IMPLICATURE USED IN THE MATA NAJWA TALK
SHOW OF METRO TV
Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of
RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR Registration Number: 8126111027
ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTICS STUDY PROGRAM
In the name of Almighty God, the most Gracious and the most Merciful,
first of all, the writer would like to thank God for His Blessing in the
completion of this thesis.
In the completion of this thesis, the writer wishes to acknowledge her
deepest gratitude for all generous guidance and assistance which has been given
to her by a lot of people.
The highest appreciation goes to her two advisors, Prof. Dr. Lince
Sihombing, M.Pd. as her first advisor and Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. as her
second advisor for their all guidance through the completion of this thesis.
Then, her appreciation also goes to Prof. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd. as the
head of English Applied Linguistics Program and Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. as
the secretary of English Applied Linguistics Program who have assisted her in
processing the administration requirements during the process of her studies in
the Post Graduate Program of the State University of Medan.
The writer’s great thanks also goes to her reviewers or examiners, Prof.
Dr. Berlin Sibarani, M.Pd., Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., and Dr. Siti Aisyah
Ginting, M.Pd. They had given suggestions, criticisms and improvements for
this thesis. She also would like to express her thankfulness for all lecturers
students of LTBI A2 XXI, who had given her encouragement in writing this
thesis. Her thanks also dedicated to Bang Farid for his kindness for helping in
administration processes of LTBI.
Finally, her special gratitude is dedicated to her beloved parents who
give her pray, motivation, support mentally and financially and also endless
praying. A very special thanks for her beloved husband, Antoni Pangaribuan to
always become as enthusiasm in her life.
Medan, May 31st 2015
RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR. Implicature Used In The Mata Najwa
Talk Show Of Metro TV. Postgraduate School of the State University of Medan, 2015.
The aims of this study were to describe the types of implicature, to explain the ways of performing implicature and to describe the context of implicature by the host and the guests in
The Mata Najwa talk show on Metro TV. This research was conducted by using qualitative
descriptive design. The data were the utterances of the host and the guests in The Mata Najwa
talk show. The data analyzed by using theory of conversational implicature. The results of this study were: (1) The types of conversational implicature namely particularized conversational implicature is mostly used in the utterances. It means that the host and the guest’s utterances convey special meaning. (2) The process of producing conversational implicatures occurred by flouting quantity, quality, relation and manner maxims. (3) The context in The Mata Najwa talk
RADEN SYAHID CARMELIA ULINA SAMOSIR. Penggunaan implikatur dalam acara talk
show Mata Najwa di Metro TV. Program Pascasarjana Universitas Negeri Medan. 2015.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
1.5 The Significance of the Study………....…. 10
CHAPTER II: REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Pragmatic ...………....….. 12
2.2 Implicature ...……….. 13
2.2.1 Types of Implicature ...……… 16
220.127.116.11 Conventional Implicature ...………. 17
18.104.22.168 Conversational Implicature ...……….. 18
22.214.171.124.1 Generalized Implicature ...……… 19
126.96.36.199.2 Particularized Implicature ...………. 22
188.8.131.52. Cooperative Principles……...………. 24
2.4 Context of Implicature ...………... 29
2.4.1 Macro Context of Implicature ………...…….. 30
2.4.2 Micro Context of Implicature ………... 31
2.5 Talk Show of Television ...………....… 33
2.5.1 The Mata Najwa Talk Show ………... 35
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD 3.1. Research Design……….… 37
3. 2. The Source of Data and Data ………..…. 38
3.3. The Instruments for Collection Data ……….... 38
3.4. The Techniques for Collection Data ………... 39
3.5 The Technique of Data Analysis ………... 40
3.6 The Trustworthiness of The Research ………...….... 42
CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND DISCUSSION 4.1. Data Analysis……… 45
4.1.1. Types of Conversational Implicature Used on The Mata Najwa Talk Show ……….. 46
4.1.2. The Ways of Performing Implicature on The Mata Najwa Talk Show ……….. 51
4.1.3. The Context of Implicature Used on The Mata Najwa Talk Show……….………. 67
4.2. Findings……… 69
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
5.1. Conclusions…..……… 74
5.2. Suggestions……….. 75
REFERENCES …...………... 76
APPENDIX 1 ……….……….. 78
LIST OF TABLES
Table 4.1.1 Types of Conversational Implicature Used in The Mata Najwa Talk Show………... 46
1.1The Background of the Study
Communication is the means by which ideas and information are spread
from person to person. People use communication to express feelings,
emotions, opinions and values, to learn, teach and improve their status.
