya, MP, India

Email: vikassharma15@gmail.com

Assistant Editor

Dr. Vimal Kumar Jain

Institute of Pharmacy, Nirmal University, Ahemdabad, Gujarat, India

Email: cognosy@gmail.com

Dr. Rupesh Kumar Gautam

ADINA Institute of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Sagar, MP, India

Email: drrupeshgautam@gmail.com

Editorial Board Members

Dr. Debasish Maiti

Suryamaninagar, Tripura West, Agartala, Tripura, India

Dr. Rashad Mohammed Musleh

University of Thamar, Yemen

Home > Editorial Board

Home About Login Register Search Current Archives Editorial Board

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16/02/18 17.44

Dept. of Pathology & Microbiology, Mahesh Bhattacharyya Homeopathic Medical College

& Hospital, Govt. of West Bengal, India

Mohd Abdul Hadi

Bhaskar Pharmacy College Affiliated To Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University,

Hyderabad, India

Dr. Amer A. Taqa

Department of Dental Basic Science, College of Dentistry, Mosul University, Iraq

Mr. Atul Kabra

Department of Pharmacy, Manav Bharti University, Solan (H.P.), India

Mr. Siddharth Kaushal Tripathi

Doctoral Research Associate National Center For Natural Products Research, School of

Pharmacy, University of Mississippi, India

Dr. Brajesh Kumar

Escuela Politécnica Del Ejército, Sangolqui, Ecuador, Latin America

Dr. Farhan Ahmed Siddiqui

Faculty of Pharmacy, Federal Urdu University Arts, Science And Technology

Karachi, Sindh, Pakistan

Dr. Deepak Kumar Mittal

Iasca Department of Itm-Universe, Gwalior, India

Dr. Jesse Joel Thathapudi

Karunya University (Deemed To Be University), Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. Kumaran Shanmugam

Analytical Chemistry, Academic Faculty, (Senior Scale) & International Co-Ordinator,

Department of Biotechnology, Periyar Maniammai University, Vallam, Thanjavur-613 403,

India

Dr. Javad Sharifi Rad

Department of Pharmacognosy, Faculty of Pharmacy, Zabol University of Medical

Sciences, P.O. Box 61615-585 Zabol, Iran

Dr. Rajesh Mohanraj

Dept. of Pharmacology, CMHS, UAE

Dr. P. Thillai Arasu

Department of Chemistry, Kalasalingam University, Srivilliputhur 626190, India

Ms Vasundhra Saxena

Gautam Buddha Technical University Lucknow, India

Ms Vinit Dattatray Chavhan

Sinhgad Technical Education Society’S Smt. Kashibai Navale College of Pharmacy,

Kondhwa-Saswad Road, Kondhwa (BK), India

Dr. Sami Saqf El Hait

Junior Executive - Quality Control At Jamjoom Pharmaceuticals Company Limitedjeddah,

Saudi Arabia

Md. Moklesur Rahman Sarker

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16/02/18 17.44 Editorial Board

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A REVIEW: LOVASTATIN

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ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON

SELECTED...

Dr. Ahmed Hashim Mohaisen Al-Yasari

Department of Physics, College of Education For Pure Science, University of Babylon,

Hilla, Iraq

Dr. Arun Kumar

Director & Dean, Faculty of Marine Sciences Faculty of Marine Sciences Cas In Marine

Biology Cas In Marine Biology, Parangipettai- 608502 Parangipettai- 608502 Tamil Nadu,

India

Dr. Ashraf Ahmed

Dept. of Chemistry, Aligarh Muslim Uneversity, Uttar Pradesh 202001, India

Dr. S. Bala Murugan

Dept. of Biotechnology, Bharathiar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamil Nadu, India

Dr. Sukhen Som

Department of Pharmaceutical Chemistry, M.M.U College of Pharmacy, K.K.Doddi,

Ramadevara Betta Road, Ramanagara- 562159State- Karnataka India

Dr. Sheikh Shoib

Department of Psychiatry, Institute of Mental Health And Neurosciences Kashmir (Imhans

