IMPLICATURE USED IN THE MATA NAJWA TALK SHOW OF METRO TV.

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IMPLICATURE USED IN THE MATA NAJWA TALK

SHOW OF METRO TV

A Thesis

Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Magister Humaniora

By:

RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR Registration Number: 8126111027

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTICS STUDY PROGRAM

POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

In the name of Almighty God, the most Gracious and the most Merciful,

first of all, the writer would like to thank God for His Blessing in the

completion of this thesis.

In the completion of this thesis, the writer wishes to acknowledge her

deepest gratitude for all generous guidance and assistance which has been given

to her by a lot of people.

The highest appreciation goes to her two advisors, Prof. Dr. Lince

Sihombing, M.Pd. as her first advisor and Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. as her

second advisor for their all guidance through the completion of this thesis.

Then, her appreciation also goes to Prof. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd. as the

head of English Applied Linguistics Program and Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. as

the secretary of English Applied Linguistics Program who have assisted her in

processing the administration requirements during the process of her studies in

the Post Graduate Program of the State University of Medan.

The writer’s great thanks also goes to her reviewers or examiners, Prof.

Dr. Berlin Sibarani, M.Pd., Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., and Dr. Siti Aisyah

Ginting, M.Pd. They had given suggestions, criticisms and improvements for

this thesis. She also would like to express her thankfulness for all lecturers

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students of LTBI A2 XXI, who had given her encouragement in writing this

thesis. Her thanks also dedicated to Bang Farid for his kindness for helping in

administration processes of LTBI.

Finally, her special gratitude is dedicated to her beloved parents who

give her pray, motivation, support mentally and financially and also endless

praying. A very special thanks for her beloved husband, Antoni Pangaribuan to

always become as enthusiasm in her life.

Medan, May 31st 2015

The writer,

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ABSTRACT

RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR. Implicature Used In The Mata Najwa

Talk Show Of Metro TV. Postgraduate School of the State University of Medan, 2015.

The aims of this study were to describe the types of implicature, to explain the ways of performing implicature and to describe the context of implicature by the host and the guests in

The Mata Najwa talk show on Metro TV. This research was conducted by using qualitative

descriptive design. The data were the utterances of the host and the guests in The Mata Najwa

talk show. The data analyzed by using theory of conversational implicature. The results of this study were: (1) The types of conversational implicature namely particularized conversational implicature is mostly used in the utterances. It means that the host and the guest’s utterances convey special meaning. (2) The process of producing conversational implicatures occurred by flouting quantity, quality, relation and manner maxims. (3) The context in The Mata Najwa talk

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ABSTRAK

RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR. Penggunaan implikatur dalam acara talk

show Mata Najwa di Metro TV. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Medan. 2015.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.5 The Significance of the Study………....…. 10

CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Pragmatic ...………....….. 12

2.2 Implicature ...……….. 13

2.2.1 Types of Implicature ...……… 16

2.2.1.1 Conventional Implicature ...………. 17

2.2.1.2 Conversational Implicature ...……….. 18

2.2.1.2.1 Generalized Implicature ...……… 19

2.2.1.2.2 Particularized Implicature ...………. 22

2.2.1.3. Cooperative Principles……...………. 24

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2.4 Context of Implicature ...………... 29

2.4.1 Macro Context of Implicature ………...…….. 30

2.4.2 Micro Context of Implicature ………... 31

2.5 Talk Show of Television ...………....… 33

2.5.1 The Mata Najwa Talk Show ………... 35

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD 3.1. Research Design……….… 37

3. 2. The Source of Data and Data ………..…. 38

3.3. The Instruments for Collection Data ……….... 38

3.4. The Techniques for Collection Data ………... 39

3.5 The Technique of Data Analysis ………... 40

3.6 The Trustworthiness of The Research ………...….... 42

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Data Analysis……… 45

4.1.1. Types of Conversational Implicature Used on The Mata Najwa Talk Show ……….. 46

4.1.2. The Ways of Performing Implicature on The Mata Najwa Talk Show ……….. 51

4.1.3. The Context of Implicature Used on The Mata Najwa Talk Show……….………. 67

4.2. Findings……… 69

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CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1. Conclusions…..……… 74

5.2. Suggestions……….. 75

REFERENCES …...………... 76

APPENDIX 1 ……….……….. 78

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1.1 Types of Conversational Implicature Used in The Mata Najwa Talk Show………... 46

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1The Background of the Study

Communication is the means by which ideas and information are spread

from person to person. People use communication to express feelings,

emotions, opinions and values, to learn, teach and improve their status.

