Combining form in medical terms : job training repot


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Teks penuh



1. Student’s Profile

a. Name : Lady Sekar Mayang

b. Address : Jl. Sekeloa no. 33, Bandung

c. Place and Date of Birth : Sukabumi, 10 December 1991

d. Sex : Female

e. Religion : Moslem

f. Phone : 089654444114

g. E-mail :

2. Educational Background

Indonesia University of Computer

2.2Informal Education

No Year Institution

1 2001- 2003 Alphabet Club (Certified) 2 2001-2003 AIA Arithmetic (Certified) 3 2006-2008 English First (Certified)

4 2010 Translating and Interpreting workshop (Certified)


30 3. Competency

There are some competencies that the writer has. They are as follows:

a. English Correspondence

b. Good at English both oral and written

c. Operating Computer ( Ms.Office , Adobe Photoshop, Macromedia, and


4. Organization and Work Experiences

No Year Organization

1 2004-2005 Member of Viva Teater SMP Negeri 1 Sukabumi

2 2007-2008 Member of Teater Epigonen SMA Negeri 1 Sukabumi

3 2009-2010 Head of Himpunan Mahasiswa Sastra Inggris UNIKOM

4 2010-2011 Staff of Menteri Kebudayaan BEM UNIKOM 5 2011-2012 Member of UNIKOM Futsal Campus

6 2012- present Member of Protokoler team UNIKOM




Submitted to fulfill one of the course requirements





First of all, the present writer want to thank to Allah SWT who gives the

strength and His bless to me to finish this report. The writer also wants to dedicate

the deepest thanks and appreciation to:

1. Mrs. Retno Purwani Sari S.S., M.Hum. as the writer’s advisor. She helps

and leads the writer to make a good academic writing. Thank you so


2. Mrs. Asih Prihandini S.S., M.Hum. as the coordinator of job training.

Thanks for guiding and conducting us in job training.

3. Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti and Mr. Savitra Wibawa who lead the Global

Linguist. Thanks for guiding the writer through the job training.

4. My Family, thank you for the love and support you always give.

5. Reisa, Ferra, Yolanda, Resti, Aldi, Anggit, and Siti thanks for the laugh

and the joy you bring. Keep support each other.

6. Riki Ginanjar, thanks for always there.

However, this paper still has many weaknesses and needs the improvement

so the writer expects the suggestion, advice and critic from the readers. Thank


Bandung, 11th December 2012




1.1 Background of the Topic 1

1.2 Scope 2

1.3 Objectives 2

1.4 The Significant of Knowledge 2

1.5 The Framework of Theory 2

1.6 Research Method 3

1.7 Place and Time 3


2.1 Description of Global Linguist 4

2.2 Position and Coordination 4

2.2.1 Job Position 4

2.2.2 Coordination 5

2.2.3 Responsibilities 5


3.1 Combining Form in Medical Translation 6

3.2 Data Analysis 7

3.3 The Discussion 11



4.1 Conclusion 15

4.2 Suggestion 15






Accessed at

Bauer, Laurie. 1983. English Word- Formation. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Plag, Ingo. 2003. Word-Formation in English. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press

Steadmans., 2005, Medical Prefixes, Suffixes, and Combining Forms, August 13. Retrieved on November 9, 2012 from



1.1Background of the Topic

Every speaker is capable of performing language in the way of language

competence and language performance. Focusing on language competence,

especially, it increases along with social interaction. People learn many on

language. Ingo Plag argues that the average speaker knows thousands of words,

and new words enter our minds and our language on a daily basis (2002:1).

According to my observation, the increased language competence is mostly

improved through word’s production. English as one of productive languages, is

also developed through this activity commonly discussed in Morphology.

It may be defined that word formation is the creation or the construction of

new word. Plag defines word formation as words that are obviously composed by

putting together smaller elements to form larger words with more complex

meanings (2002:12). Word formation has many kinds of types. One of them is

combining form.

Combining form or neoclassical compound is the combining of lexemes to

make a new word. Neoclassical compound, somehow, is usually adopted by

Greek or Latin to compound the word to become a new word. Medical is one of



This report will give the explanation about how the combining form is

constructed to have a clearly understanding on the development of combining

form in medical translation.


1. What kind of combining form appears in the translation of medical


2. How is the combining form constructed?


The purpose of this research is as in the following:

1. To determine the combining form of medical terms found in the

translation of medical handout

2. To discuss and analyze the construction of combining form found in

medical translation

1.4The Significant of Knowledge

It is expected that the reader will understand many kinds of combining form

developed in medical terms.

1.5The Framework of Theory

In this research, I use the theory of neoclassical compound in word formation



it could be argued that, if all (or most) of the initial combining forms end in -o, we should treat -o as a kind of suffix. Or, alternatively, we could venture the hypothesis that -o is not a suffix attached to the initial combining form, but a prefix attached to the final combining form (Plag 2002:213)

In order to make the research clearly understand, I use this method to

determine the combining form then analyze it to know the construction of

the combining form.

