Submitted to the Board of Examiner in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of Islamic Educational Studies (S.Pd.I) English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

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A Classroom Action Research of SecondGgrade of SMP N 3 Suruh

in the Academic Year 2015/2016



Submitted to the Board of Examiner in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of Islamic Educational Studies (S.Pd.I)

English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

M. Fatkhur Rohman














This graduating paper is dedicated to:

1. My beloved parents, Mrs. Mursiyah and Mr. Tamziz, who always educate

me in doing good thing. They are my hero, thanks for all generosity,

finance, and encouragement, and also thanks for your love, trust, and

everlasting praying. Allah bless you mom and dad.

2. My older brother Nur Qomarrudin and My older sister Sayidatun Nisak,

thanks for your kindness, support, and togetherness.

3. My beloved Arifatul Fitriyah, thanks for your kindness, love, trust,

encouragement, and praying.

4. My unforgettable friends (Hasan, Darus, Fauzi, Herman, Ansori, Debyo,

Fariq, Hantoro, Nafi, Honang, Zulfikar) Thanks for your togetherness and





Alhamdullillahirobbil ‘alamin, thanks to Allah SWT, God almighty for the

blessing given me in completing this thesis as one requirement to finished my

study in English Department Faculty of States for Institute Islamic Studies.

This thesis would not have been completed without support, guidance and help

from individual and institution. Therefore, I would like to express special thanks


1. Dr. H. Rahmad Hariyadi, M.Pd., the Rector of State Institute for Islamic

Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

2. Mr. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education


3. Mrs. Noor Malihah, Ph. D., the Head of English Education Faculty.

4. Mrs. Mashlihatul Umami S.Pd.I, M.A., as consultant who has educated,

supported, directed and given the writer advice, suggestion and

recommendation for this graduating paper from beginning until the end.

Thanks for your patient and care.

5. All lecturers, especially the lecturers of English and Education Department

of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.

6. My beloved mother (Mrs. Mursiyah) and my father (Mr. Tamziz) who

always gives me support encouragement, finance, love, trust and

everlasting praying.

7. My beloved Arifatul Fitriyah, thanks for your kindness, love, trust,




Rohman, Fatkhur.2016. “The Use of Who Am I Game to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill (A Classroom Action Research second grade of SMP N 3

Suruh in the academic year 2015/2016)”. Graduating Paper English

Education Department of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga: Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd.I, M.A.

Keywords: Speaking Skill, Who Am I Game, Guess game, Speaking

The aims of this research are (1) to find out whether there is improvement of speaking skill trough Who Am I Game (2) to find out the extent of using Who am I game to improve speaking ability of second grade of SMP N 3 Suruh. The research method used is classroom action research. The subjects of the research were thirty students in the second grade of SMP N 3 Suruh. The researcher used two cycles; each cycle consists of planning, action, observation, and reflection. The researcher found several findings on it. The findings show that the students’ speaking skill increases from pre to post test. The mean of pre-test I is 54,33, the mean of post-test I is 66, the mean of pre-test II is 61,66, and the mean of post- test II is 74,33. The increasing percentages of students who pass in oral test in cycle I and cycle II are: 56,66% up to 76,66%. The decreasing percentages students who do not pass oral test are: 43,33% to 23,33%. It means that Who Am




TITLE ……… i




MOTTO ……… v


ABSTRACT ………. ix

TABLE OF CONTENT ………... viii

LIST OF TABLES ………... xiv

CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ……….. 1

B. Statement of the Problems ……….. 4

C. Objectives of the Study ………... 4

D. Significance of the Study ……….. 5

E. Limitation of the Study ………. 6

F. Definition of the Key Terms ………. 6

G. Review of Previous Research ……….. 7




A. Games ……… 10

1. Kinds of Games ……… 10

2. Kinds of Communication Games Activity ………... 12

3. Implementation of “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking.. 14

4. Picture as a Media to Support Who Am I Game ………. 14

5. Steps of Who Am I Game ……….... 15

6. Advantages of using Who Am I Game ……… 16

7. Disadvantages of using Who Am I Game……… 17

B. Speaking………. 17

1. The definition of speaking ………... 18

2. The elements of speaking ……… 19

3. Teaching speaking skill ………... 21

4. Principles for designing speaking techniques ………. 24

5. Indicator of speaking competence ………... 25

CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Setting of Research………. 28

1. History and general situation of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh ……… 28

2. The list of educational facilities and tools ………... 29

3. The list of teacher and staff of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh ……….. 31

4. The situation of Students ………. 32



C. The Method of Research ……….... 34

D. The Procedures of Research……… 39

1. Planning ……… 39

2. Action ………... 39

3. Observation ………... 39

4. Reflection ………. 39

E. Technique of Collecting Data ……… 41

1. Test ………. 41

2. Observation ……….. 42

3. Documentation ………. 42

F. Evaluation Criteria ………. 43

G. Technique of Data Analysis ………... 45


1. Planning ………... 47

2. The implementation of the action ……….... 47

3. Observation ………. 49

4. Score of speaking ……… 49

5. Reflection ……… 55

B. Cycle II……….. 55

1. Planning ……….. 55



3. Observation ………. 57

4. Score of speaking ……… 58

5. Reflection ……… 63

C. Discussion ……… 63

CHAPTER V : CLOUSURE A. Conclusion ……… 67

B. Suggestion ………. 68

1. Teacher ……… 68

2. Researcher ………... 68

3. Students ………... 69




1. The speaking assessment rubric

2. Education facilities and tools of SMP Negeri 3 suruh

3. The organization profession structure of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh

4. The situation of students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh

5. The students list of 8E class

6. The result of pre test and post test cycle I

7. The result of oral test cycle I

8. The result of pre test and post test cycle II

9. The result oral test cycle II

10. The mean of Student’s score

11.The percentages of oral test




A. Background of Study

The function of language is for communication. English is used by

millions of people in the world. In Indonesia English is considered as a

foreign language that is thought from elementary school until university.