K), Srinagar, India

Dr. Hao Wu

Postdoctoral Fellow At Ngm Biopharmaceuticals, Inc,South San Francisco, CA 94080,

USA

Dr. Payal Bhaskar Joshi

Assistant Professor Department of Chemical Engineering, Mukesh Patel School of

Technology Management & Engineering (Mumbai Campus), Svkm’S Nmims

(Deemed-To-Be-University), India

Dr. Nagarajan Kayalvizhi

Assistant Professor Department of Zoology, Periyar University, Salem, Tamilnadu, India

Dr. Madhu Bala

Scientist ‘F’ And Joint Director, Institute of Nuclear Medicine And Allied Sciences (INMAS),

India

Prof. Dr. Mamdouh Moawad Ali

Biochemistry Department, Genetic Engineering And Biotechnology, India

Dr. Mohanraj Rathinavelu

Department of Pharmacy Practice, Raghavendra Institute of Pharmaceutical Education &

Research, Riper, India

Dr. (Mrs.) Neeru Nathani

Dept. of Swasthavritta And Yoga, Faculty of Ayurveda, Institute of Medical Sciences,

Banaras Hindu University, India

Dr. Rohini Karunakaran

Unit of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Aimst University Batu 3 1/2, Bukit Air Nasi, Jalan

Semeling, 08100 Bedong Kedah Darul Aman, Malaysia

Dr. Imran Ahmad Khan

Royal Institute of Medical Sciences Multan, Pakistan

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16/02/18 17.44 Editorial Board

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Sper Timer (Publication Committee ) Regional Head U.P. State, India

Dr. Kamal A. Badr

Lecturer of Pharmaceutics And Industrial Pharmacy & Member of Quality Assurance

Unit-Faculty of Pharmacy- Delta University For Science And Technology, India

Mr. Gurpreet Singh

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences Guru Nanak Dev University, Amritsar, Punjab

(India) 143005

Dr. Pranav Kumar Prabhakar

Lovely Faculty of Applied Medical Sciences, Lovely Professional University,

Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road

Dr. Raj Mohan Raja Muthiah

Research Fellow (Harvard Medical School) 172 Hosmer Street, Apt 7. Marlborough, Ma

01752

Dr. Sandip Narayan Chakraborty

Research Asst Ii, Translational Molecular Pathology, Ut Md Anderson Cancer Center, Life

Sciences Plaza, Houston, TX 77030

Dr. Anup Naha

Dept. of Pharmaceutics “Swarna Kutir ”, Ramnagar Road No.4, Mcops, Manipal-576 104,

Karnataka, India

Dr. Tushar Treembak Shelke

Vice Principal , Head of Department of Pharmacology And Research Scholar, In

Jspms Charak College of Pharmacy & Research, Gat No. - 720(1&2), Pune, India

Anindya Banerjee

Indian Pharmacopoeia Commission, Ministry of Health & Family Welfare

Govt of India

Dr. Vijay Mishra

Lovely Institute of Technology (Pharmacy), Lovely Professional University, Phagwara,

Punjab, India

Dr. Praveen Kumar Sharma

Department of Chemistry, Lovely Professional University, Punjab (India)-144411

Deepansh Sharma

School of Bioengineering & Biosciences Lovely Professional University, Phagwara Punjab,

India

Sai Prachetan Balguri

ORISE Research Fellow at U.S. FDA

Dr. Mohd Abdul Hadi

Department of Pharmaceutics, Bhaskar Pharmacy college, Yenkapally (V), Moinabad (M),

R.R (Dt), Hyderabad-500 075, Telangana, India

Tanay Pramanik

Department of Chemistry in Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India

Editorial office

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B-11, In front of Beema Hospital, Nayi Awadi, Mandasaur 458001, MP, India

E-mail:

editor@ajpcr.com

Our Journals || Open Access Policy || Publication Ethics

The publication is licensed under a Creative Commons License (CC BY) . View Legal Code

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16/02/18 17.42 Vol 10 Issue 9 September 2017

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Impact (Cites per

doc)

- 0.40

(

SCImago, SJR

2016

)