Communication is therefore vital to human interaction whether parents and
children, bosses and employees or even husband and wife. The diversity and
characteristics of those involved in any interaction can thus affect
communication. Taking account of any diversity in interaction rather than
assuming uniformity to achieve effective communication. Communication is
available everywhere, including in TV programs. TV programs themselves are
varying; one of them is talk show.
There are many talk shows broadcasted by various TV stations, one of
them is The Mata Najwa Talk Show. The Mata Najwa Talk Show is an excellent
talk show program of Metro TV hosted by a senior journalist, Najwa Shihab.
2 This talk show is chosen as the data of this thesis. Broadcasting
premiere since November 25th, 2009, The Mata Najwa Talk Show consistently
delivers interesting topics with first class guests. A number of special guests
were present and spoke at The Mata Najwa Talk Show, including former
President BJ Habibie, former Vice President Jusuf Kalla, Former State
Enterprises Minister Dahlan Iskan and Former Jakarta Governor Joko Widodo.
The Mata Najwa Talk Show also has presented exclusively pictures
inside the prison holding cell of Sukamiskin Cipinang in the episode "Special
Prison". In the show, Najwa participated to make unannounced visits and talk
directly with corruption convict Gayus Tambunan Halomoan, Adrian
Waworuntu, Agusrin Najamuddin and Anggodo.
The Mata Najwa Talk Show has won a number of awards nationally and
internationally. In 2010, the episode "Separuh Jiwaku Pergi" was selected to be
one of the nominations for the 15th Asian Television Awards category of "Best
Current Affairs Programme". In 2011 The Mata Najwa Talk Show got grace
Dhuafa Wallet Award as an inspiring talk show. In the same year, The Mata
Najwa Talk Show entered into one of IBC Award nominations category "Best
For three consecutive years from 2010 to 2012, The Mata Najwa Talk
Magazine. The Mata Najwa Talk Show also awarded The Word of Month
Marketing Award in 2011.
In 2014, entered the age of 4 years, The Mata Najwa Talk Show
managed to get KPI Award as "Best Talk Show Program".
The Mata Najwa Talk Show is chosen to be the source of data in this
study due to some reasons. First, The Mata Najwa Talk Show is a familiar talk
show with political issues. Second, the language used in The Mata Najwa Talk
Show is good for its familiarity to all background of education. And last The
Mata Najwa Talk Show is a mostly viewed by inhabitant in Indonesia.
In doing conversation, the participants have to follow the rules and
maxims. If a conversational exchange is not straightforward, it may be the
participants do not do it directly. The conversation conveys implicature which
is needed to understand. It can be proven by the following dialog:
(The wife is busy cooking and then the doorbell rings.)
Wife: Could you answer the door?
Husband: I’m taking a shower!
The husband is not answering his wife’s question directly, but what he
says is a way of making communication and the conversation makes a perfect
4 husband, “I can’t answer the door,” due to the reason he described. In other
words, a conversational implicature was interpreted by her in order to figure out
what he meant. Thus, implicatures function as a bridge to connect what is
actually uttered and what is implicated in the utterance.
A study about political discourse has been conducted by Osunbade
(2010) which focuses on the language use in Adichie's literary texts; especially
to generate meaning which has attracted increasing interest in linguistic
scholarship in recent times. Osunbade carries out a pragmatic investigation of
implicatures of political discourse in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus (henceforth PH)
and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS), to determine how language is
deployed to facilitate access to her thematic concerns. The data were collected
by collecting the political discourse in Adichie's Purple Hibiscus (henceforth
PH) and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS). The findings of the research
shows that politics-related issues are communicated as implicatures in Purple
Hibiscus (henceforth PH) and Half of a Yellow Sun (henceforth HYS).