In education teacher hope that students can be spoken English fluently.

Speaking is one of the important skills in language learning besides

listening, writing and reading. Speaking is the act, utterance of one who

speaks. Speaking also can be defined activity in giving and asking

information by two and more people. In speaking, there is a process of

communication between speaker and listener.

Speaking is one of the most important skills to be mastered. Its

success is measured in term of the ability to carry out conversation in an

interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing,

receiving, and processing information. Mastering speaking skill is very

significant because people can carry out conversation with others. On that

account, in speaking classroom the learned should work as much as

possible on their own, talk to another directly and think medium of the


To most people, mastering the art of speaking is the single most

important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is


language. One of the big questions in any second language teachers’ head

is “how to develop our students’ speaking skill? This problem, according

to Stevick (1967) is due to the gap between linguistic expertise and our

teaching methodology. The ESL teacher’s growing concern over

communication is largely a reaction against the most extreme practice of

the Audio-lingual Method, which tended to dichotomize language

structure and content. The behaviorist theory of learning on which this

method was based stressed the development of automatic, conditioned

responses to teacher-directed cues. Memorization of short dialogues and

oral repetition of controlled structural drills became the activities through

which students gained phonological and syntactic habits. It was assumed

that students would be able to infer general rules and patterns from the

model sentences drilled and thus extend their control by recognizing

semantic and structural similarities which had never been explicitly

presented to them.

A considerable number of articles discuss specific methods by

which teachers might develop lots of examples for teaching students to

communicate more effectively. The majority depends upon fact that in

order to increase what West (1968) terms IPTT (Individual Pupil Talking

Time), the teacher must concern which development of student to student


In teaching learning English as the foreign language most of


factors can be derived by the teacher and students. Limitation of

vocabulary it can be caused difficult to speak. The students feel nervous

when he or she will to speak. Students are not ready to learn. There are

some factors from student. While factors from teacher are the teacher

teach focus on grammar. The real speaking need short time to speak. It is

very difficult to remember Grammar because English Grammar is very

complex. So, some students hate English.

Ideal English classroom should be enjoyable and learning methods

should be fun, so students fell enjoy during teaching learning process. In

contrary, most of students still consider that English is difficult lesson,

especially in speaking skill. In junior high school English becomes one of

subject in national examination. Thus, students must study hard about

speaking in an important element in English learning.

From these reasons above, the English teacher must give fun

method with games in teaching vocabulary to interest student motivation

like use who am I game. By using this game students will be easier to

improve their speaking skill. It must be remembered by everyone who

wants to be professional communication that speaking English is as

foundation to step forward their future.

Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes a title “THE


SKILL” (A Classroom Action Research in second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh


B. Statement of the Problem

Based on the Background of the study, there are many problems that

arise. Some problems that can be identified are as follows:

1. Can the use of Who Am I game improve the students’ speaking ability

of the second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang regency or not?.

2. How far the use of Who Am I game to improve students’ speaking

skillof second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang regency?.

C. The Objective of the Study

Generally the objective of this research is to improve the Students’

speaking ability in the second year of SMP N 3 Suruh. The Objectives of

the research especially are to get information about:

1. Whether the implementation of Who Am I game to improve speaking

ability of the second grade students of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang


2. The extent of use of Who Am I game to improve speaking ability of


D. Significance of the Study

The researcher hopes that the result of this research can give

information and the researcher hope by using Who Am I game and in

speaking class will be useful for both, for the teacher, the students and the


1. For the teachers

The result of the research can give additional information to teach

English especially speaking skill to improve the quality of teaching

learning process. Beside that researcher hope it can be solution of

problem teaching English.

2. For students

The result of the research can give motivation the students to

interest in learning English. Use who am I game they can learn

English more fun and enjoy.

3. For the other researchers

It can lead to future researcher because it will be a good basic to

know why the students have low performance in speaking skill. The

result of the research can be used as an input in English teaching and

learning process.

4. For institution

The result of this result can contribute the institution to fulfill the

demand of English curriculum. Thus, students are able to get


5. For the Writer

From this research, the writer can learn some ways to give

motivation for the students to improve speaking skill and study.

E. Limitation of the study

The researcher limits this research dealing with the improvement

of students’ speaking skill of the second grade in SMPN 3 Suruh trough

Who Am I game.

F. The Definition of Key Terms

1. Game

Game is one of activities which can help to create dynamic,

motivating classes. The reason is that real learning takes place when

the students, in relaxed atmosphere, participate, in activities that

require them to use what they have been drilled on. Games are not only

suitable for children also for adult. Since there is always a child hidden

in every one of use. Bringing out this ‘child’ undoubtedly facilities the

learning of a foreign language. (Endang Fauziati, 2005:130).

2. Speaking

Speaking is so much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The

average person produces tens of thousands of word a day, although

some people-like auctioneers or politicians- my produce even more

than that. So natural and integral is speaking that we forget how we


how to do it all over again in a foreign language. (Scott Thornbury,


G. The Review of Previous Research

In this thesis, the writer uses the previous dealing with the topic of

this study. The research was done by Mut Mainah 2010 in “The Use of

Snake and Ladder Games to Improve Students Speaking Ability” (An

Action Research at The Seventh Grade of SMPN 09 Salatiga in Academic

Year 2010/2011). Research by Mut Mainah in 2011 the students of

English department of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.