Communication is therefore vital to human interaction whether parents and

children, bosses and employees or even husband and wife. The diversity and

characteristics of those involved in any interaction can thus affect

communication. Taking account of any diversity in interaction rather than

assuming uniformity to achieve effective communication. Communication is

available everywhere, including in TV programs. TV programs themselves are

varying; one of them is talk show.

There are many talk shows broadcasted by various TV stations, one of

them is The Mata Najwa Talk Show. The Mata Najwa Talk Show is an excellent

talk show program of Metro TV hosted by a senior journalist, Najwa Shihab.

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2 This talk show is chosen as the data of this thesis. Broadcasting

premiere since November 25th, 2009, The Mata Najwa Talk Show consistently

delivers interesting topics with first class guests. A number of special guests

were present and spoke at The Mata Najwa Talk Show, including former

President BJ Habibie, former Vice President Jusuf Kalla, Former State

Enterprises Minister Dahlan Iskan and Former Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo.

The Mata Najwa Talk Show also has presented exclusively pictures

inside the prison holding cell of Sukamiskin Cipinang in the episode "Special

Prison". In the show, Najwa participated to make unannounced visits and talk

directly with corruption convict Gayus Tambunan Halomoan, Adrian

Waworuntu, Agusrin Najamuddin and Anggodo.

The Mata Najwa Talk Show has won a number of awards nationally and

internationally. In 2010, the episode "Separuh Jiwaku Pergi" was selected to be

one of the nominations for the 15th Asian Television Awards category of "Best

Current Affairs Programme". In 2011 The Mata Najwa Talk Show got grace

Dhuafa Wallet Award as an inspiring talk show. In the same year, The Mata

Najwa Talk Show entered into one of IBC Award nominations category "Best

Talk Show".

For three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012, The Mata Najwa Talk

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Magazine. The Mata Najwa Talk Show also awarded The Word of Month

Marketing Award in 2011.

In 2014, entered the age of 4 years, The Mata Najwa Talk Show

managed to get KPI Award as "Best Talk Show Program".

The Mata Najwa Talk Show is chosen to be the source of data in this

study due to some reasons. First, The Mata Najwa Talk Show is a familiar talk

show with political issues. Second, the language used in The Mata Najwa Talk

Show is good for its familiarity to all background of education. And last The

Mata Najwa Talk Show is a mostly viewed by inhabitant in Indonesia.

In doing conversation, the participants have to follow the rules and

maxims. If a conversational exchange is not straightforward, it may be the

participants do not do it directly. The conversation conveys implicature which

is needed to understand. It can be proven by the following dialog:

(The wife is busy cooking and then the doorbell rings.)

Wife: Could you answer the door?

Husband: I’m taking a shower!

The husband is not answering his wife’s question directly, but what he

says is a way of making communication and the conversation makes a perfect

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4 husband, “I can’t answer the door,” due to the reason he described. In other

words, a conversational implicature was interpreted by her in order to figure out

what he meant. Thus, implicatures function as a bridge to connect what is

actually uttered and what is implicated in the utterance.

A study about political discourse has been conducted by Osunbade

(2010) which focuses on the language use in Adichie's literary texts; especially

to generate meaning which has attracted increasing interest in linguistic

scholarship in recent times. Osunbade carries out a pragmatic investigation of

implicatures of political discourse in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus (henceforth PH)

and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS), to determine how language is

deployed to facilitate access to her thematic concerns. The data were collected

by collecting the political discourse in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus (henceforth

PH) and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS). The findings of the research

shows that politics-related issues are communicated as implicatures in Purple

Hibiscus (henceforth PH) and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS).

There are reasons for choosing the Conversational Implicature Used in

The Mata Najwa Talk Show. First, it is reowned indirectly on its linguistics

behavior, especially when it comes to communicating about unfavorable things.

Language is supposed to be used to clearly express beliefs, but political

utterances does not just express beliefs but it also mobilizes and inspires. The

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5 are a community in Indonesia to have penchant for avoiding excessiveness as

evident. And last, the conversational implicature in political utterances is a new

study to be observed.