1.6Research Method

The method used in this research descriptive analytic. In descriptive analytic,

we collected some data then we analyze it to make the research in appropriate.

In descriptive study the output end of analysis can be decisive in the case that

the project is seeking knowledge about a firmly defined question (,


1.7Place and Time

I did this job training in Global Linguist. It is a translation agency addressed at

Cipaganti Rahayu Regency F-27A Jl. Cipamokolan Bandung Timur. The

manager gave me some paper work to be translated. Most of them are

handouts for medical students. I have to translate them in the specified time. I




2.1 Description of Global Linguist

English is an international language. In Indonesia itself, English is so

required that many people learn to speak and write it. However, there are still

many people unable to use English properly. It can be proved by many translation

agencies established. Therefore, it makes translation become a promising career.

As an English student, translation can be one of the options for us to make career.

To practice and to gain the experience in this field, I went to Global Linguist to be

the place of my job training.

Global Linguist is one of the translation agencies in Bandung addressed at

Cipaganti Rahayu Regency F-27A Jl. Cipamokolan Bandung Timur. The founders

of the agency are Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti, S.S., M.Si. and her sister, Dianita, S.E.

Global Linguist focuses not only on translation but also on English training for


2.2 Position and Coordination

2.2.1 Job Position

In Global Linguist, I had worked as a freelance translator. I worked with 2



2.2.2 Coordination

The Global Linguist has staffs that run the agency and help me during the

job training

1. Mrs. Diba Artsiyanti, as the head of the agency.

2. Mr. Savitra Wibawa, as the manager and editor.

2.2.3 Responsibilities

In the process of job training, the clients who need our help contact Mrs.

Artsiyanti first. Then Mrs. Artsiyanti will give the clients’s material to Mr.

Wibawa. Mr. Wibawa will contact us and distribute the material to the three of us

to be translated.

During this job training, I have translated many materials. Most of them are

medical handout for medical students. After finising the translation, we send our

work back to Mr. Wibawa who will make an editing on typing of our worksheet





3.1 Combining Form in Medical Translation

Medical is one of the fields that has many kinds of terminology adopted

from Latin. These medical terms often appear in many forms. It usually appears in

combining form. Combining form is lexemes which combine and form as a new

word. Combining form is also known as Neoclassical formations. Neoclassical

formations as forms in which lexemes of Latin or Greek origin are combined to

form new combinations that are not attested in the original languages (hence the

term Neoclassical). (Plag 2002:210). However, it also provokes the question

whether the form is the construction of affixation or combining form, considering

they may be both composed of the prefix and suffix. In his book, Ingo Plag (2002:

200) explains that the difference between affixes and combining forms now is that

neither affixes nor bound roots can combine with each other to form a new word.

According to the previous statement, it can be concluded that constructions

formed through affixation or those through combining form are different. The

difference may be identified by its constituents. Combining form, especially, is

constructed by root and bound root. By applying Ingo Plag theory, the origin of

the word formation can be determined. As a result, the meaning may be

understood easily. Furthermore, this case will be discussed deliberately in the



3.2 Data Analysis

Before starting analyzing the combining form that is found in my translation

worksheet about medical, some of the medical terms suspected as combining form

are listed. Here is the list:

1. Endochondral

2. Endocranial

3. Morphogenesis

4. Sphenoid

5. Craniofacial

6. Osteogeneous

7. Epiphyses

The list above is just some of the medical terms I found in medical

handout. I suspected them as combining form because most of them are

constructed by the bound roots. For more specific analysis, it will be discussed in

the next section below. The medical terms that appear above, will be analyzed

based on combining form theory developed by Ingo Plag.

Data I: Endochondral

According to the word, it may be assumed that Endochondral is formed by

bound End- and lexeme Chondral. Bound root End- defines as ‘within’ Chondral

defines as pertaining to cartilage. Dictionary defines Endochondral as relating to,



and involves deposition of lime salts in the cartilage matrix followed by secondary

absorption and replacement by true bony tissue—compare.

In the performance, bound root end- and lexeme Chondral blends to become

Endochondral not Endchondral. It can be seen the appearance of medial –o-.

Based on the theory of Plag, The final position of combining form Endochondral

is not already a vowel, therefore this word takes –o- in the forming process of

combining form. So, the form process can be seen in the following:

End- + Chondral  End[o]chondral  Endochondral

Data 2: Endocranial

Based on the dictionary, Endocranial means within the cranium or relating

to the endocranium. It can be examined that Endocranial is constructed by bound

root End- and lexeme Cranial. Endocranial takes –o- in the construction because it

does not have a vowel in the final position of the combining form. See the process


End- + Cranial  End[o]cranial  Endocranial

Data 3: Morphogenesis

It may assume that Morphogenesis can be divided into bound root Morph-



bound root and lexeme become Morphogenesis not Morphgenesis. It takes –o-

between it, because the final position of combining form has no vowel. So the

construction of the combining form will be:

Morph- + Genesis  Morph[o]genesis  Morphogenesis

Dictionary defines Morphogenesis as the biological process that causes

an organism to develop its shape.