There are reasons for choosing the Conversational Implicature Used in
The Mata Najwa Talk Show. First, it is reowned indirectly on its linguistics
behavior, especially when it comes to communicating about unfavorable things.
Language is supposed to be used to clearly express beliefs, but political
utterances does not just express beliefs but it also mobilizes and inspires. The
5 are a community in Indonesia to have penchant for avoiding excessiveness as
evident. And last, the conversational implicature in political utterances is a new
study to be observed.
Grice (1995) introduces a distinction between two types of
conversational implicatures: generalized as opposed to particularized
implicatures. First, when no special knowledge is required in the context to
calculate the additional conveyed meaning, it is called a generalized
conversational implicatures (Grice, 1995). One common example in English
involves any phrase with an indefinite article of the type “a/an X”, such as “a
garden” and “a child” as in example below. These phrases are typically
interpreted according to the generalized conversational implicature that: an X
+> not guest’s X.
I was sitting in a garden one day. A child looked over the fence.
The implicatures above shows that the garden and the child mentioned
do not belong to him, are calculated on the principle that if the guest was
capable of being more specific, then he/she would have said “my garden” and
The example of the utterance of implicature from The Mata Najwa Talk
Show between the host (Najwa) and the guest (Mahfud) is
Najwa : Kalau kita ambil contoh dalam 2 kali periode SBY, ada
6 (If we take example from two round of SBY’s presidential period, some said that both of the vice presidents are totally different, Jusuf Kala and Budiono. Which is the ideal one?)
Mahfud : Jusuf Kala dan SBY juga kurang ideal karena
nampaknya tidak ini ya, yang satu nampaknya lebih banyak masuk ke intervensi ya karena terlalu aktif, bukan karena jelek. Ini tidak cocok. Itulah tidak ideal. Pak Budiono terlalu lemah, tidak bisa mengambil inisiatif.
(Jusuf Kala and SBY are also not an ideal one because it looks like that one part is dominantly enter intervention because of his overactive, but it is not bad. They are not fit each other. They are not ideal. Mr Budiono is too weak since he is not capable to take the initiative.)
The context of the utterances is the host (Najwa) asking the guest’s
(Mahfud) point of view of comparing the two vice presidents; Jusuf Kala and
Budiono, during SBY’s two rounds of presidency. Mahfud’s answer in
responding Najwa’s question is categorized generalized implicature.
Second, particularized conversational implicature is an implicature
where some assumed knowledge is required in very specific contexts during a
conversation. Take a look on this scene in which a husband and wife are
reading in the kitchen while their dinner is cooking:
Wife : Do you want to test the potatoes?
Husband : Can I just finish this sentence?
Wife : Of course.
The question is not match with the answer, because his answer does not
For example the utterance of implicature from The Mata Najwa Talk
Show between the host (Najwa) and the guest (Dahlan):
Najwa : Itu anda seperti apa di konvensi ini, apa ikut alur saja
atau merasa sudah sia-sia ikut konvensi?
(What is your personal opinion about this convention, do you only join the plot or do you already feel the vain join this convention?)
Dahlan : Karena saya sudah terlanjur ngomong ke Najwa dulu
bahwa status saya ini sudah saya turunkan dari menjemput takdir menjadi menunggu takdir. Jadi saya masih seperti itu. (Because I was already talking first to Najwa that my status is already scaled back from picking up my destiny be waiting for destiny. So I am still so.)
The context of the utterances above is the host (Najwa) asking the
guest’s (Dahlan) point of view since Dahlan is one of the member of the
presidential candidate who joins the convention system in Demokrat Party.
Najwa asked Dahlan’s personal opinion about convention, whether he is still
joining the plot or he is already feeling the vain join the convention. Dahlan
was not directly answered the question arise by Najwa by choosing his decision
of still joining the plot or already feel the vain of joining the convention.