Grice (1995) introduces a distinction between two types of

conversational implicatures: generalized as opposed to particularized

implicatures. First, when no special knowledge is required in the context to

calculate the additional conveyed meaning, it is called a generalized

conversational implicatures (Grice, 1995). One common example in English

involves any phrase with an indefinite article of the type “a/an X”, such as “a

garden” and “a child” as in example below. These phrases are typically

interpreted according to the generalized conversational implicature that: an X

+> not guest’s X.

I was sitting in a garden one day. A child looked over the fence.

The implicatures above shows that the garden and the child mentioned

do not belong to him, are calculated on the principle that if the guest was

capable of being more specific, then he/she would have said “my garden” and

“my child”.

The example of the utterance of implicature from The Mata Najwa Talk

Show between the host (Najwa) and the guest (Mahfud) is

Najwa : Kalau kita ambil contoh dalam 2 kali periode SBY, ada

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6 (If we take example from two round of SBY’s presidential period, some said that both of the vice presidents are totally different, Jusuf Kala and Budiono. Which is the ideal one?)

Mahfud : Jusuf Kala dan SBY juga kurang ideal karena

nampaknya tidak ini ya, yang satu nampaknya lebih banyak masuk ke intervensi ya karena terlalu aktif, bukan karena jelek. Ini tidak cocok. Itulah tidak ideal. Pak Budiono terlalu lemah, tidak bisa mengambil inisiatif.

(Jusuf Kala and SBY are also not an ideal one because it looks like that one part is dominantly enter intervention because of his overactive, but it is not bad. They are not fit each other. They are not ideal. Mr Budiono is too weak since he is not capable to take the initiative.)

The context of the utterances is the host (Najwa) asking the guest’s

(Mahfud) point of view of comparing the two vice presidents; Jusuf Kala and

Budiono, during SBY’s two rounds of presidency. Mahfud’s answer in

responding Najwa’s question is categorized generalized implicature.

Second, particularized conversational implicature is an implicature

where some assumed knowledge is required in very specific contexts during a

conversation. Take a look on this scene in which a husband and wife are

reading in the kitchen while their dinner is cooking:

Wife : Do you want to test the potatoes?

Husband : Can I just finish this sentence?

Wife : Of course.

The question is not match with the answer, because his answer does not

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For example the utterance of implicature from The Mata Najwa Talk

Show between the host (Najwa) and the guest (Dahlan):

Najwa : Itu anda seperti apa di konvensi ini, apa ikut alur saja

atau merasa sudah sia-sia ikut konvensi?

(What is your personal opinion about this convention, do you only join the plot or do you already feel the vain join this convention?)

Dahlan : Karena saya sudah terlanjur ngomong ke Najwa dulu

bahwa status saya ini sudah saya turunkan dari menjemput takdir menjadi menunggu takdir. Jadi saya masih seperti itu. (Because I was already talking first to Najwa that my status is already scaled back from picking up my destiny be waiting for destiny. So I am still so.)

The context of the utterances above is the host (Najwa) asking the

guest’s (Dahlan) point of view since Dahlan is one of the member of the

presidential candidate who joins the convention system in Demokrat Party.

Najwa asked Dahlan’s personal opinion about convention, whether he is still

joining the plot or he is already feeling the vain join the convention. Dahlan

was not directly answered the question arise by Najwa by choosing his decision

of still joining the plot or already feel the vain of joining the convention.

Dahlan replied the question arised by stating implicit meaning that he is still in

his point of view, scaling back his status from taking up my destiny to waiting

for destiny. Since the guest (Dahlan) replied the question arise by the host

(Najwa) by giving implicit meaning that conversation takes place where the

hearer should understand the context of the conversation between the host

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8 Party where Dahlan Iskan is one of the presidential candidate for the upcoming

presidential election, so the utterances classified into particularized

conversational implicature.

In summary, a conversational implicature is an implicature that is drawn

in accordance with pragmatic principles such as the cooperative principle rather

than being inferred from the meaning of a lexical item or a sentence structure.

The same research conducted by Acqromi (2010) study in which

focuses on the utterances through debate using Grice’s theory of implicature.

The study is intended to describe kinds of implicatures found in the debate

between Barack Obama and John McCain and how the implicatures are used in

the debate between Barack Obama and John McCain. The data are taken in the

forms of conversations done by Barrack Obama and John McCain in their first

debate which is held by Missisipi University on September 26th 2008. This

study is done by using descriptive qualitative method based on Grice’s theory

of implicature. The result of this study reveals some findings covering the

formulated research problems. First, the implicatures used in debate between

Barrack Obama and John McCain can be categorized as generalized

conversational implicature and particularized conversational implicature.