Data 4: Sphenoid

Sphenoid based on the dictionary means relating to, or being a winged

compound bone of the base of the cranium. It is formed by bound root Sphene-

and –id. They combine together as a new form of word sphenoid. In this data, the

form takes –o- because the final position of the combining form is not a vowel.

Maybe it appearing the confusion because it can be seen literally the final position

of the combing form is a vowel. However phonologically, bound root Sphene- is

spell [sphen], therefore the form become sphenoid not sphenoid. It can be seen the

process of combining form below:



Data 5: Craniofacial

Dictionary defines Craniofacial as something involves both the cranium and the

face. Craniofacial is divided into bound root cranio- and word/lexeme facial. It is

still used the theory that if the final position of the combining form has a vowel, it

may not take –o-. However if it does not have the vowel in the final position of

combining form, it may take –o-. In this data, the bound root has vowel in the

final position. Therefore, in the forming of this word, the process is:

Cranio- + facial  Craniofacial

Data 6: Osteogenous

Based on the dictionary, Osteogeneous or Osteogenesis is any of several types of

collagen disorders, of variable inheritance, due to defective biosynthesis of type I

collagen and characterized by brittle, osteoporotic, easily fractured bones; other

defects are blue sclerae, wormian bones, and dentinogenesis imperfecta. It is

formed by bound root Osteo- and lexeme generous/genesis. It does not take –o-

because it has a vowel in the final position of combining form. The process of

combining form is in the following:



Data 7 : Epiphyses

In medical terms, Epiphyses means the rounded end of a long bone, at

its joint with adjacent bone(s). It is divided with bound root Epi- and lexeme

physes. The final position of Epi- is a vowel. Therefore it does not take –o- when

it forms into the word. It is a bit different from the previous data. This data shows

the appearance of –o- in the word. The process of the combining form is in the


Epi- + physes  Epiphyses

3.3 The Discussion

Based on the analysis above, it can be seen that there is a distinction between the

data that I have already served to you. In data 1 and data 2, the form changed. For

example in data 1, the terms Endochondral which is formed by bound root End-

and lexeme chondral becomes Endochondral not Endchondral. It takes –o-

between the bound root and lexeme. It also happens in data 2. Bound root Sphen-

and –id is formed Sphenoid not Sphenid. In data 2, the form takes –o- therefore it

becomes sphenoid because even the bound root is Sphene-, phonologically, the

following sound is a consonant (Sphen-, -id). However it does not happen in data

7. Data 7 shows that the word does not take –o- because the final position of the



According to Plag, the status of -o- is not the same in all neoclassical

formations, but should be decided on for each combining form separately on the

basis of distributional evidence. (Plag 2002: 215). After all, in determining

combining form, we are not only examining the bound roots that construct it but

we also examine it phonologically.

3.4 Table of Form

In order to make my explanation more clear, I make the table of form about the

division of medical terms including the construction of the form and the definition

based on the dictionary.

Terms Bound root Lexeme Meaning

Endochondral End- Chondral relating to, formed by,

or being ossification

that takes place from

centers arising in

cartilage and involves

deposition of lime salts

in the cartilage matrix

followed by secondary

absorption and



bony tissue—compare

Endocranial End- Cranial 1. Within the cranium.

2. Of or relating to the


Morphogenesis Morph- Genesis The biological

process that causes

an organism to develop

its shape

Sphenoid Sphen- -id of, relating to, or being

a winged compound

bone of the base of the


Craniofacial Cranio- Facial involving both the

cranium and the face.

Osteogeneous Osteo- geneous any of several types of

collagen disorders, of



biosynthesis of type I

collagen and

characterized by brittle,

osteoporotic, easily

fractured bones; other

defects are blue sclerae,

wormian bones, and



Epiphyses Epi- -physes the rounded end of

a long bone, at

its joint with adjacent




4.1 Conclusion

According to the discussion above, I can conclude that the translator which

actually is not an expert in medical may be confused to translate when they found

medical terms. However, the meaning of the word can be understood without

open the dictionary by learning the combining form. The medical terms can be

analyzed as they are classified into combining form based on the combining-form

theory developed by Ingo Plag.

4.2 Suggestion

After doing the analysis, it can be assumed that determining combining

form, after all, is not easy as noticed. However, in order to gain understanding

about combining form in medical terms more clearly, some steps are suggested to

analyze combining form.

The steps may lead the researcher to the fully examination. First, examine

the word indicating as the combining form. Learn the lexeme constructing the

word whether it has bound root or not. Second, divide it and make a classification

from the bound root that constructs the combining form. Next step is to classify it