She found that the use of snake ladder game can improve students

speaking ability.

The second review related to this research, the title is “Improving

Students’ Speaking Ability Trough Communication Games” (A Classroom

Action Research at First Grade of MTs. Manaratul Islam, Cilandak)”,

Research by Ulviana 2011the student of teacher training Syarif

Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. She was conducted in two

cycles, in which in the first cycle there were three meetings and in the

second cycle there were four meetings. Every cycle consisted of four

steps: Planning, Acting, Observing, and Reflecting. Planning is the first

step to do the research. Acting is the implementation of the planning that

has been planned by the teacher and the researcher as well. Each Acting


Observing students’ activity in the classroom is the duty. She observed

every single thing that happen in the classroom while the teaching and

learning process were accomplishing. She used observation form that has

been formed by the researcher concerning with cases to be observed.

Reflecting is time to reflect the all activities whether the implementation

of the communication game developed students’ speaking skill or it not.

Based on the result of data analysis, she inferred that teaching

English by using communication games is effective and can improve

students speaking ability. It can be proved through several data such as;

observation result, which it shows students enthusiastic, and actively

participated in learning process. They were also motivated to learn spoken

English with it reduces students’ hesitation to say in English.

H. Outline of Thesis Presentation

In order to make easy understand this thesis, the writer’s following

system of presentation as follows. Chapter I presents introduction. It

explains background of study, the statement of problem, the objective of

study, definition of keys term, and outline of thesis presentation. Chapter

II describes the reviews or related literature. It discusses the general

concept of classroom action research class, the activities of classroom

action research, the design of classroom action research, objective of

classroom action research and general concepts of who am I game and


general situation of SMP N 3 Suruh. It consists of geographical placed, the

history of SMP N 3 Suruh, the profile of teacher and students, the

condition of the infrastructure. Chapter IV is the implementation of

research, it contains about field note and scores of speaking. Chapter V as

the last part of this outline consists of closure which will be defied into




A. Games

Enjoyment of game is not limited by age. Some individual are not

seen from age but from the suitability of the games and the roles of the

players. It is usually accepted that young learners and adult are interested

in playing games. Moreover, Andrew Wright and Friends (1983:1) state

games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.

Games also help the teacher to create context in which language is useful

and meaningful. The learners want to take part, and in order to do so must

understand what other saying or have written, and they must speak or

write in order to express their own point of view or give information.

Games provide one way of helping the learners to experience language

rather than merely study it. The teacher should be careful to make the

games enjoyed by young learners and at the same time some language

items are learned. The game also has many advantages. They make the

students more easily to understand the teacher’s instruction, strengthen the

students’ understanding of the context of learning.

1. Kinds of Games

Classifying language games into categories can be very difficult

because categories often overlap. Therefore, different linguistics uses


character of a type of game and the way in which it engages the learner

can be helpful in the adaptation of games on the creation of new

games. According to Hadfield (1987:4), language games can be

divided into two further categories: Linguistic games and

communicative games. Linguistic games focus on accuracy, such as

applying the correct antonym. On the other hand, communicative

games focus on successful exchange of information and ideas, such as

two people indentifying the differences between their two pictures

which are similar to one another but not exactly alike. Hadfield

(1987:5) also classifies language games into many more categories as


a. Guessing Games

Guessing games are familiar variant on these principles. The

player with the information deliberately withholds it, while

others guess what it might be.

b. Search Games

Search games are another variant, involving the whole class. In

these games everyone in the class has one piece of information.

Players must obtain all or a large amount of the information

available to fill in a questionnaire or to solve a problem. Each

student is thus simultaneously a giver and collector of


c. Matching Games

Matching games are based on a different principle, but also

involve a transfer of information. These games involve

matching identical pairs of cards or pictures, and may be

played as a whole class activity, where everyone must circulate

until they find a partner with the same card or picture.

d. Exchanging and collecting games

Exchanging and collecting games are based on the barter

principle. Players have certain articles or cards which they are

willing to exchange for others in order to complete a set. This

may be played as a whole class activity, where players circulate

freely, exchanging cards or articles at random: or as an

inter-group activity, where players agree to collect a certain set of

articles as a group and then exchange articles between groups;

or as a card game on the ‘rummy’ principle.

e. Combining activities

Combining activities are those in which the players must act on

certain information in order to arrange themselves in groups

such as families or people living in the same flat.

2. Kinds of Communication Games Activity

According to Harmer (1982:349), there are two particular


a. Information-Gap Games: games that involves solving a

puzzle, drawing a picture (describe and draw), putting

things in the right order (describe and arrange), and

finding similarities and differences between pictures.

These games are commonly accomplished in pairs.

Student has to talk to his/her partner in order to obtain

the task.

b. Television and radio games: this games activity is

accomplished in grouping or team work. Each team has

to ask “yes/no question” to the chairperson from the

other team. The chair person has to think of an object

that is either animal, vegetables or mineral or

combination of two or three of these by giving

opportunities to other team to ask about 20 questions

and each team must guess what object is being

imagined by the chairperson. The team will get points if

they guess the answer correctly in fewer.