ICV 2016

= 104.84

Print ISSN-

0974-2441

Online ISSN-

2455-3891

Pages: 1-2 | Share

Pages: 3-4 | Share

Pages: 5-9 | Share

Pages: 10-14 | Share

Vol 10 Issue 9 September 2017

Table of Contents

Case Study(s)

VALPROIC ACID TOXICITY INDUCED BY LACOSAMIDE: A RARE CASE REPORT

Karthika Ashok Kumar, Chanshi Chandran, Remya Reghu

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18820

LAMOTRIGINE INDUCED DRESS SYNDROME

Saurab Agarwal, Balaji Ommurugan, Amita Priya, Mohan Amberkar, Meena Kumari Kamalkishore

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18876

Review Article(s)

NATURAL PERMEATION ENHANCER FOR TRANSDERMAL DRUG DELIVERY SYSTEM AND PERMEATION EVALUATION: A REVIEW

Asha Das, Abdul Baquee Ahmed

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19389

FECAL CARRIAGE OF EXTENDED-SPECTRUM BETA-LACTAMASESPRODUCING ESCHERICHIA COLI IN HOSPITALS AND COMMUNITY SETTINGS: A REVIEW

Neha Sharma, Anania Arjuna

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19126

A NOVEL APPROACH FOR FINDING DIABETIC MELLITUS USING ENSEMBLE MODEL FOR AN OPTIMIZED CLASSIFICATION

Sekar Kr, Kamaladevi M, Sethuraman J, Ravichandran Ks Home > Archives > Vol 10 Issue 9 September 2017

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16/02/18 17.42 Vol 10 Issue 9 September 2017

Page 2 of 11

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19563

THE EMERGING ROLE OF BOTULINUM TOXIN IN THE TREATMENT OF OROFACIAL DISORDERS: LITERATURE UPDATE

Santhosh Kumar

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.16914

A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY ON LITERATURE EVIDENCE, CLINICAL STUDIES AND PRACTICES OF HERBAL DRUGS FOR DIABETIC NEUROPATHY AND CARDIOMYOPATHY

Arshiya Shamim, Hefazat Hussain Siddiqui, Tarique Mahmood, Paramdeep Bagga, Ranjan Kumar

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18785

A REVIEW ON ARTIFICIAL BLOOD: A SOURCE WE NEED

Krishna Veni R, Brindha Devi P, Ivo Romauld S

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18960

A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF ANTIMICROBIAL PROFILE HAVING BROAD SPECTRUM BACTERIOCINS AGAINST ANTIBIOTICS

Sabiha Imran, Twinkle Gupta, Aarti Arora, Nilanjan Das

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19447

Original Article(s)

COMPARISON BETWEEN THERAPEUTIC ULTRASOUND AND SCAR MOBILIZATION OVER PERSISTENT POSTNATAL DYSPAREUNIA

Mariyam Farzana Sf, Ponmathi P, Sivakumar Pvr

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18757

ANTI-ATHEROSCLEROTIC ACTIVITY OF ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF CHRYSANTHEMUM INDICUM L. FLOWERS AGAINST HIGH-FAT DIET-INDUCED ATHEROSCLEROSIS IN MALE WISTAR RATS

Sravanthi P, Shakir Basha S

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19463

TOXICOLOGICAL EVALUATION OF AYURVEDIC FORMULATION: GOKSHURADI GUGGULU

Gamit Kanan G, Raval Manan A

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19295

SUPPLEMENTATION OF VITAMIN E 400 IU DECREASES MALONDIALDEHYDE LEVEL OF OBESE WOMEN STAFF AT SCHOOL OF MEDICINE UDAYANA UNIVERSITY

Luh Putu Ratna Sundari, Nyoman Adiputra, Made Krisna Dinata

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A REVIEW: LOVASTATIN

PRODUCTION AND... TRADITIONAL HERBAL BASED DISEASE...

ETHNOBOTANICAL STUDIES ON

SELECTED...

