TRAINING LEARNERS METACOGNITIVE LEARNING STRATEGIES TO USE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN ENGLISH READING
This present study aimed to investigate (1) the effect of the training to the use of metacognitive strategies on the learners (2) which metacognitive strategy mostly used by the learners after the training (3) whether there is significant difference between learners’ reading comprehension before and after being trained the metacognitive learning strategies. There are four types of metacognitive strategy i.e. planning, managing, monitoring, and evaluating strategy. The training was exposed in four meetings lasting 80 minutes in each meeting. The approach used to train the metacognitive learning strategies in this present study was CALLA model with its five recursive steps (preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, expansion).
This was a combination between qualitative and quantitative study which had one group pretest-posttest design. The samples of the study were the learners at the second grade of SMP Negeri 1 Metro. For the instruments, the researcher used reading performance checklist and objective reading test. The data were obtained from the pre-test and post-test. Repeated Measures t-test was used to analyze the data of learners’ reading comprehension. The hypothesis was computed by SPSS 16 at the significant level of 0.05.
The result showed that (1) the use of metacognitive strategies on the learners was affected by the training (2) planning strategy was mostly used by the learners (3) there was significant difference between the learners’ reading comprehension before and after the training. The mean score of the learners’ metacognitive strategies before the training was implemented was 2.18 point. While after the training, the mean score increased 2.47 point. There was increase on the mean score about 0.29 point. The mean score of the reading pre-test was 57.33 and their mean score of the post-test after trained the metacognitive learning srategies was 61.5. Moreover the learners’ reading comprehension results was increased as it can be seen from the t value which was higher than the t table and therefore resulted significantly( p<0.05; p=0.005).
In the name of Allah SWT, the most Merciful God, the writer praises her thankfulness for the blessing so that the writer was able to finish this work. This research entitled “Training Learners Metacognitive Learning Strategies to Use Learning Strategies in English Reading”. This research is submitted as a
compulsory fulfillment of the requirements for S-1 Degree of English Education Study Program in Language and Art Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Lampung University.
Gratitude and honor are addressed to all persons who have helped and supported the writer to complete this research. Since, it is necessary to be known that this research will never have come into its existence without any supports, encouragements, and assistances by several outstanding people and institutions. Therefore, the writer would like to acknowledge his respect and sincere gratitude to:
1. Prof. Ag. Bambang Setiyadi, M.A., Ph.D. as the first advisor, for whose guidance, advice, and assistance were invaluably useful.
3. Drs. Heri Yufrizal M.A., PhD. as the examiner, for his support, encouragement, ideas, suggestions, and whose meticulous supervision added a lot to the entire research project.
4. Prof. Dr. Cucu Sutarsyah, M.A. as the Chief of English Education Study Program and all lecturers of English Education Study Program who have contributed their guidance during the completion process until accomplishing this research.
5. Joko Widodo M.Pd as the headmaster of SMPN 1 Metro, for giving the writer permit to conduct the research.
6. Mam Atik, Amd., as the English teacher of SMPN 1 Metro who has given the full support for this research.
7. All beloved learners in 8.3 and 8.4 class in the even semester, school year of 2011/2012, for their participation as the subject of this research.
8. The writer’s beloved parents, Maryadi Ma’ruf and Susilawati who has always been in writer’s mind and heart.
9. The writer’s siblings, Riky Dwi Saputra, Rio Tri Saputra, Rivaldi H.S, who have supported the writer.
10. The writer’s special one at this moment who always encourages, motivates and inspires the writer to finish the study soon.
11.The writers’ “Universe Best Comrades” – The HiHeels- who are always cheerful and support in every single day at the college.
Thus, comments, critiques, and suggestions are always welcomed for the purpose of better research. Somehow, the writer hopes this research would give a positive contribution to the educational development, the reader, and to those who want to accomplish further research.
Bandar Lampung, April 2013
TRAINING LEARNERS METACOGNITIVE LEARNING
STRATEGIES TO USE LEARNING STRATEGIES IN
( A Script )
By Ketrin Viollita
ENGLISH EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM
LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION DEPARTMENT
TEACHER TRAINING AND PEDAGOGY FACULTY
The writer’s name is Ketrin Viollita. She was born on November 23rd, 1991 in
Metro. She is the fourth daughter of Maryadi Ma’ruf and Susilawati.
She began her formal educational institution for the first time at TK Bhayangkari in 1996 and graduated in 1997. She continued her study at SDN 1 Kota Metro, and graduated in 2003. Then she continued her study at SMPN 1 Metro and graduated in 2006. After that she continued her study at SMAN 1 Metro and graduated in 2009. At the same year, in 2009 she was registered as a student of English Education Study Program, in Language and Art Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at Lampung University.
I dedicate this humble work to:
My dearest parents
Maryadi Ma’ruf and Susilawati
My Brothers Riky Dwi S., Rio Tri S., and Rivaldi H.S
3.9.2. Data Analysis of Learners’ Reading Comprehension Achievement ... 59
4.1.4. Result of Learners Metacognitive Strategies before and after the Training ... 66
4.1.5. Result of the Four Metacognitive Strategies before and after the Training ... 67
4.1.6. Result of Learners’ Reading Comprehension Achievement ... 71
Just do it by yourself as long as you, yourself, can do it.
This chapter describes the background of the problem which includes the reasons for conducting the research and the suitable method which is needed to increase the learners’ reading comprehension. This chapter also
describes the formulation of the problem, objective of the research, uses of the research, scope of the research, and definition of terms.
1.1Background of the Problem
The teaching of English has been implemented in every school in Indonesia. It starts from elementary school to university level. Thus, we are accustomed to learning formal English at school. In order to learn English more effectively, the learners need strategies. Unluckily, most of the learners do not use the strategies effectively so that they sometimes find the difficulty in learning process.
affected by the learning strategies used by learners. As Rubin (1975:41) learner strategies are given. Teachers can improve their performance by paying more attention to learner strategies already seen as productive.