Other games are also suggested by Harmer such as “just a

minute” in which each participant has to speak for 60 seconds on

the subject that is given by the chairperson without hesitation,

reception, or deviation. If another contestant hears any mistakes, he

or she has to interrupt, by which she/he gets a points. The person


From the games suggested by Hammer, as for the writer the

Television and radio games (Who Am I Game) are considered the

suitable one for teaching speaking. In view of students limited

vocabulary and expression, that to play the game they only have to

ask question in the form of simple sentence. So these games will

not force them to do what they can do.

3. Implementation of “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking

This game is supposed to be useful for teacher in encouraging

game, the teacher gives materials such as expressions, vocabulary,

picture, realties, and other media which are enable students to expose

their English through the activities. For instance, information gaps, it is

a classroom activity where the teacher chooses two students make

groups A and B, then the teacher gives them different picture to play

the game.

4. Picture as a Media to Support “Who am I Game” in Teaching


To get the goals of the study, the teacher should decide to use the

appropriate media in teaching learning activity. There are many kinds

of media, one of them is picture. Pictures are appropriate media to be

used in teaching learning process, especially in teaching speaking.

Picture also can be used as media in “Who Am I Game”. The students

will not get difficulties to describe a particular thing by using picture.


creative and attract the students to speak. According Gerlack and Ely

(1980:218) state the advantages of the picture are:

a. The pictures are inexpensive and widely available.

b. They provide common experiences for an entire group.

c. The visual detail makes it possible to study subject which

would otherwise be possible.

d. Picture can help to prevent and correct misconception.

e. Picture offer a stimulus further study reading and research.

Visual evidence is powerful tool.

f. They help to focus attention and help develop critical


5. Steps of Who Am I Game

According to Walidi (2006:30) there are five steps in Who Am I

Game, there are:

a. Formed two groups, namely the Group A and Group B, the

number of its members should be equal and balanced.

b. A card given to one player from one group, for example, Group


c. After that the player observing cards, for 90 seconds in front of

the group with a convincing expression, he tried to give the

traits or descriptions of mysterious objects/animals on the card.

d. With a view of the traits described his friend, the other


objects/animals, and delivered orally after time runs out (90

seconds) by the interlocutor of the interpreter.

e. Once the time runs out, the next sign turn Group B with the

opportunity and the same time. Soon

Meekis (2013) list procedures of playing “Who am I” game such

as; Pick one name for each person playing. Do not let any of the players

see the names until the game starts. The names can represent real people

you know, celebrities, animated characters, story book, characters,

historical figures, or animal such mammals, birds, etc. Stick one label on

each person is back. Do not allow him/her to see the name before you put

it there. Tell everyone the rules. Each person gets “yes or no” question to

find out who she / he is. For instance, she can ask, “Am I a male?” Am I

alive?” and so on. The question cannot be either / or questions like “Am I

male or female?” The players have roam around the room to ask other

people the questions. Tell them they cannot ask only one person all

questions; the point to mingle. Whoever guesses correctly first wins the

game. No hints are allowed, unless everyone is stuck and cannot figure out

who they are. Vary the game by using the names of objects instead of


6. Advantages of Using “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking

There are several advantages teaching English use Who Am I

Game, they are:

a. “Who Am I game” can be make students to be more creative

and communicative.

b. Provide more opportunities for students to express their

opinions and feeling

c. This game gives positive effect on the students’ interest and

motivation in studying English as well as to increase their

speaking ability.

d. Increase cooperation among students.

e. Increase tolerance among students.

B. Speaking

Speaking skill is an important skill needs to be teaching in

language class. However, it does not mean the other skills such as

listening, reading, and writing are less important rather than speaking skill.

Those skills are sustaining each other, for instance; speaking skill

preceded by listening. Through listening people know vocabulary they do


1. The Definition of Speaking

Speaking in linguistics term has various definitions. In Oxford

Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, speak means saying something to express

ideas and opinions.

Speaking is an interactive process of contracting meaning that

involves producing and receiving and processing information (Born, 1994;

Bums & Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context

in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective

experience, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is

often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not

always unpredictable. (Flores, 1999:2).

Speaking is a means to deliver opinions. Speaking ability is

important in language learning, because we can communicate through our

oral expression to gain much more information. In addition, Fulcher

(2003:23) defines that, speaking is the verbal use of language to

communicate with others”. By speaking, people will be able to

communicate with other because they could deliver their ideas, opinions,

feels, and interact to each other.

From the above definition, it can be concluded that speaking is a

crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Dealing with the

importance of speaking in EFL, Stovall (1998) in Malihah (2010:88) states

those language learners need recognize that speaking involves three areas


a. Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): using

the right words in the right order with the correct


b. Function (transaction and interaction): knowing when clarity of

message in essential (transaction/information exchange) and

when precise understanding is not required

(interaction/relationship building).

c. Social, cultural, and norms (turn-talking, rate of speech, length

of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants):

understanding how to take into account who is speaking to

whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.

2. The Elements of Speaking

The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of

language features, but also the ability to process information and language

on the spot (Harmer, 2001:269).

a. Language Features

Among the elements necessary for spoken production, are the


1) Connected speech: effective speakers of English need to able

not only to produce the individual phonemes of English in

connected speech sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted

(elision), added (linking), or weakened (through construction


students in activities designed specifically to improve their

connected speech.

2) Expressive devices: native speakers of English change the pitch

and stress of particular parts of utterance, vary volume and

speed, and show by other physical and non-verbal

(paralinguistic) means how they are feeling (especially in

face-to-face interaction).

3) Lexis and grammar: spontaneous speech id marked by the use

of a number of common lexical phrases, especially in the

performance of certain language functions.