Pages: 61-63 | Share

Pages: 64-69 | Share

Pages: 70-73 | Share

Pages: 74-77 | Share

Pages: 78-81 | Share

Pages: 82-84 | Share

Pages: 85-87 | Share

Pages: 88-91 | Share

Pages: 92-95 | Share

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS OF ROOT OF AN ECONOMICALLY IMPORTANT PLANT, CENCHRUS CILIARIS L. FROM THAR DESERT, RAJASTHAN (INDIA)

Sunita Arora, Ganesh Kumar

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19259

COLISTIN RESISTANCE IN CARBAPENEM-RESISTANT KLEBSIELLA PNEUMONIAE STRAINS

Beena Hosdurg Bhaskar, Shalini Shenoy Mulki, Sangeeta Joshi, Ranjeeta Adhikari, Bhavana Malavalli Venkatesh

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18369

ASSESSMENT OF LOW BONE MASS USING PERIPHERAL DUAL X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY (PDXA) IN DIFFERENT ETHNIC GROUPS

Ashok Kumar, Muhammed Javad, Snekhalatha Umapathy

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19615

CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF ALKALOIDS EXTRACTED FROM THREE IRAQI PLANTS AGAINST BREAST CANCER CELL LINE

Farah A Al-Marzook, Rabab Omran

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19134

MORTALITY PATTERN OF UNDER-FIVE CHILDREN – A HOSPITAL-BASED CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDY IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF INDIA

Rachita Sarangi, Lipilekha Pattnaik, Saroj Kumar Satpathy, Mahesh Chandra Sahu

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.17895

BELL’S PALSY AMONG INFANTS - OUR EXPERIENCES IN A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL OF EASTERN INDIA

Santosh Kumar Swain, Ishwar Chandra Behera, Mahesh Chandra Sahu

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19388

THE ROLE OF SYNAPSIN I IN INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING MECHANISMS UNDERLIES EXERCISE-INDUCED IMPROVEMENT IN SOCIAL MEMORY: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW

Ria Margiana, Akmal Primadian Suprapto

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19111

KNOWLEDGE AND HEALTH SEEKING BEHAVIOR RELATED TO KALA-AZAR IN RURAL COMMUNITIES OF EAST CHAMPARAN DISTRICT, BIHAR

Navin Kumar, Singh T B, Meena L P

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19110

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Pages: 100-111 | Share

Pages: 112-116 | Share

Pages: 117-119 | Share

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Pages: 131-133 | Share

Pages: 134-137 | Share

NEURONAL DYSFUNCTION: AN IN SILICO APPROACH

Niraj Kumar Jha, Pravir Kumar

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19466

ALLIUM SATIVUM LINN. CONTAINS LINEAR ALKYLBENZENE SULFONATES THAT ALTER MEMBRANE FLUIDITY FOR THE INHIBITION OF MYCOBACTERIUM TUBERCULOSIS H37RA

Rajiniraja Muniyan, Sabareesh Varatharajan, Saba Naz, Vinay K Nandicoori, Jayaraman Gurunathan

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18693

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF STREPTOMYCES VARIABILIS STRAIN-VITUMVB03 ISOLATED FROM KANYAKUMARI MARINE SEDIMENTS

Shubha M, Ushashi B, Veena S, Bhaskara Rao Kv

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19250

THE UNEXPLORED ROLES OF PROBIOTIC BACTERIA: IN VITRO ANTI-INFLAMMATORY AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ENTEROCOCCUS FAECIUM BM10 KY788342 AND

LACTOBACILLUS CASEI GM10 KY794586

Neha Jain, Archana Mehta

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19413

ANALYSIS OF 6-MERCAPTOPURINE AND 6-METHYLMERCAPTOPURINE IN DRIED BLOOD SPOTS USING LIQUID CHROMATOGRAPHY-TANDEM MASS SPECTROMETRY AND ITS APPLICATION IN CHILDHOOD ACUTE LYMPHOBLASTIC LEUKEMIA PATIENTS