The statement stated above means that language learning strategies used are crucial aspect for learners in English learning because the success of learning a foreign language may depends on what and how learning strategy used by learners.
In general, language learning strategy training has been considered as an effort of teachers in helping learners to attentively recognize the significance of language learning strategies they applied and to effectively use more appropriate learning strategies in English learning. As Holland and Shortall (1997) in Brown (2005:15) conclude that the concept of learning strategy training is founded on the belief that “teachers may best
serve their learners by helping them develop their approach to learning”.
about the text (Allen, 2003; Keer and Vahereage, 2005). Thus, by training appropriate learning strategies to learners, there may be a positive impact toward learners’ reading comprehension. Song (1998) reports that strategy
training is effective in enhancing EFL reading in which the effectiveness of the training varies with L2 reading proficiency.
O’ Malley and Chamot (1996) had an overview of learning strategy
training and found that more effective learners differed from less effective ones in their use of strategies. Supporting O’ Malley and Chamot’s overview, Wenden (1991: 15) in Brown ( 2005 : 12 ) states „In effect,
successful or expert or intelligent learners have learned how to learn. They have acquired the learning strategies and the knowledge about learning’. It means that the instruction of using effective learning strategies
is necessary to control their learning process before they become independent in their learning approach. Learners need the right strategic knowledge in order to become autonomous in their learning process.
that it would be good for them to work independently, even when they are away from their teacher in order to be more self- directed learners. It is also supported by Epridiana (2011) who found that students had difficulty in comprehending the reading text because they use improper strategy.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher conducted a research concerning learning strategy training in EFL reading specifically in comprehending narrative and recount text. Since both of texts are stated in School Based Curriculum (KTSP), it is important for the learners to comprehend texts successfully. Metacognitive strategy training will be the focus of this study since by training metacognitive learning strategy, learners are expected to become self- directed learners and get the success of their study. This present study aims to find out whether metacognitive learning strategies training significantly increase learners’ reading
Based on the background above, the writer would like to formulate the problem as follow:
2. What metacognitive learning strategies do the learners use most after the training?
3. Is there any significant difference between learners’ reading comprehension before and after the training of metacognitive learning strategy?
1.3Objective of the Research
The objectives of this present study were to find out:
1. What the effect of the strategy training to the use of learning strategies on learners at SMPN 1 Metro
2. What metacognitive learning strategies mostly used by the learners after the training.
3. Whether there is a significant difference between learners’ reading comprehension before and after the training of metacognitive learning strategy.
1.4Significance of the Research
The significances of this research are:
Theoretically, this present research can be used to:
1. Verify and contribute the previous studies and theories related to theories in this research
Practically, this present research can be used to:
1. Give English teachers an insight about the importance of applying learning strategies training toward their learners.
2. Encourage English teachers and learners in applying learning strategies in their learning process, especially in reading.
3. Persuade learners to use appropriate and effective strategies in reading comprehension.
4. Build learners’ habit of applying appropriate learning strategies in completing their language tasks.
5. Give learners a chance to be more independent learners.
1.5Scope of the Research
This research is a combination between qualitative and quantitative research which was conducted by administrating the pre-test and post-test to analyze the increase of the learners’ reading comprehension after being trained the metacognitive learning strategies in reading. The present study of metacognitive learning strategy training was focused on reading skill. The aim of this study is to find out whether there is significant increase on learners’ reading comprehension after being trained the metacognitive
learning strategy in reading.
needs much attention. The learning strategies was trained under metacognitive learning strategy classification, i.e. „planning’, ’managing’,
’monitoring’, ’evaluating’. The strategy instructional method used in this
training is the Cognitive Academic Language Learning Approach or CALLA proposed by Chamot & O’ Malley. CALLA has five recursive
steps, i.e. preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, expansion.
1.6 Definition of Terms
Definition of terms aims at avoiding misunderstanding about the terms in the research. The definitions of term are:
Learning Strategy is a term that refers to particular thoughts and behaviors used in the purpose of attaining learning objectives independently.
Metacognitive Strategy is the learning strategy which plays function as the decision maker of one’s learning.
Learning Strategy Training is an instruction which focuses on the learning strategies to be used frequently by learners in improving their particular performance.
Reading Comprehension is an active process to gain the meaning of current information by relating readers’ background knowledge to the
II. REVIEW OF LITERATURE
This chapter describes the concepts which are related to the research, such as concept of language learning strategy, concept of learning strategy training, concept of metacognitive learning strategy, model of learning strategy training, the debate of learning strategy training, and concept of reading comprehension. This chapter also describes learning strategies in reading, learning strategy training in reading, theoretical assumption, and hypothesis.
1.1Concept of Language Learning Strategy
Learning strategy is the way or technique employed by learners to easily achieve and comprehend the knowledge. O’ Malley and Chamot (1990: 1) in Brown (2005: 5) defines learning strategies as the special thoughts or behaviors that individuals use to help them comprehend, learn or retain new information. Supporting O’ Malley and Chamot’s definition,
language, while Oxford (2004) defines that learning strategies are specific behaviors or thought processes that students use to enhance their own L2 learning. These concepts imply that language learning strategies facilitate learners to rule their own learning in order to be easier in gaining available information and getting better result.
In addition Wenden (1987) states that language learning strategies refers to language learning behaviors that learners actually engage in to learn and regulate the learning of second or foreign language. The research also pointed out that learner who uses learning strategies becomes more effective learner. Therefore the use of appropriate language learning strategies often results in improving proficiency or achievement overall or specific skills area (Thompson and Rubin in Oxford 1990). Based on the description above, it can be inferred that by having knowledge about language learning strategies, learners can be easier to learn and acquire language. In other word language learning strategies lead the learners to become more self- directed or independent learners.