4) Negotiation language: effective speaking benefits from the

negotiator language we use to seek clarification and show the

structure of what are saying.

b. Mental/social processing

If parts of a speaker’s productive ability involves the knowledge of

language skills such as those discussed above, success is also

dependent upon the rapid processing skills that necessitates.

1) Language processing: effective speakers need to able to process

language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so

that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible, but

also convey the meanings that are intended. Language

processing involves the retrieval of words and phrases from


propositionally appropriate sequences. One of the main reasons

for including speaking activities in language lessons is to help

students develop habits of rapid language processing in


2) Interacting with others: most speaking involves interaction with

one or more participants. This means that effective speaking

also involves a good deal of listening. An understanding of

how the other participants are feeling. And a knowledge of how

linguistically to take turns or allow others to do.

3) (On the spot) information processing: quite apart from our

response others’ feeling. We also need to able to process the

information they tells us the moment we get it. The longer it

takes for the penny to drop the less effective we are as instant

communicators. However, it should be remembered that this

instant response is very culture-specific, and is not prized by

speakers in many other language communities.

3. Teaching Speaking Skills

Speaking is considered as a productive skill. Productive skills used

to put ideas into words. It means that students do not only keep silent and

listen to the teacher’s explanation, but also should speak actively. In this

case, teacher should give opportunity to the students in order they can


In speaking class, teacher plays an important role because teacher

is the key for the students to help them having good English proficiency.

Moreover, teacher should not only create enjoyable learning, but also

academically beneficial in speaking class. According to Dornyei

(2007:73), there are three types of strategy to make the class more

interesting and enjoyable. Those are:

a. The teacher is able to break the monotony of learning.

b. The teacher is able to make the tasks more interesting.

c. The teacher is able to increase the involvement of the students.

There are similar categories apply to the kinds of oral production that

students are expected to carry out in the classroom. (Douglas, 2001:271):

a. Imitative

A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may

legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech,

where, for example, learners practice an intonation contour or

try to pinpoint a certain vowel sound.

b. Intensive

Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include

any speaking performance that is designed to practice some

phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive

speaking can be self-initiated or it can even form part of some

pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain


c. Responsive

A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive:

short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or

comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not

extend into dialogues.

d. Transactional (dialogue)

Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of

conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended

form of responsive language.

e. Interpersonal (dialogue)

The other form of conversation mentioned in the previous

chapter was interpersonal dialogue, carried out more for the

purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the

transmission of facts and information.

f. Extensive (monologue)

Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called

on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports,

summaries, or perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more

formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned.

4. Principles for Designing Speaking Techniques

a. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner need, from

language based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on


In our current zeal for interactive language teaching, we can

easily slip into a pattern of providing zesty content-based,

interactive activities that don’t capitalize on grammatical

pointers or pronunciation tips.

b. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques

Try at all times to appeal to students’ ultimate goal and interest,

to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving

competence and autonomy, and for “being all that they can be”.

c. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful


This theme has been played time and again in this book, but

one more reminder shouldn’t hurt. It is not easy to keep coming

up with meaningful interaction.

d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction

In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the

teacher for useful linguistic feedback. In ESL situations, they

may get such feedback “out there” beyond the classroom, but

even the you are in a position to be great benefits.

e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening

Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of

course include listening. Don’t lose out on opportunities to


f. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication

A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by

teacher initiation of language. We ask question, give direction,

and provide information, and students have been conditioned

only to “speak when spoken to”. Part of oral communication

competence is the ability to initiate conversation, to nominate

topics, to ask question, to control conversations, and to change

the subject.

g. Encourage the development of speaking strategies

The concept of strategies competence is one that few beginning

language students are aware. They simply have not thought

about developing their own personal strategies for

accomplishing oral communicative purpose.

5. Indicators of Speaking Competence

Brown (2004:141-142) indicating that one can be called has

speaking competence if he/she is able to:

a. Imitate a word or phrase or possibly a sentence (imitative).

b. Produce short stretches of oral language design to demonstrate

competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical,

or phonological relationship. Such as prosodic

elements-intonation, stress, rhythm, juncture, intensive ability


c. Respond a very short conversation, standard greetings and

small talk, simple requests and comments, and the like


d. Take the two form of either transactional language which has

the purpose of exchanging specific information, or

interpersonal exchanges which have the purpose of maintaining

social relationships (interactive).

e. Maintain social relationships with the transmission of facts and

information (interpersonal).

f. Develop (monolog) oral production including speeches, oral

presentations, and story-telling, during which the opportunity

for oral international from listener is either highly limited or

ruled out together (extensive)

Meanwhile, Ur says (1999:120) that the characteristics of a

successful speaking activity are as follows:

a. Learners talk a lot. As much as possible of period of time

allotted to activity is in fact occupied by learners’ talk. This

may seem obvious, but oven most time is taken up with teacher

talk or pauses.

b. Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not determined

by minority of talk active participants; all get chance to speak;


c. Motivation is high, learners are eager to speak; because they

are interested in the topic and have something new to say about

it or because they want to contribute to achieving a task


d. Language is of an acceptable level. Learners express

themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily

comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of




A. The Setting of Research

1. History and General Situation of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh

The establishment of the SMP Negeri 3 Suruh was proposed in a

meeting between the head of office of education and the whole head

elementary school in district Suruh, in the moment Halal Bihalal. In

meeting attended by the head of Department of Education of Semarang

and the Muspika officials informed that in Semarang will get a

package of established Senior High School. It is offered to the villages

in the Sub-District of Suruh are willing to provide land about 1 hectare

to set up School. The information eventually came to the head of the

Sub-district of Suruh. The whole village officials then convened by

inviting LMD, LKMD, Chairman of the RT and RW, PKK, as well as

community leaders of Medayu. The decision of the meeting finally

agreed that the village of Medayu can provide land for building Senior

High School, that the land crooked Head Village covering an area of 1

hectare located in block/persil 23. Contraction of a planned Senior

High School turned out to be viewed less in accordance with the needs

of local community, then later decided to give development package


SMP Negeri 3 Suruh located on Jln Raya Suruh-Gunung Tumpeng

07 km of Suruh, Semarang Regency.Mission of SMP Negeri Suruh are

as follows:

a. Implementing learning and tutoring effectively so every learner can

develop optimally with the provision of learning resources.

b. Carry out extracurricular activities in consistent and sustainability.

c. Carry out teaching remedial and enrichment lessons in planning

and sustainability.

d. Foster a spirit of achievement and an advantage in an intensive

character to all the citizens of the school.

e. Cultivate appropriate behavior with the guidance of religious

norms, social and low.

f. Cultivate clean and orderly life in a school environment.

g. Implementing the details of character education in the social life of

the nation and state.

2. The list of Educational Facilities and Tools

SMP Negeri 3 Suruh has facilities and tools in order to make the

students easier and to support teaching learning process. it is because


Table 3.1

Situation of Education and Facilities and Tools of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the

Academic Year of 2015/2016

No Facilities Total Condition

Fine Damage

11 Chemistry Laboratory -


3. The list of teacher and staffs of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh

Table 3.2

Situation of Teachers and Staffs of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic

Year 2015/2016

No Name NIP Position

1 Siti Nur Supiyah, S.Pd, M.Pd. 196511191988032006 Head Master

2 Anst Suharsono, S.Pd 196202141984031010 English Teacher

3 Muh Supriyanto, S.Pd 195809161986031009 Civics Teacher

4 Sri Wuryani, S.Pd 196601261989022001 Indonesian Language


5 Suprapti, S.Pd 197204071998012001 Social Teacher

6 Nuryanta, S.Pd 196908141998021001 Javanese Language


7 Kasiyan, S.Pd 196407031998021001 Civics Teacher

8 Drs. Jumeri 196506271998021002 Sport Teacher

9 M. Hisyam, S.Pd 197207221998021004 Mathematics Teacher

10 Arin Romizah, S.Pd 197011291999032006 Religion Teacher

11 Wiwik Harwanti, S.Pd 197312222000122004 Science Teacher

12 Enik Wijayanti, S.Pd 197502172002122004 Mathematics Teacher

13 Dra. Kiptiyah 196808082002122003 Indonesian Language


14 Handis Salamah, S.Pd 197403062006042014 Indonesian Language


15 Setyo W. Anjari, S.Pd 197601212006042015 Social Teacher

16 Erma Lilis S, S.Pd 196607262006042002 Science Teacher

17 Ana Mariana, S.Pd 197407202007012005 Science Teacher

18 Dra. Siti Zulaekah 196711032007012006 Design Cloth Teacher

19 Inayah Mala Hayati, S.Pd 198209142009022007 English Teacher



21 Sukarni, S.Pd 198206252010012028 Computer Teacher

22 Nona Muanifah, S.Pd 197108012014062002 Guidance Counseling


23 Fitria Hidayanto, S.Pd 198108132014061004 Computer Teacher

24 Nanang Budiyanto, S.Sn, S.Pd GTT Art and Culture


25 Wisnu Aminudin, S.Pd.I GTT English Teacher

26 Witono 196904171990031006 Head Administration

27 Hadi Wibowo 198403032014061001 Administration Staff

28 Lilis Widyawati, S.E - Administration Staff

29 Fathul Munib - Administration Staff

30 Sri Lestari - Librarian Staff

31 Joko Budiyono - Administration Staff

32 Nur Cahyo - Administration Staff

33 Slamet - Administration Staff

34 Mukirah - Administration Staff

4. The Situation of Students

Table 3.3

Situation of Students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic Year of


B. Subject of Study

The subject of the study is the second grade students of SMP

Negeri 3 Suruh especially in 8E class. The total numbers of students are 30

students. It consists of 12 male students and 18 female students. On this

research, the writer uses total sampling technique for taking sample

because all of students in 8B become the sample. Henry in his site said

that total sampling technique is the sample that represents all of

population, usually this technique use when the population less than 100

persons ( The students’ list is presented

in detail below:

Table 3.4

The Students’ List

No Name of Students Sex















28 SOFIA DEFI Female



C. The Method of Research

In this study, the writer used classroom action research. According

to Car and Kemmis (1990:21) action research is a form of collective

self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in order to

improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational

practices, as well as their understanding of this practices and situation in

which these practices are carried.

The second definition states that action research might be defined


action within it. The purposes of the method research is feeding practical

judgment in concrete situation, and the validity of the theories or

hypothesis in generate depend not so much on scientific test or truth, as on

their usefulness in helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully.

In action research theories are not validated independently and then

applied to practice (Hopkins, 1993:45).

In the classroom action research, there are the principles of action

research as follows (Arikunto, 2009:6-7):

a. The real activities in routine situation.

b. The awareness for recondition work ability.

c. SWOT as research foundation.

SWOT is summary of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat.