Supandi Supandi, Yahdiana Harahap, Harmita Harmita, Rizka Andalusia, Marlina Ika

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19790

A TBX5 NONSENSE MUTATION IN SIBLINGS WITH DIVERGENT PHENOTYPES ASSOCIATED WITH ISOLATED SEPTAL DEFECTS

Yashvanthi Borkar, Krishnananda Nayak, Ranjan K Shetty, Rajasekhar Moka

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19628

ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF A PROTEASE INHIBITOR ISOLATED FROM THE RHIZOME OF CURCUMA AMADA

Sangeetha R, Padmini R

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18257

THERMAL, PASTING AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF PROCESSED BUCKWHEAT (FAGOPYRUM ESCULENTUM) FLOUR

Munish Siwatch, Ritika B Yadav, Baljeet S Yadav

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18174

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Pages: 164-168 | Share

KARAD

Dhanraj Prakash Kharat, Prabhuswami Hiremath, Samir K Choudhari

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19231

A STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF AGOMELATINE ON FOOD INTAKE AND BODY WEIGHT IN RESTRAINT STRESS MODEL IN ADULT SWISS ALBINO MICE

Shanmuga Priya, Nivedhithaa S, Huvaneswari K

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19506

ASSESSMENT OF HEMATOLOGICAL INDICES AMONG WORKERS IN SILVER JEWELRY UNITS

Shalini Kv, Ayyappa Das Mp

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19809

IMMUNOMODULATORY EFFECTS OF ETHANOL EXTRACT OF CURCUMA MANGGA RHIZOMES IN MICE

Yuandani Yuandani, Edy Suwarso

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18398

DETERMINATION OF SENSITIVITY AND SPECIFICITY OF ULTRASONOGRAPHY IN ACUTE APPENDICITIS: COMPARISON WITH PER-OPERATIVE FINDINGS AND HISTOPATHOLOGICAL REPORT

Sasmita Parida, Bibekananda Nayak, Jayashree Mohanty

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18873

EVALUATION OF ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF FRESH AND FREEZE-DRIED SELECTED FRUIT JUICES

Naritsara Toobpeng, Pannapa Powthong, Pattra Suntornthiticharoen

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19099

MODULATORY ACTIVITY OF BEE POLLEN AGAINST THE TOXICITY OF ANTITUBERCULOSIS DRUGS RIFAMPICIN AND ISONIAZID IN TESTIS OF SPRAGUE DAWLEY RATS

Umesh Bharti, Neelima R Kumar, Jaspreet Kaur

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.19701

EVALUATION OF PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF FIXED DOSE COMBINATIONS OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES AND ANTIDIABETIC AGENTS

Niyati Devangkumar Vyas, Alpa P Gor, Jalpa V Suthar

Abstract || View PDF || Download PDF || DOI: 10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.18966

EVALUATION OF PHYTOCHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF MANGIFERA INDICA L. LEAVES AGAINST URINARY TRACT INFECTION-CAUSING PATHOGENS

Gyanranjan Mahalik, Sabuj Sahoo, Kunja Bihari Satapathy

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Vol 10, Issue 9, 2017

Online - 2455-3891 Print - 0974-2441

EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING ABLE TO REDUCE THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHILDHOOD ASTHMA

SARMA NURSANI LUMBANRAJA*

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Sumatera Utara, Medan, Indonesia. Email: sarmalumbanraja@yahoo.com

Received: 08 September 2016, Revised and Accepted: 26 September 2016

ABSTRACT

Objective: To determine the association between maternal characteristics, maternal obstetrics history, fetal chacteristics and development of childhood asthma in offspring.

Methods: This was a case control study that enrolled children visiting the pediatric polyclinic of Rumah Sakit TNI-AD Padangsidimpuan, Indonesia starting from June to December 2015. Childhood asthma was diagnosed by spirometry. Breastfeeding history were taken by history taking. Data were analyzed by SPSS with p<0.05 as significant value.

Results: A total of 130 children were included in this study. The children analyzed in both groups had similar age (p=0.232), 20.5±12.2 months and 25.4±13.9 months. No differences were found in maternal characteristics, maternal obstetrics history, and fetal characteristics between both groups, except the history of breastfeeding (p=0.002).

Conclusion: Of all maternal characteristics, maternal obstetrics history, and fetal characteristics, only exclusive breastfeeding was associated for development of childhood asthma in offspring.