Since there are many classifications of language learning strategies proposed, different researcher might have different taxonomy of language learning strategies. However, they actually reflect more or less the same categorization. According to O’Malley, et al. (1985: 582-584) in
term to express executive function, strategies which require planning for learning, thinking about the learning process as it is taking place, monitoring of one’s production or comprehension, and evaluating learning after an activity is completed. Cognitive strategies are strategies which refer to the steps or operations used in learning or problem- solving that requires direct analysis, transformation, or synthesis of learning materials. Cognitive strategies are more limited to specific learning tasks and they involve more direct manipulation of the learning material itself, for instance repetition, resourcing, translation, grouping, note taking etc. The last is social strategies which are related to social-mediating activity and transacting with others. Cooperation and question for clarification are the main social strategies.
Based on the explanations and classifications of learning strategies above, it can be inferred that learning strategy is a term that refers to particular thoughts and behaviors used in the purpose of attaining learning objectives independently. The thoughts and behaviors can be categorized into metacognitive, e.g. managing the learning objectives; cognitive, like summarizing; and social, such as sharing ideas and thoughts to peers. Considering the focused strategy in this study i.e. metacognitive learning strategy, in which it will be trained simultaneously, a more detailed discussion on this topic is provided below.
As has been mentioned by O’Malley (1985) in Hismanoglu (2000),
metacognitive strategies which are considered as an expressive function requires planning for learning, thinking about the learning process, monitoring of one’s comprehension, and evaluating learning. In the same line with O’ Malley, Wenden and Rubin (1990) cite that metacognitive
learning strategies refer to knowledge above cognition or executive control or self- management through such processes as planning, monitoring, and evaluating. They are used to oversee, regulate or self-directed language learning.
Flavell in Rasekh (2003 :3) points out that metacognitive strategies are strategies that function to monitor or regulate cognitive strategies. They include “checking the outcome of any attempt to solve a problem,
planning one’s next move, monitoring the effectiveness of any attempted action, testing, revising, and evaluating one’s strategies for learning”. In other words, the learner uses cognitive strategy in the situation when he or she predicts the meaning of unfamiliar words on the context or guesses the content of the passage. Meanwhile when a learner analyzes or plans to guess unfamiliar word or content of the passage, it would be included on metacognitive strategy.
using learning strategies, monitoring learning strategies, orchestrating various learning strategies, and evaluating strategy use and learning. While Oxford (1994) divides metacognitive learning strategies into centering learning, arranging and planning learning, and evaluating learning.
Looking thoroughly at the explanation, it can briefly concluded that metacognitive learning strategies are the strategies which function as the decision- making of one’s learning. It implies that the consciousness of metacognitive strategies used on one’s learning is the main goal of the
overall use of strategies (cognitive and social strategies). By considering the components of metacognitive strategies, the present study categorizes metacognitive learning strategies into four main steps, namely planning before learning, managing the learning process, monitoring the learning process, and evaluating what has been learned.
1.2Concept of Learning Strategy Training
facilitated by making students aware of the range of strategies, Cohen (2003;1) considers learning strategy training as the most efficient way to raise and to heighten students’ awareness of the purpose and importance of
strategy use. By having strategy training, students are expected to apply learning strategies that perhaps can make them become more independent, autonomous, and lifelong learners (Allwright, 1990 in Oxford 2004).
This present study defines learning strategy training as an effort or intervention to make learners aware of the range, the purpose, and the importance of strategies use and to encourage learners in using appropriate strategies more frequently in learning process especially in reading, in order to develop learners reading comprehension and to make them become more independent learners. By doing so learners are expected to learn more efficiently and effectively and finally result in the increase of their reading comprehension. Besides, it is also expected that strategies training will build learners’ frequency of using appropriate learning
strategies while completing language task and make them become self-directed learners.
effective environment for learning or teaching learners “how to learn”
(Harmer, 1991 in Chamot et al., 1992:2), e.g. activating the students’
background knowledge by giving some questions related to the passage going to be read before asking them to read the whole passage thoroughly.
Oxford (1994:4) suggests some principles to be applied in strategy training that it should: (1) be based clearly on students’ attitudes, beliefs, and stated
needs; (2) choose strategies that mesh with and support each other so that they fit the requirement language tasks, learners; goals, and learners; style of learning; (3) be integrated into L2 activities over a long period of time rather than taught as separate; (4) give students opportunities for strategy training during language classes; (5) include explanations, handouts activities, brainstorming, materials for reference, and home study; (6) directly address affective issues such as anxiety, motivation, beliefs, and interests; (7) be explicit, overt, relevant and provide transferable strategies to future language task beyond a given class; (8) be somewhat individualized, as different students prefer or need certain strategies for particular task; (9) provide students with mechanism to evaluate their own progress and the success of the training and the value of the strategies in multiple task.
using learning strategies in their learning process. It is expected that strategy training will facilitate learners to maximally achieve the language and will arise their habit in using learning strategies while completing language task and therefore make them become more independent learners.
1.3Models of Learning Strategy Training
There have been developed a number of models to train learners learning strategy. On the whole of models provided, those models actually emphasize on the significance of facilitating learners in using learning strategies continuously and independently by providing learners a chance to frequently practice the learning strategies in the classroom.
Chamot (2004;6) proposes three models of learning strategies training i.e Grenfelle- Harris Model (1999), Styles and Strategies based Instruction (SSBI) model as proposed by Cohen (1998), and Cognitive Language Learning Approach (CALLA) model proposed by Chamot and O’malley
While SSBI model as proposed by Cohen (1998) in Chamot (2004) requires teacher to play the five following roles i.e. diagnostician, language learner, trainer, coordinator, and coach in training learning strategies to learners.