Generalized conversational implicature is used when the information being

conveyed is clear, brief, in chronological order and no context is required by the

hearers to understand the information in the debate. In addition, indefinite

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9 understand the information. While particularized conversational implicature is

used when the guests do not give the clarity and sufficiency information to the

hearers. It means that, the context is required by the hearers to understand the

intended information or messages.

This study aims at finding the implicit meaning in conversation setting

used in The Mata Najwa talk show. It is regarded that a better understanding of

implicit meaning in conversational implicature used by the host and guests in

The Mata Najwa talk show to enable the TV watcher understand the implicit

meaning.

1.2The Problems of the Study

Based on the background of the study, the researcher conducted a study

about conversational implicatures used in The Mata Najwa talk show. The

following questions are forwarded as the research problems.

1) What types of implicature are used in the The Mata Najwa talk show?

2) How are those types of implicature used by the host and the guests in

the The Mata Najwa talk show?

3) In what context is implicature conducted by the host and the guests in

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10 1.3The Objective of the Study

In relation to the problems, the objectives of the study are,

1) to describe the types of implicature used in The Mata Najwa talk show.

2) to explain the ways of performing implicature used by the host and the

guests in The Mata Najwa talk show.

3) to describe the context of implicature by the host and the guests in The

Mata Najwa talk show.

1.4The Scope of the Study

The scope of the study is limited into the pragmatic feature in

implicatures used in The Mata Najwa talk show. The utterances uttered by the

host, Najwa Sihab and the guests invited to come to The Mata Najwa talk show.

The focus of this study is in the analysis of implicature used both generalized

and particularized implicature. The two types are incorporated as the

conversational implicature for the analysis of the data.

1.5The Significance of the Study

The findings of the study are expected to give some relevant

contributions both:

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1) To enrich and develop the students knowledge of pragmatics

particularly with the conversational implicature subtopic.

2) As the source of information and idea for other researchers who want to

carry out further study on conversational implicature of the other fields.

Practically, the results of this study are useful:

1) As the guiding information for interviewer and interviewee to obey the

cooperative principles during having communication.

2) As the guidance for the participants to increase the sensitivity in

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions

After deliberately analyzing the data, the conclusions are stated as follows:

1. The types of conversational implicatures namely conversational implicature was found in the host and guests utterances in The Mata Najwa Talk Show program.

2. The process of conversational implicature namely by flouting maxim of quantity, flouting maxim of quality, flouting maxim of relation and flouting maxim of manner are occurred in the host and guests utterances in The Mata Najwa Talk Show program.

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75 5.2 Suggestions

Based on the conclusions stated above, this study has some suggestions to readers with may be different positions as follows:

1. To the other researchers, it is suggested to conduct the same topic with different talk show programs and different topics in different programs to see the role of implicature used by for interviewer and interviewee whether they obey the cooperative principles during having communication or not.

2. To the readers, it is suggested to enrich and develop the students knowledge of pragmatics particularly with the conversational implicature subtopic.

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Grice, Paul. 1995. Studies in the Way of Words. London: Harvard University Press.

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Lubis, Indah Sari. 2012. Conversational Implicature of Indonesia Lawyer’s

Club on TV One. Unpublished Thesis.

Merriam, S. B. 1998. Qualitative Research and Case Research Applications in

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Miles, M. B., & Huberman, M. A. 1984. Qualitative Data Analysis. London: Sage Publication Inc.

Osunbade, Adeniyio O. 2010. Implicatures of Political Discourse in

Chimamanda Adichie’s Novels. Gale Light Journal Arts, Economy,

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77 Punch, K.F. 1998. Introduction to Social Research: Quantitative and

Qualitative Approaches. Perth: Sage Publication.

Shenton, K.A. 2004. Strategies for Ensuring Trustworthiness in Qulaitative

Research Projects. Education Journal of Northumbria University 22, 63- 75.

Timberg, BM. 2002. History Of TV Talk Show. United States of America: The University of Texas Press.

Figur

Table 4.1.1 Types of Conversational Implicature Used in The Mata Najwa Talk
Table 4 1 1 Types of Conversational Implicature Used in The Mata Najwa Talk . View in document p.12

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