Keywords: Breastfeeding, Childhood asthma, Allergy, Exclusive, Children.

INTRODUCTION

The prevalence of childhood asthma was consistently rising in worldwide. Asthma is the most chronic disease of childhood and the leading cause of morbidity with the high inpatient care, emergency department visit, and days of missed school [1]. Asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways that is characterized by increased responsiveness of the tracheobronchial tree to a variety of stimuli and airway obstruction that is partially or completely reversible [2]. Asthma could also be defined as at least one attack of wheeze and/or dyspnea and/or prescription of inhalation steroids in the last year [3]. Many studies used symptoms such as wheezing and shortness of breath, as main indicator of asthma in children [4].

Although the development of asthma and allergic diseases has a strong genetic component, the rise in the prevalence of these diseases indicates that environmental factors play an important role as well. Barker hypothesized that pre-natal maternal-fetal interactions might influence disease later in life in fetal. Therefore, this early life programming during intrauterine life could be associated to the development asthma in later life [5]. Many risk factors of asthma have been proposed including age, gender (male), low birth weight, maternal asthma, parental smoking, and family history of asthma. Another risk factors such as risk factors in early life for asthma-related symptoms include gestational age, parental socioeconomic status, and ethnicity [6].

The aim of the present study was to assess whether maternal characteristics, maternal obstetric history, and fetal characteristics were associated with the development of childhood asthma in offspring. In this study, we did not analyzed how family history contributed to asthmatic children. However, Subbarao et al. (2009) showed that nearly 100 genes have been found to be associated with asthma or asthma-related phenotypes [7]. We did want to know the results of asthma development in offspring induced by mother and fetal characteristics regardless of knowing the family history of asthma. This was because the high recall bias that could be occurred.

METHODS

This was an analytical, case-control study that analyzed how maternal characteristics, obstetric history, and fetal characteristics predicting offspring childhood asthma. This study was conducted at Rumah Sakit TNI-AD Padangsidimpuan, Indonesia. This hospital was geographically located at the cross section between highway roads of Sumatera-Java. This place represented the portrait of underserved area in Indonesia. This study has been approved by the Ethical Committee of University of Sumatera Utara.

This study enrolled consecutive children visiting the pediatric polyclinic starting from June to December 2015. We only included children who born in this hospital, no other pulmonary diseases, no congenital malformation, no malignancy, and no endocrine disorder. Exclusion criteria were children whose parents had psychiatric disorders, not complete data, and obese mother. In this study, we also excluded obese maternal. Many studies had positively showed the associated of obesity with asthma, due to elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin [IL]-6, and transforming growth factor [TGF]-beta1). Children were divided into two groups, children with childhood asthma, and children without childhood asthma. We restricted the samples to children aged below 5 years old [8].

Written informed consents were taken from all parents. Mother characteristics such as maternal age at the time of delivery, maternal ethnicity, maternal education, and maternal education were taken by history taking. We also asked their obstetric history such as parity, mode of delivery, and the presence of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, or premature rupture of membrane in the time they delivered the children that included in this study. The information given were being cross-check with the medical records. Any discordance was found, did we ask the mother again for confirmation. If conclusion could not be reached, we excluded the participant from this study. Fetal characteristics such as fetal age, birth weight, and history of breastfeeding were taken from the medical records.

© 2017 The Authors. Published by Innovare Academic Sciences Pvt Ltd. This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons. org/licenses/by/4. 0/) DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22159/ajpcr.2017.v10i9.15118

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315 Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 10, Issue 9, 2017, 314-317 Lumbanraja

Diagnosis of asthma in children is often difficult. Spycher et al. defined asthma as the presence of wheezing, included viral or multiple trigger wheeze, and presence of allergic sensitization. Asthma can be diagnosed above 6 years old after the airway had been matured [9]. In this study, spirometry was also performed to diagnosis of asthma.