Strength and weakness to identify researcher and it is subject. The

opportunity and threat are identified out of the teacher or researcher

and students.

d. Empiric and systematic endeavor.

e. Using SMART principle in planning

The meaning of SMART is:

S = Specific

M = Manageable

A = Acceptable or Achieable

R = Realistic


In the classroom action research, there are three elements or concepts

in the following (Kunandar, 2010:45):

a. Research is an activity to observe the definite object through

scientific methodology by collecting data and analyzing to finish

the problem.

b. Action is an activity that does intentionally with certain purpose in

the form of cycle to increase quality of teaching learning process.

c. Class is a group of students that get similar lesson from teacher in

the same time.

Kunandar (2010:58-64) states that Classroom Action Research is

different from formal studies (conventional) in general. Classroom Action

Research has some characteristics on the job oriented problem, problem

solving oriented, improvement oriented, cyclic, (cycles), action oriented,

assessment of the impact of the action, specific contextual, collaborative,

the researcher as well as practitioners who perform the reflection, and hold

in a series of steps with a few cycles where one cycle consist of planning,

action, observation, and reflection stages and then started again in a few


The purpose of Classroom Action Research’s as state by Kunandar are as


a. To solve the real problems that occur in the classroom


students who are studying, increasing professionalism of

teachers, and fostering academic culture among the teachers.

b. Increasing classroom practices quality continually evolves

rapidly given society.

c. Increasing the relevance of education, this is achieved by

improving the learning process.

d. As a means of training service in, which equips teachers with

skills and new methods, sharpen and enhance the analytical

power of consciousness itself.

e. As a means to incorporate additional or innovative approaches

to continuous learning system that normally inhibits innovation

and change.

f. Improved quality of Education proceeding through fixing

learning process practice in the classroom by developing

various kinds of skills and increasing students’ motivation.

g. Increasing professional educator attitude and education


h. Developing academic culture in the school environment so as

to create a proactive stance to fix education quality of learning

in sustainable manner.

i. Improved efficiency of education management, increasing or

improvements learning process; in addition to improving


enhance the efficiency or utilization of these resource are

integrated in it.

The benefits of CAR can be seen from two aspects, the aspects of

academic and practical aspects are state by Kunandar (2010:58-64) are as


a. Benefits of the Academic Aspects

To help teachers produce an authentic and relevant

knowledge to their classroom and improve the quality of

learning in the short term.

b. Partical Benefits

There are two partical benefits of this method as follows:

 Innovation is the implementation of learning from the

bottom. Improved quality and improvement learning

process that teacher do on a regular basis is a vehicle

for the implementation of learning innovation.

Therefore, teachers should always try to change,

develop and improve the approaches, methods, and

learning styles so they can give birth a learning model

in accordance with the conditions and characteristics of

the class.

 School level curriculum development, meaning teacher

does Classroom Action Research the teacher that has


terms, namely, how the curriculum is developed and

customized with the solution and condition, so the

curriculum can be run effectively through a process of

active learning, innovation, creativity, and funny.

Those are good effect by using Classroom Action


D. The Procedures of Research

In this Classroom Action Research, the researcher has three cycles

that consists of one meeting every cycle. The steps in this research have

four stages in each cycle.

1. Planning

The activities in the planning are:

a. Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in

doing the action.

b. Preparing list of student’s name and scoring.

c. Preparing teaching aids.

d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation

of teaching learning process when the method or technique


e. Preparing a test (to know whether students’ speaking ability


2. Action

a. Giving pre test.

b. Teaching speaking by using Who Am I Game.

c. Giving chance to the students to ask any difficulties or problems.

d. Giving post test.

3. Observation

Observing is an observation activity to know how far the action effect

have reach target. Observation was conducted by observing and

scoring through oral tests to students’ ability in speaking English.

4. Reflection

Reflection was conducted for evaluating all of the actions done in

every cycle. The result of observation is analyzed, it is to remember

what occurs that has been written in observation; reflection seeks to

memorize sense of the process, problems and real issues in strategic

action. If the researcher fined problems in teaching in the first cycle,


Figure 3.1

Procedure Classroom Action Research

E. Technique of Collecting Data

In this classroom action research, the data is takes from:

1. Test

According Arikunto (2010:226) test is used to measure the basic

capabilities and achievements. Especially for learning achievement,

test commonly used is schools can be divided into two general


a. Tests Created by Teacher

Tests made by the teacher with a particular procedure, but no

trails have repeatedly then is not yet know features and


b. Standardized Test

Test that usually already provided in the testing agencies,

which are already guaranteed quality. And Scandalized Tests

trials has experienced repeatedly so it can be said to be good.

Researcher prefers tests made by teachers. Because teacher can

measures students difficulties in learning English, especially in

speaking skill. The writer uses pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is

given to students at the very beginning of teaching and learning

process then Post-test is given after students receiving the

method from teacher. Pre and Post-test are to knowing the

differences of the students ability and after the teacher use the


2. Observation

In the observation method is the most effective way to complete the

format or list of observation as instruments (Arikunto: 2010:272).

In this research, the researcher observes the leaning process, notices all

the activities related with learning process use check list.

3. Documentation

Method of documentation that is looking for data about things or

variables in the form of notes, transcripts, books, newspaper,


In this case, the researcher chooses to use the media to record the

activities of students in class so that the data obtained is valid, which is

by using camera.