CALLA was developed by Chamot and O’Malley, and has been being implemented in approximately 30 school districts in the United States as well as in several other countries. Since the CALLA model provides detailed steps of learning strategy training and it has been considered more effective to implement learning strategy training, this present study used CALLA model as an approach to guide language teacher in providing opportunities for learners to learn and practice content, language, and learning strategies. Besides, through its five steps i.e. preparation, presentation, practice, evaluation, and expansion that are recursive, the planning and activities of the language learning strategy training will be more flexible. The discussion of learning strategy training is integrated in the classroom activities. Moreover, when the training needs maintenance or re- explaining, teachers can flexibly move to the previous step as necessary.
1.4The Debate of Learning Strategy Training
Since 1970, Strategy training in language learning has been topical (Clark, 2005:6). In Clark’s systematic review, there were 38 studies discovered on
Based on the chart above, the study of strategies training toward ESL or EFL was dominant. Meanwhile the school and university students are lack of learning strategies training. Therefore, Clark suggests that more evidence of strategy training for school learners of modern language is needed as well as Oxford (2004) cites that there is growing evidence that L2 teachers can and should conduct strategy instruction in their classrooms. In the same line with Oxford, Lessard- Clouston (1997:3) in Hismanoglu (2000) cites that helping students understand good language learning strategies and training them to develop and use those learning strategies can be considered to be the appreciated characteristics of good language teachers.
Supporting to this study, which focus on metacognitive learning strategy training, there are several researchers who have conducted this training and have resulted the satisfying result on learners’ reading comprehension
First, Haller et al. (1988) meta-analyzed 20 empirical studies comprising more than 1,500 students, on the effects of metacognitive instruction on students’ metacognition during reading. They computed a mean effect size
of 0.71, which suggests that instruction in metacognition can have robust effects on children’s reading awareness and comprehension.
Second, Palincsar and Brown (1984) have analyzed the effects of helping young L1 learners with special problems by teaching them to monitor comprehension. At the end of instruction, the learners were given a reading comprehension test. The result of their study showed that the group that was trained by this strategy scored higher than group that was not exposed to this particular instruction.
Third, on the L2 context Catharine Keatley (1998) who also conducted metacognitive learning strategy training resulted that the training that was classified into monitoring, selective attention, verification, and self evaluation steps were effective in enhancing learners’ reading
reading in three areas—evaluation of task difficulty and one’s own abilities, planning to reach a goal, and monitoring progress towards the goal.
And the last, Trisnaningsih (2007) conducted metcognitive learning strategy in EFL reading. The result showed that after the training of metacognitive strategy, there was no significant increase of learners’
reading comprehension. Though the difference of pre- test and post- test reading result insignificantly, there was still improvement on learners’ scores after doing the training.
Beside metacognitive learning strategy, there are several researchers who also conducted the training focusing on cognitive and the combination between metacognitive and cognitive strategy.
Khatie Steel (1997) has conducted strategies classified into cognitive strategy. Her study was conducted to investigate the effect of cognitive strategy training includes using graphic organizer, note- taking, and summarizing in students’ reading ability. This study resulted that those
three strategies that are included to cognitive strategy were effective in enhancing students’ reading ability.
effect in students’ reading comprehension. The result showed that the
combined of both strategies in increasing students’ reading comprehension
Other researchers also conducted strategy training which focused on socio affective strategy. This training has been conducted toward students’
Rossister (2003) provided three strategies in socioaffective strategy training and gave learners the pre- test and post- test speaking. After the training, it was resulted that there was no significant different on students’ scores gained between both tests.
Different from Rossister (2003), Robbins (2000) found out that self- talk was effective in enhancing students’ speaking ability.
In term of the effectiveness of strategy training, the training did not only result the positive effect but also the negative impact can occur. The crowded curriculum materials perhaps become one of the great problems to conduct such strategy training (Chamot et al., 1999: 35). It implies that in order to reach the target of materials that have to be presented to learners, teachers have to give out their teaching time only to deliver materials stated in the curriculum. It means that teachers have no time for giving extra time to teaching learning strategies separately. Nevertheless, Clark’s study (2005:9) has supported that strategy training were effective
to be taught as the result studies presented on diagram Ven below.
Clark’s Study (2005:9) on The Effectiveness of Strategy Training.
It can be concluded that though there were studies resulted negative effect, strategy training is still considered effective in learning process. Language learning strategy training deserves a place in the classroom. Thus, researcher provides this study in order to give more contribution in the term of learning strategy training effectiveness.
By providing learning strategy training, it is expected that learners will be more self- directed as they have the knowledge of learning process and appropriate learning strategies in completing their language task – especially in reading- due to the fact that learners are often faced with a lot of printed materials in the form of texts in their learning process.
1.5Concept of Reading
Reading is an active process of guessing and deriving meaning of information stated in the printed materials. Nuttal in Simanjuntak (1988: 14) defines reading as the meaningful interpretation of printed or written verbal symbols. It means that reading is a result of the interaction between the perception of graphic symbols that represent language and the reader’s
language skills, cognitive skills and the knowledge of the world. In this process the reader tries to recreate the meanings intended by the writer.
According to Heilman, Blair and Rupley (1981: 4) there are some basic aspects of reading:
a. Reading is interacting with language that has been coded into print b. The product of interacting with language which has been printed
should be comprehension.
c. Reading ability is closely related to oral language ability.
d. Reading is an active and ongoing process that is affected directly by an individual interaction with his environment.
Moreover, Mitchell and Grabe in Ida (1993: 9) stated that reading can be defined as the ability to make sense of written or printed symbols to guide the recovery of information from his or her memory and subsequently use this information to construct a plausible interpretation of the written message. These statement means that reading is the ability of getting information from printed material. In order to get and to comprehend the information, the reader background knowledge is needed.