Data were analyzed by SPSS (Statistical Product and Service Solutions, Chicago, IL, USA) 22.0 for Windows. Categorical data were expressed as number and continuous data as mean±standard deviation. Chi-square test (Fisher’s exact test) was used to examine the relation between qualitative variables. T-independent was used to evaluate quantitative variables. Significant value was take 95% and p<0.05 was considered significant.

RESULTS

From June to December 2015, there were 1197 children visiting pediatric polyclinic in our institution. As many as 130 children eligible for this study, 50 children with childhood asthma and 50 children without childhood asthma. Maternal characteristics, obstetric history, and fetal characteristics in childhood asthma were shown in Table 1.

The children analyzed in both groups had similar age (p=0.232), 20.5±12.2 and 25.4±13.9 months. In children both suffered or not from childhood asthma, mostly mothers were 20-35 years old while giving birth (66% and 71.3%), Bataknese (56% and 50%), educated until senior high school (38% and 38.8%), and housewives (46% and 46.3%). No differences were found in maternal characteristics between both groups.

Regarding of obstetric history, no differences were found in maternal obstetric history between both groups. In both groups’ mothers, mostly were nulligravida (40% and 36.3%), had spontaneous delivery (54% and 50%), no preterm labor (80% and 93.7%), no pre-eclampsia 18% and 26.3%), and no premature rupture of membrane (88% and 93.7%).

Child characteristics were also not associated with the development of childhood asthma, except exclusive breastfeeding. Both groups had dominance of male gender (58% and 63.8%). Birth weight was found lower in asthmatic group, but the proportion was slightly similar between all samples. As mentioned, only exclusive breastfeeding differed in both groups. Children that were breastfed exclusively were more likely to develop childhood asthma (p=0.002).

(Contd...) Characteristics Childhood asthma (n=65) No childhood

asthma (n=65)

p value*

Children age 20.5 12.2 25.4 13.9 0.232

Maternal characteristics Maternal age

<20 years old 6 12.0 11 13.8 0.593

20-35 years old 33 66.0 57 71.3

>35 years old 11 22.0 12 15.0

Ethnicity

Javanese 12 24.0 23 28.8 0.782

Bataknese 28 56.0 40 50.0

Others 10 20.0 17 21.3

Maternal education

Secondary school 5 10.0 8 10 1.000

Junior high school 16 32.0 25 31.3

Senior high school 19 38.0 31 38.8

Diploma/University 10 20.0 16 20.0

Maternal employment

Housewife 23 46.0 37 46.3 0.287

Employee 11 22.0 11 13.8

Businesswoman 12 24.0 17 21.3

Honorary worker 4 8.0 15 18.8

Maternal obstetric history Parity

Nulligravida 20 40.0 29 36.3 0.714

Secundigravida 10 20.0 14 17.5

Multigravida 14 28.0 30 37.5

Grand multigravida 6 12.0 7 8.8

Mode of delivery

Spontaneous delivery 27 54.0 40 50.0 0.886

Assisted delivery 8 16.0 15 18.8

Vaginal delivery 15 30.0 25 31.3

Preterm labor

Male 21 42.0 29 36.3 0.512

Female 29 58.0 51 63.8

Birth weight (g)

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316 Asian J Pharm Clin Res, Vol 10, Issue 9, 2017, 314-317 Lumbanraja

DISCUSSION

Theory of perinatal programming had been proposed that intrauterine environmental stimuli influenced the fetal development both in pre-natal and post-pre-natal. It induced permanent changes in gene expression and body metabolism function [10].

In previous study, maternal age at delivery was inversely associated with the risk of asthma [11]. McKeever et al. (2001) found the same results, but this association attenuated in children diagnosed at older ages [12]. Ethnicity brought out variation of innate immune response, but no association was found in this study [13]. In another study by Victorino et al., they found that children in families with a higher education were more likely to have allergies [14]. In this study, no differences were found in maternal age (p=0.593), ethnicity (p=0.782), senior high school (p=1.000), and housewife (p=0.287) in children with and without childhood asthma. These findings were contradicted to those of previous studies.