Dahlan replied the question arised by stating implicit meaning that he is still in
his point of view, scaling back his status from taking up my destiny to waiting
for destiny. Since the guest (Dahlan) replied the question arise by the host
(Najwa) by giving implicit meaning that conversation takes place where the
hearer should understand the context of the conversation between the host
8 Party where Dahlan Iskan is one of the presidential candidate for the upcoming
presidential election, so the utterances classified into particularized
In summary, a conversational implicature is an implicature that is drawn
in accordance with pragmatic principles such as the cooperative principle rather
than being inferred from the meaning of a lexical item or a sentence structure.
The same research conducted by Acqromi (2010) study in which
focuses on the utterances through debate using Grice’s theory of implicature.
The study is intended to describe kinds of implicatures found in the debate
between Barack Obama and John McCain and how the implicatures are used in
the debate between Barack Obama and John McCain. The data are taken in the
forms of conversations done by Barrack Obama and John McCain in their first
debate which is held by Missisipi University on September 26th 2008. This
study is done by using descriptive qualitative method based on Grice’s theory
of implicature. The result of this study reveals some findings covering the
formulated research problems. First, the implicatures used in debate between
Barrack Obama and John McCain can be categorized as generalized
conversational implicature and particularized conversational implicature.
Generalized conversational implicature is used when the information being
conveyed is clear, brief, in chronological order and no context is required by the
hearers to understand the information in the debate. In addition, indefinite
9 understand the information. While particularized conversational implicature is
used when the guests do not give the clarity and sufficiency information to the
hearers. It means that, the context is required by the hearers to understand the
intended information or messages.
This study aims at finding the implicit meaning in conversation setting
used in The Mata Najwa talk show. It is regarded that a better understanding of
implicit meaning in conversational implicature used by the host and guests in
The Mata Najwa talk show to enable the TV watcher understand the implicit
1.2The Problems of the Study
Based on the background of the study, the researcher conducted a study
about conversational implicatures used in The Mata Najwa talk show. The
following questions are forwarded as the research problems.
1) What types of implicature are used in the The Mata Najwa talk show?
2) How are those types of implicature used by the host and the guests in
the The Mata Najwa talk show?
3) In what context is implicature conducted by the host and the guests in
10 1.3The Objective of the Study
In relation to the problems, the objectives of the study are,
1) to describe the types of implicature used in The Mata Najwa talk show.
2) to explain the ways of performing implicature used by the host and the
guests in The Mata Najwa talk show.
3) to describe the context of implicature by the host and the guests in The
Mata Najwa talk show.
1.4The Scope of the Study
The scope of the study is limited into the pragmatic feature in
implicatures used in The Mata Najwa talk show. The utterances uttered by the
host, Najwa Sihab and the guests invited to come to The Mata Najwa talk show.
The focus of this study is in the analysis of implicature used both generalized
and particularized implicature. The two types are incorporated as the
conversational implicature for the analysis of the data.
1.5The Significance of the Study
The findings of the study are expected to give some relevant
1) To enrich and develop the students knowledge of pragmatics
particularly with the conversational implicature subtopic.
2) As the source of information and idea for other researchers who want to
carry out further study on conversational implicature of the other fields.
Practically, the results of this study are useful:
1) As the guiding information for interviewer and interviewee to obey the
cooperative principles during having communication.
2) As the guidance for the participants to increase the sensitivity in
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
After deliberately analyzing the data, the conclusions are stated as follows:
1. The types of conversational implicatures namely conversational implicature was found in the host and guests utterances in The Mata Najwa Talk Show program.
2. The process of conversational implicature namely by flouting maxim of quantity, flouting maxim of quality, flouting maxim of relation and flouting maxim of manner are occurred in the host and guests utterances in The Mata Najwa Talk Show program.
75 5.2 Suggestions
Based on the conclusions stated above, this study has some suggestions to readers with may be different positions as follows:
1. To the other researchers, it is suggested to conduct the same topic with different talk show programs and different topics in different programs to see the role of implicature used by for interviewer and interviewee whether they obey the cooperative principles during having communication or not.
2. To the readers, it is suggested to enrich and develop the students knowledge of pragmatics particularly with the conversational implicature subtopic.
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