1.6Concept of Reading Comprehension
Reading comprehension is a term that represents the process of reading in which readers relate new information from the text being read to their previous knowledge stored their mind in order to gain the meaning and messages of the text. Thompson in Apriyanti (2001: 8) adds in comprehension process, readers bring background knowledge and certain set of a reading strategies to read a reading task at hand, while the text, on the other hand, provides the reader with factors involved in comprehending and storing information contained in a text ability to use background knowledge, ability to recognize and use rhetorical structure, and ability to use reading strategies. It shows that beside background knowledge, the readers need several capabilities in inviting and bringing the knowledge toward the text called recognizing and reading strategies.
Furthermore, Smith (1982: 6) defines that reading is something that makes sense to the reader, and always should. According to Smith, reading is seen as having four distinctive and fundamental characteristic and one of them is that reading should be based on comprehension. Understanding is the basis, not the consequence of reading. He states that comprehension in reading as a matter of “making sense” of text, of relating written language
Comprehension can be regarded as a condition where no uncertainty exists. The learners comprehend when they have all questions answered because they have no doubt about alternative interpretations or decisions in their mind. As one reads, he/she constantly asking questions; and and as long as these questions are answered, and his/her uncertainty is reduced, then he/she comprehends.
On other hand, Richard (1999) defines comprehension as the process by which the person understands the meaning of the written or spoken language. Related to reading, the readers can sometimes read their text well but they fail in bringing the meaning toward their text. In addition, Williams (1999:8) says that comprehension is mind’s act of power of understanding what has been written. It proves that when the readers do not aware in reading their text and they do not fell that they need to read, they will get nothing from the text because their mind cannot work together.
between a writer and a reader. It is a difficult thing since a writer and a reader cannot contact each other, they only communicate through the text. So a reader should try some hard effort to do this language skill.
Moreover, reading is seen as one of communicative way to convey information through printed material. Simanjuntak (1989:4) says that the main point to be made about the reading process is reading comprehension; knowledge is the basic element for comprehension. So, reading is not just the words recognition activity only; but also it concerns the meaning. While the meaning comes through vehicle called the text that treats it within it is more important than language itself. In order to get the sense of the text, the language learners should know that the result of reading process is comprehension.
Based on the definitions of reading comprehension above, it can be concluded that reading comprehension is an active process by which readers gain the message of current information on printed or written text through relating what they have already known to what they want to know. In comprehension, readers process deeply the information, so that readers can make a meaningful interpretation of the information provided.
text and increase comprehension, (2) be aware that they have not comprehended the text, and be able to locate the source of misunderstanding and tackle it, (3) be aware that their own expectations influence his interpretation of the text, (4) respond fully to the text in whatever way is appropriate, and (5) read in different ways according to their purposes.
1.7Learning Strategies in Reading
Learning strategies properly can be implemented in four language skills i.e. listening, speaking, reading, and writing. By applying learning strategies in language skills, learners can be easier to increase their language skills more efficiently and effectively. As Fedderholdt (1997:1) mentioned in Hismanoglu (2000) that the language learner capable of using a wide variety of language learning strategies appropriately can improve his language skills in better way. In addition, Rubin (1975) in Skehan (1989:82) cites that good language learners use more and better learning strategies than poor language learners do. By considering of both reviews, researcher implies that having more variety of learning strategies in language learning can improve learners’ language abilities in a more
simple way and then result the improvement of learners achievement in language skills.
strategies provided in reading, the learners are expected to comprehend the passage easier recalling that sometimes learners are faced with the problem of getting the message of the text given. Besides, the learners’
achievement on reading comprehension is also expected to be increased. As Nuttal (1985: 5-6) cites that a reader may have difficulty in comprehending a passage due to some problems like unfamiliar code in which the text is expressed, the amount of previous knowledge that the readers bring to the text, the complexity of the concepts expressed, and vocabulary knowledge.
As the focus on this study is about reading comprehension by using metacognitive strategy, the steps of learning strategies applied will be also undergone through four steps of metacognitive learning strategy. By considering the components of metacognitive strategy, the present study categorizes metacognitive learning strategy into four main steps, namely planning before learning, managing the learning process, monitoring the learning process, and evaluating what learners has learned. Those four steps will be described further as the following. While the focus of reading skills are equivalent with the language curriculum in reading skill. It contains determining the main idea, finding the detail, reference, inference, and vocabulary.
learners are able to mention what they should and want to know about the information stated on the passage. In this step, learners are also expected to make a guessing about the content of the passage that will be given.
The second step is managing the learning process. In this case, the learners manage their own learning in comprehending the text provided. As an example, it can be done by relating the cognate words or looking at the previous sentences when learners find the difficulty to understand the unknown words.
The next step is monitoring the learning process. This step is actually the activity that focuses on learners’ prediction and their comprehension in
The last but not least, is evaluating step. The learners are required to evaluate what they have learned. The learners should know whether they have understood and comprehended the meaning of the whole passage or not. Besides, the strategies used in reading passage should also be evaluated in order to have a better strategy.
Through those four steps of metacognitive strategy, the researcher concluded that there has an influence of the learning strategies used by learners in their achievement and independency in facing the reading passage.
1.8Metacognitive Learning Strategy Training in Reading
This present study would provide metacognitive learning strategy training directly in the classroom to complete the reading task. By providing this training, it was expected that learners would apply the strategies in comprehending an English text. Hopefully it also would affect learners’ tendency of using metacognitive strategies in reading process.
The training procedures of metacognitive learning strategies in reading can be seen on chapter 3. The training that was conducted by the learners in the classroom covered the four metacognitive learning strategies i.e. planning strategy, managing strategy, monitoring strategy, and evaluating strategy. Those four strategies were divided into four meetings in which one strategy was trained in one meeting. Before receiving the training, the learners were given the metacognitive learning strategies checklist in order to know what strategies they have already used. In each of the strategy training, the learners were given two texts for practicing each metacognitive strategy in reading. Both texts consist of questions as the exercise. The first text was done in a group, and the other text was done independently. The questions focus on the specification of reading comprehension in the form of true/false sentences and multiple choices.
training in order to help learners to use, identify, and develop learning strategies in a systematic way.