F. Evaluation Criteria

Table 3.5

The Assessment Scale for Oral Ability

In the oral test, the writer used speaking assessment rubric

( in the following:

Aspect Score Details


25 Easy to understand pronunciation and have a

native accent

20 Easy to understand though with a certain accent

15 There is a problem of pronunciation that make the

listener must concentrate fully and sometimes

there are misunderstanding

10 It is difficult to understand because of

pronunciation problems, often asked to repeat

5 A serious pronunciation problems that cannot be



25 No or few grammatical eror

20 Occasionally makes grammatical errors but does

not affect the meaning

15 Often make grammatical errors which effect


10 A lot of grammatical errors that impede meaning


5 A grammatical error is so severe that it is difficult

to understand


25 Using the vocabulary words and phrases such as

native speakers

20 Sometimes uses inappropriate vocabulary

15 Frequent use of inappropriate vocabulary,

conversation is limited due to limited vocabulary

10 Using the wrong vocabulary and vocabulary is

limited so it is difficult to understand

5 A very limited vocabulary so that the conversation

is not possible


25 Easy to express ideas although there is repeating

in certain part

20 Sometimes difficult to express ideas due to limited


15 Little difficult to express ideas verbally and a lot

of repeating

10 Difficult to express ideas searching for vocabulary

does not complete utterances

5 Limited to express ideas communication difficult

although in simple dialogue

Table 3.6

The students’ Achievement

Criteria of Assessment Grade

91-100 Excellent

81-90 Very Good


61-70 Fair

51-60 Poor

Less than 50 Vary poor

G. Technique of Data Analysis

After collecting the data, the writer will calculate the mean of the students’

score. This method is used to know the students’ score of speaking in each

cycle. The formula according Hadi (1981:246) is:

a. M =


M : Mean of students’ score

∑X : The sum of students’ score

N : The total number of students

b. SD (Standard Deviation)

The first step, the writer calculate SD, the formula is:



SD : Deviation Standard for one sample t-test

D : Different between pre-test and post-test



N : Number of observation in sampl


c. T-test

After calculating the SD, the writer doing test to know is there

any significant different or not between pre-test and post-test,

the formula is:



0 : T-test for the differences of pre-test and post test

SD : Deviation Standard for one sample t-test

D : Different between pre-test and post-test




In this research implementation, the writer as the research in SMP

Negeri 3 Suruh has arranged two cycles. Planning, Acting, Observing and


A. Cycle 1

1. Planning

The activities are prepared:

a. Preparing the materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in

doing the action.

b. Preparing list of students: name and scoring.

c. Preparing teaching-purpose

d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of

teaching learning process when the method applied)

e. Preparing a test (to know whether students’ speaking will improve or


2. The implementation of the action

On Monday morning, September, 21th 2015 at 08.00 a.m. the

researcher as the English teacher and the observer entered the English

class in 8E classes. Then, both of English teacher and researcher stood up


the Teacher conditioned and waits the students until they were ready to

get lesson. Than researcher said salam and led to pray by reciting

Bassamallah together. After that he greeted the students and also the

students too.

The researcher introduced his self before began the class. He said

that he was graduated from SMP N 3 Suruh. The researcher told them

about his participates in their classroom for about two weeks. He hoped

the students and the researcher can be cooperative learning. After checked

the absent of the students researcher gives picture one by one and each

student only gives times 30 seconds. When the students have finished

their pre test, Researcher continued to explain about Descriptive text to

students. Researcher explained about definition, general structure and

language feature of Descriptive text. Students looked so pay attention with

Researcher explanation carefully. After giving the explanation Researcher

divided student into six groups to apply the method. Then students are

counting one until six. After finish counting Researcher make groups

based on the number of the students. Researcher got five groups.

Researcher told them the rules Who Am I game. Each student gave

picture by researcher and then researcher gives time 10 seconds to

describe the picture to their group. Other members of group guess what

characteristic the picture. If their group gives true answer will get 10

points. He began game from group one. After finished change group two


After all of groups finished their game, time to researcher

announced the winner. The winner is group three with score 60 point.

Then researcher concluded the lesson with the students and explained

again points connected with the material. After that, before closing the

lesson, researcher and students prayed by reciting Hamdallah together.

Researcher reminded the students to study for the next meeting. If the

winner he will gave reward. He closed by reciting Wassalamu’alaikum

Wr.Wb and the students answered by reciting Waalaikumsalam Wr.Wb.

3. Observation

In this first cycle, the researcher observed the teaching learning

process by monitoring the student’s activity and attention during the

action; we can see that most of the students were enthusiastic in the

teaching learning process. This was because using who Am I game, but

there were some students who had a little difficult to describe that picture

because lack of vocabulary. When students describe that picture in front

of class, they still did not have confidence. Besides that, some of them had

cracked joke too much they were also shy to speak up and afraid if they

would do mistake in their pronunciation. Most of them were also poor in


4. Score of Speaking


27 SITI SYARIFAH 70 80 10 100

28 SOFIA DEFI 60 70 10 100

29 TIARA SEKAR KINANTI 50 70 20 400

30 WAHYU SETYONINGSIH 70 80 10 100

Total 1630 1980 350 4900

a) Mean of pre test I

Mx =


= 54, 33

b) Mean of Post test I

My =


= 66

c) SD of Pre test and Post test I



Table 3.1

Table 3.1

Table 3.2

Table 3.2

Table 3.3 Situation of Students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic Year of

Table 3.3

Situation of Students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic Year of p.46
Table 3.4

Table 3.4

Figure 3.1

Figure 3.1

Table 3.5 The Assessment Scale for Oral Ability

Table 3.5

The Assessment Scale for Oral Ability p.57
Table 3.6

Table 3.6

No Table 4.1 Name of Students Pre Test

No Table

4.1 Name of Students Pre Test p.64
Table 4.2 The result of oral test

Table 4.2

The result of oral test p.67
Table 4.2

Table 4.2



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