The number of maternal previous deliveries was also inversely associated with childhood asthma, especially in grand multigravida [15]. Meta-analysis by Bager et al. (2008) reports that delivery by cesarean section was associated with an increase in the childhood asthma development. Preterm birth might lead to unmatured airways and impaired lung function, which predispose the participant to asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in childhood and adulthood [16]. Voort et al. showed that preterm birth was associated with higher risks of preschool-age asthma (odds ratio [OR]=4.47; p<0.05) [17]. Meta-analysis by Voort et al. (2012) even showed the increased risk of asthma development until 24 years of age [18]. Pre-eclampsia has remained a bad contributor to maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality globally [19]. Pre-eclampsia is associated with unbalance of Th1/Th2 balance [20] which could potentially skew the child’s cytokine balance after birth in the same direction and thereby protect against the development of atopic disease, including asthma [21]. Pro-inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and adhesion molecules that increase during pre-eclampsia could contribute for asthma development in offspring [22]. Byberg et al. showed that severe maternal pre-eclampsia was associated with high-level allergic sensitization but not associated with atopic dermatitis, asthma, or altered lung function in late childhood [23]. Liu et al. showed positive association between maternal pre-eclampsia and asthma. The incidence rate ratios for asthma according to early- and late-onset pre-eclampsia were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.67-2.11) and 1.14 (95% CI=1.10-1.19) [24]. Getahun et al. (2010) showed that premature rupture of membranes with infection 1.66 times increased risk of asthma [25]. However, regarding of obstetric history, no differences were also found in maternal obstetric history such as parity (p=0.714), mode of delivery (p=0.886), history of preterm labor (p=0.064), pre-eclampsia (p=0.277), and premature rupture of membrane (p=0.252) between both groups in this study.

Child characteristics were also not associated with the development of childhood asthma, except exclusive breastfeeding (p=0.002). Voort et al. (2012) showed that preschoolchildren who were not breastfed for 6 months or non-receiving breastfed had increased risk of asthma. This happened the same for the presence of shortness of breath, dry

cough, and persistent phlegm during the first 4 years (OR=1.44 (95% CI=1.24-1.66), 1.26 (1.07–1.48), 1.25 (1.08–1.44), and 1.57 (1.29–1.91), respectively) [26]. Oddy et al. showed that exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months was associated with a decreased risk of asthma at age 6 years, regardless of maternal history of asthma [27]. Scholtens et al. showed that breastfeeding for >3 months had been showed reduced risk of developing asthma in children 3-8 years old. However, the result was not significant, and there was no association observed for bronchial hyper-responsiveness [28]. In a large-scale study, Takemura et al. (2000) showed that breastfeeding was related to the higher prevalence of asthma during pre-adolescence (OR=1.198; p<0.01) after adjustment for age, gender, parental smoking status, and parental history of asthma [28]. However, Bjorksten et al. (2011) in 206, 453 children from 32 countries report a lack of association between breastfeeding and mild-moderate allergic disease, but there was inverse association between in severe allergic disease [29].

Many studies have claimed that breastfeeding is highly protective against asthma regardless of family history of asthma. Breast milk had bioactive enzymes, hormones, growth factors, cytokines and immunological agents, that played important role in the allergy development [30,31]. The most important component was the presence of TGF-beta in breast milk. TGF-beta was induced by regulatory CD4+ T lymphocytes and could be transferred to children. TGF-beta played important role as antigen-specific protection from allergic airway disease [32,33]. Guilbert et al. also found that a longer duration of breastfeeding favorably influenced lung growth in children [34]. Other clinicians hypothesized the contrast effect. Fat-soluble chemicals and foreign protein antigens in breast milk might provoke hypersensitivity. However, some clinicians proved that glycans in breast milk might induce innate immune system of anti-inflammatory mechanism [35].

CONCLUSION

Of all maternal characteristics, maternal obstetric history, and fetal characteristics, only exclusive breastfeeding was associated for the development of asthma in offspring.

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Figur

Table 1: Maternal characteristics, obstetric history, and fetal characteristics in childhood asthma

Table 1:

Maternal characteristics, obstetric history, and fetal characteristics in childhood asthma p.21
Table 1: (Continued)

Table 1:

(Continued) p.22

Referensi

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