2.9. Theoretical Assumption
Referring to the previous discussion, it was assumed that metacognitive learning strategy training has an influence on the learners’ metacognition and the ability of learners’ in reading comprehension. When the learners use metacognitive learning strategies more frequently it lead them to comprehend the reading text better, because learning strategies contribute on learners’ reading comprehension. Therefore, the researcher assumed that the learners used learning strategies to overcome their difficulties in comprehending reading text. Metacognitive strategy focused on establishing one’s metacognition on learning. Metacognitive strategies are
used to oversee, regulate or self-direct language learning by planning, monitoring, and evaluating their learning activities (Wenden and Rubin, 1987:25). In other words, metacognition is the cognition about monitoring and regulating cognitive process.
Several previous researches raise the willingness of researcher to conduct the similar learning strategy training i.e., metacognitive learning strategy training in which focuses on learners’ reading, considering that learners
knowledge. Besides, learners also need effective and appropriate strategies in order to be able to maximize their studies.
The metacognitive learning strategy training that consists of four steps i.e., planning, managing, monitoring, and evaluating is considered to be effective in enhancing learners’ reading comprehension. CALLA approach also seems as the best approach in teaching learning strategy training.
Concerning to the concept and theoretical assumption above, the researcher formulated the hypothesis as follows:
Hº : There is no significant difference between learners’ reading comprehension before and after the training of metacognitive learning strategies
III. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
This chapter describes the design of the research, how to collect the data from the subject of the research and how to analyze the data. This chapter also describes research procedure, validity and reliability of the test instrument, data treatment, and hypothesis testing.
This research was a combination between qualitative and quantitative study. This present study had one group pretest-posttest design. The researcher selected the class by using simple random probability sampling. The learners received pretest before four-time treatments and got the posttest after the treatments. The research design could be represented as follow:
X = Treatment ( metacognitive learning strategy training)
Y¹ = Metacognitive learning strategies
3.2.Subject of the Research
The population of this research was the second year of the SMP N 1 Metro. There are six classes of second grade learners. Each class consists of 24 learners. In determining the class the researcher used simple random probability sampling by using dice. So that those all the second year classes got the same chance to be the sample.
3.3. Source of the Data
The data of this study were in the form of:
The learners’ metacognitive learning strategies before and after the
The learners’ scores of reading comprehension before and after the
3.4. Data Collecting Technique
In collecting the data, the researcher used some technique as follows:
Administering the Reading Test
The kind of reading test used is objective test. The reading test was given to know learners’ reading achievement consists of pretest and posttest. The
treatment. It is used to know if there any increase of learners’ reading
comprehension after they were given the treatment. The posttest has the same difficulty as the pretest.
In selecting reading text, the researcher considered the text based on themes stated in curriculum for second years of SMP (KTSP 2006). The texts used were taken from any textbooks and articles on the internet.
The validity of the test was measured by content and construct validity. Content validity was obtained by choosing the texts based on School Based Curriculum (KTSP) for second grade of SMP, while construct validity was achieved by representing five sorts of reading skill. Those five specifications were determining idea, finding the detail, reference, inference, and vocabulary mastery.
3.5.Steps in Collecting the Data
In collecting the data, the researcher used following steps:
1. Determining the subject of the research
In determining the sample, the researcher used simple probability sampling, by using dice. The researcher chose one class out of six classes of grade VIII learners of SMPN 1 Metro as the research subject. The class consists of 24 learners.
In this research, the pretest materials were about narrative and recount text as stated on the curriculum (KTSP). The materials were taken from learners’ handbook of English for junior high school and articles from the
3. Conducting Try Out
Try out was conducted to measure the reliability of pretest and posttest. The aim of try out is to know the quality of the test used as the instrument of the research, and determine which item should be revised for pretest and posttest. This research used the result of the try out test to measure the level of difficulty and discrimination power, to find out the validity and reliability.
4. Conducting the Pretest
Pretest was conducted to measure the learners’s metacognitive strategies
and reading comprehension. The learners’s metacognitive strategies was in the form of reading performance checklist which was filled by marking “Yes”. Meanwhile the reading comprehension was in the form of multiple
choice items and selected from tryout test. Each item has 4 options of answer. Both pretests were conducted in 80 minutes.
5. Giving Treatments
6. Conducting the Posttest
The researcher used the same reading performance checklist to analyze the learners’ metacognitive strategies. Similar to the pretest, the posttest
reading consists of narrative and recount text. It was conducted in multiple choice questions that were selected from tryout test. It was conducted in 80 minutes to measure whether there is increase of learners’ reading
comprehension achievement after being given the four time treatments.
7. Analyzing the Test Result (Pretest and Posttest)
After conducting pretest and posttest, the researcher analyzed the data. The data of learners’ metacognitive strategies was analyzed by seeing the mean
score then describing it. While the data of learners’ reading comprehension achievement was analyzed by using t-test i.e. paired sample t-test in SPSS 16.
8. Making a Report and Discussion of Findings
After having gained all the data, the researcher made a report and discussion on findings of the effect of metacognitive learning strategy training in learners’ reading.
3.6. Treatment Procedures
The metacognitive learning strategy training in learners’ reading process was
managing, monitoring, and evaluating. Before coming to the five steps of CALLA approach, researcher made a discussion with the learners about good characteristics of learners and teacher in order to build a pleasurable and joyful atmosphere between learners and teacher. There were various answers mentioned, for example most of them mentioned that a good learner should do assignments and pay attention to the teacher’s explanation. Meanwhile for the
characteristic of good teacher, they mentioned that a good teacher should master the materials, understand the learners’ needs, give some tips of how to
learn well, come on time, friendly, etc. After that, researcher conducted those five steps of CALLA approach that will be presented below.
A. Planning Strategy
Stage 1 Preparation: Raising Learners’ Strategy Awareness
In this stage, the learners conducted pre-reading activities to activate their background knowledge of the text that would be presented. In the preparation phase of a lesson that includes learning strategies, the English teacher activated learners’ background knowledge of the strategies they
following meeting. On this stage the learners were told the purpose and importance of metacognitive training in EFL reading. Then the learners were introduced the four main strategies in which one strategy in one meeting. These strategies involved planning, managing, monitoring and evaluating.
Stage 2 Presentation
that is useful in comprehending a reading text. Then the teacher told the learners that they actually had used the strategy before reading the text i.e. planning strategy. Then the teacher demonstrated the purpose, when, why, and how to use the planning strategy. The teacher also modeled the learners how her planning strategy before reading the text.
Stage 3 Practice
In this stage, the metacognitive strategy was integrated into concrete reading tasks and materials. The learners applied the strategies they have just learned to their reading activities. The learners were given the different text. They were asked to use the strategies that have been learned. They did this activity independently in order to accustom them to use the strategy. In their paper, they stated some reading objectives and some strategies they would use to read and understand the text given. After having read the text, the teacher gave them reading tasks related to the specification of reading comprehension i.e. determining main idea and finding the detail information. The questions were in the form of true/false sentence and multiple choices.
Stage 4 Evaluation
This stage was designed to develop learners’ ability to be aware of the
evaluation of the effectiveness of the strategies they use in accomplishing specific tasks. Students need to find out which learning strategies work best for them on certain tasks and why. Through such self-evaluation, students consciously monitor those strategies they find effective and ineffective, and by so doing refine their individual repertoire of strategies. The teacher designed a self-evaluation in the form of performance checklist to fill in after the reading task has been completed. The learners place a mark on the checklist after reading the text. The items in the performance checklist were discussed with the learners in reference to each reading task to keep learners’ metacognitive strategies awareness
fresh throughout the training and to help learners to use, identify, and develop learning strategies in a systematic way. By working on the checklist regularly, the learners learn how to plan before reading.
Stage 5 Expansion
This stage was designed to develop students’ transfer of strategies to new
B. Managing Strategy
Stage 1 Preparation
In this step, the teacher reviewed the learners about planning strategy at glance. Then the teacher explained that there was other strategy that includes into metacognitive strategies i.e. managing strategy. The teachers told the learners that sometimes the text might seems difficult, but if they determine how they learned best and learn how to focus their attention on the task it would be easier. Then the teacher distributed the text to the learners and asked them to read the passage. As going along in the class, the teacher read the passage and explained to the learners how she made it easier for herself to understand it. As the example the teacher emphasized the learners that she is the visual learner and the picture or graphic help her understand the text.
Stage 2 Presentation
vocabularies, the teacher gave examples how to unlock the unfamiliar words by inferring or guessing the meaning by the clues provided, by relating to the previous and next words, etc. Therefore the learners were expected not to rely on the dictionary all the time if they found the difficulty in finding the meaning of unfamiliar words when reading.
Stage 3 Practice
In this stage, the metacognitive strategy was integrated into concrete reading tasks and materials. The learners applied the strategies they have just learned to their reading activities. The learners were given the different text. They were asked to use the planning and managing strategy before and during reading the text. They did this activity independently in order to accustom them to use the strategy. In their paper, they stated how they tackle their problems when facing the text given. After having read the text, the teacher gave them reading tasks related to the specification of reading comprehension i.e. determining main idea, finding the detail information, and vocabulary. The questions were in the form of multiple choices.
Similar to the planning strategy, in this stage the teacher designed a self-evaluation in the form of performance checklist to fill in after the reading task has been completed. The learners place a mark on the checklist after reading the text. The items in the performance checklist covered the planning and managing strategy and were discussed with the learners in reference to each reading task to keep learners’ metacognitive strategies
awareness fresh throughout the training and to help learners to use, identify, and develop learning strategies in a systematic way. By working on the checklist regularly, the learners learn how to manage their own learning by seeing each of the items stated on the checklist.
Stage 5 Expansion
This stage was designed to develop students’ transfer of strategies to new
tasks. Teacher encouraged students to read extensively and apply what they had learned to new reading materials after class. Finally, teacher assigned learners to use a strategy in a new context for homework and use the checklist after reading the text has been done.
C. Monitoring Strategy Stage 1 Preparation
strategies i.e. monitoring strategy. The teacher explained that monitoring strategy is useful for completing seemingly tough assignments. It involves breaking big tasks into smaller pieces and monitoring one’s progress.
Stage 2 Presentation
The teacher modeled the strategy by explaining that she would read a difficult article in the form of narrative text in small bits. After reading the first paragraph, the teacher ensured the learner that she had understood it. Then the teacher modeled how to monitor comprehension i.e. by using some guiding questions i.e. 5W+1H questions to verify their predictions and guesses and to ask themselves if it makes sense. The guidance questions were “what happened according to the text?”, ”why did it
happen?”, ”when and where did it happen?”, etc. By using those questions,
it was hoped that whenever the learners did not find the answer for the guidance questions they would reread the passage until they found and comprehended it. The teacher then informed the purpose, when, why and how to use the monitoring strategy.
Stage 3 Practice
the learners were asked to come to the monitoring strategy by reading the text aloud with the partner. At the end of each paragraph, they had to stop and discuss what they have read with their partner by using some guidance questions. The teacher emphasized the learners that monitoring strategy is a strategy that they would use more often individually rather than with a partner.
Stage 4 Evaluation
After the practice had been completed, the learners were given the performance checklist again, like in the two previous meetings. The performance checklists consist of how the learners’ planning strategy, managing strategy, and monitoring strategy were.
Stage 5 Expansion
The teacher had the learners find other narrative text and had them write down a short summary of the text. The teacher encouraged learners to use some guiding questions while reading.
In this stage the learners were told that in the three previous meetings, they unconsciously had done the last strategy of metacognitive strategies i.e. evaluating strategy in evaluation stage. Then the teacher told them that it was useful for them to evaluate their own work. They were told that they could also ask someone else to comment their progress. In the last meeting of the training, the learners were given the narrative text and they were encouraged to use the four metacognitive strategies that have been trained before i.e. planning strategy, managing stategy, monitoring strategy, and evaluating strategy. They stated how they use the four metacognitive strategies in a piece of paper. Then after that they wrote down the summary of the text and discussed it and compared it with their partner in order to practice again the evaluating strategy. After that the learner completed the exercise related to the specification of reading comprehension i.e. determining main idea, finding detail information, inferring, referring, and vocabulary knowledge.
After having done the exercise, the teacher distributed the performance checklists that consist of the four metacognitive learning strategies in reading. In the expansion phase, the teacher encourages the learners to use the four metacognitive strategies in other task even on the other context in their real life.
In this research, to prove whether the test has good quality, it must be tried out first. As Heaton (1991:5) states that a reading test will be said have a good quality if it has good validity, reliability, level of difficulty and discrimination power. The learners’ metacognitive strategies checklist could also be called as a good test if it
has good validity and reliability.
A test can be considered valid if the test measure the object to be measured and suitable with the criteria (Hatch and Farhady, 1982; 250). The discussion of the validity of metacognitive learning strategies checklist and reading test were provided below.
a. Content validity
Content validity is concerned with whether the test is sufficiently representative and comprehensive for the test. In the content validity, the materials given are suitable with the curriculum.
The topics chosen are recount and narrative texts. The topics are the representative of reading materials of School Based Curriculum or KTSP as a matter of tailoring the lesson to students’ need. Content validity is concerned
the focus of content validity is adequacy of the sample of the appearance of the test. Therefore, since the test instrument was conducted to get the data of the learners’ reading comprehension achievement, the content validity of the
test items were conducted by including reading materials which were arranged based on the materials already given and it was suitable with the curriculum.
b. Construct Validity
It is concerned with whether the test is actually in line with the theory of what it means to know the language that is being measured. In this research the researcher focused on reading comprehension in the form of recount and narrative texts. Nuttal (1985) states that the relation validity of the instrument refers to construct validity in which the question represents five of sort reading skills, i.e. determining main idea, finding the detail information, reference, inference and vocabulary mastery. Skills of reading in the test are a part of the construct validity and the item numbers are a part of the content validity. The researcher will use 3 inter raters in order to make the reading test more valid.
The test was compared to the table of specification to know whether the test is good reflection of what has been taught. A table of specification was an instrument that helped the test researcher plans the test. In order to fulfill the criteria of construct validity, the table of specification of reading comprehension was presented below.
Reading Specification Item Number Percentage
1 Determining main idea 1,3,12,17,22,30,35,28,38 22.5%
2 Inferences 4,7,14,24,31,34,36,40 20%
3 References 2,6,11,15,20,27,32,37 20%
4 Finding detail
5 Vocabularies 5,9,13,16,19,26,33,39 20%
Total 40 100 %
Basically, the construct and content validity are overlap. It is a representative of the materials from the subject. Based on the table of specification of reading comprehension above, skills of reading comprehension in the test instrument are a part of the construct validity and the item numbers are a part of the content validity. In order to measure the content and construct validity, inter-rater analysis was used to make the reading test instrument more valid. Thus, three English teachers of SMPN 1 Metro would be the raters, they are Pariama S.Pd., Juriah S.pd., and Atik Damayanti Amd. took part in measuring the content and construct validity of the test instrument. If the percentage of one item was >50%, it meant that the item test would be taken.
1. Reliability of the MARSI and SILL
reading performance checklist was used to gain the data of metacognitive strategies use on the learners. Several statistics were computed to examine the reliability of the MARSI and the internal subscale correlations.
Cronbach’s alpha coefficients were computed for the entire set of 20 items
(α = .77)) in order to obtain estimates of internal consistency reliability for each subscale.
The reading performance checklist consists of 20 items. It was translated into Indonesian in order to facilitate the learners in understanding the statement. Those statements measure metacognitive strategies under four categories i.e. planning, managing, monitoring, and evaluating.
Strategy Measured Number of the Reading Performance Checklist
Planning Strategy 1-5
Managing Strategy 6-12
Monitoring Strategy 13-15
Evaluating Strategy 16-20
2. Reliability of Reading Test
reliability between odd and even group, Pearson Product Moment formula was used is as follows:
rl: Coefficient of reliability between odd and even numbers items.
x: Odd number.
y: Even number.
x2: Total score of odd number items.
y2: Total score of even number items.
xy: Total number of odd and even numbers.
(Lado, 1961 in Hughes, 1991:32).
The criteria of reliability are:
0.80 – 1.00: high.
0.50 – 0.79: moderate.
0.00 – 0.49: low.
(Hatch and Farhady, 1985:247).
rk: The reliability of the test.
r1: The reliability of the half test.
(Hatch and Farhady, 1982:246).
3.8. Data Treatment
3.8.1. Normality Test
Normality test was used to measure whether the data in the subject of the research was normally distributed or not (Setiyadi, 2006:168-169). The
students’ scores of the pre-test and post-test in 8.4 class were analyzed by One-sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov formula through SPSS 16 to gain the normality test. The hypotheses for the normality test are as follow:
H0 : The data is not distributed normally.
H1 : The data is distributed normally.
In this research, H1would be accepted if p > α, and the researcher used level of significance 0.05.