THE USE OF WHO AM I GAME TO IMPROVE
STUDENTS’ SPEAKING SKILL
A Classroom Action Research of SecondGgrade of SMP N 3 Suruh
in the Academic Year 2015/2016
Submitted to the Board of Examiner in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Sarjana Degree of Islamic Educational Studies (S.Pd.I)
English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty
M. Fatkhur Rohman
ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT OF TEACHER
TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY
STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES (IAIN)
“YOU WILL NEVER KNOW TRUE ANSWER, BEFORE YOU
This graduating paper is dedicated to:
1. My beloved parents, Mrs. Mursiyah and Mr. Tamziz, who always educate
me in doing good thing. They are my hero, thanks for all generosity,
finance, and encouragement, and also thanks for your love, trust, and
everlasting praying. Allah bless you mom and dad.
2. My older brother Nur Qomarrudin and My older sister Sayidatun Nisak,
thanks for your kindness, support, and togetherness.
3. My beloved Arifatul Fitriyah, thanks for your kindness, love, trust,
encouragement, and praying.
4. My unforgettable friends (Hasan, Darus, Fauzi, Herman, Ansori, Debyo,
Fariq, Hantoro, Nafi, Honang, Zulfikar) Thanks for your togetherness and
Alhamdullillahirobbil ‘alamin, thanks to Allah SWT, God almighty for the
blessing given me in completing this thesis as one requirement to finished my
study in English Department Faculty of States for Institute Islamic Studies.
This thesis would not have been completed without support, guidance and help
from individual and institution. Therefore, I would like to express special thanks
1. Dr. H. Rahmad Hariyadi, M.Pd., the Rector of State Institute for Islamic
Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.
2. Mr. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education
3. Mrs. Noor Malihah, Ph. D., the Head of English Education Faculty.
4. Mrs. Mashlihatul Umami S.Pd.I, M.A., as consultant who has educated,
supported, directed and given the writer advice, suggestion and
recommendation for this graduating paper from beginning until the end.
Thanks for your patient and care.
5. All lecturers, especially the lecturers of English and Education Department
of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga.
6. My beloved mother (Mrs. Mursiyah) and my father (Mr. Tamziz) who
always gives me support encouragement, finance, love, trust and
7. My beloved Arifatul Fitriyah, thanks for your kindness, love, trust,
Rohman, Fatkhur.2016. “The Use of Who Am I Game to Improve Students’ Speaking Skill (A Classroom Action Research second grade of SMP N 3
Suruh in the academic year 2015/2016)”. Graduating Paper English
Education Department of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga: Maslihatul Umami, S.Pd.I, M.A.
Keywords: Speaking Skill, Who Am I Game, Guess game, Speaking
The aims of this research are (1) to find out whether there is improvement of speaking skill trough Who Am I Game (2) to find out the extent of using Who am I game to improve speaking ability of second grade of SMP N 3 Suruh. The research method used is classroom action research. The subjects of the research were thirty students in the second grade of SMP N 3 Suruh. The researcher used two cycles; each cycle consists of planning, action, observation, and reflection. The researcher found several findings on it. The findings show that the students’ speaking skill increases from pre to post test. The mean of pre-test I is 54,33, the mean of post-test I is 66, the mean of pre-test II is 61,66, and the mean of post- test II is 74,33. The increasing percentages of students who pass in oral test in cycle I and cycle II are: 56,66% up to 76,66%. The decreasing percentages students who do not pass oral test are: 43,33% to 23,33%. It means that Who Am
TABLE OF CONTENTS
TITLE ……… i
DECLARATION ………. ii
ATTENTIVE CONSELOR NOTES ………... iii
STATEMENT OF CERTIFICATION ……… iv
MOTTO ……… v
ACKNOWLEDGMENT ……….. vi
ABSTRACT ………. ix
TABLE OF CONTENT ………... viii
LIST OF TABLES ………... xiv
CHAPTER I : INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ……….. 1
B. Statement of the Problems ……….. 4
C. Objectives of the Study ………... 4
D. Significance of the Study ……….. 5
E. Limitation of the Study ………. 6
F. Definition of the Key Terms ………. 6
G. Review of Previous Research ……….. 7
CHAPTER II : REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
A. Games ……… 10
1. Kinds of Games ……… 10
2. Kinds of Communication Games Activity ………... 12
3. Implementation of “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking.. 14
4. Picture as a Media to Support Who Am I Game ………. 14
5. Steps of Who Am I Game ……….... 15
6. Advantages of using Who Am I Game ……… 16
7. Disadvantages of using Who Am I Game……… 17
B. Speaking………. 17
1. The definition of speaking ………... 18
2. The elements of speaking ……… 19
3. Teaching speaking skill ………... 21
4. Principles for designing speaking techniques ………. 24
5. Indicator of speaking competence ………... 25
CHAPTER III : RESEARCH METHODOLOGY A. The Setting of Research………. 28
1. History and general situation of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh ……… 28
2. The list of educational facilities and tools ………... 29
3. The list of teacher and staff of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh ……….. 31
4. The situation of Students ………. 32
C. The Method of Research ……….... 34
D. The Procedures of Research……… 39
1. Planning ……… 39
2. Action ………... 39
3. Observation ………... 39
4. Reflection ………. 39
E. Technique of Collecting Data ……… 41
1. Test ………. 41
2. Observation ……….. 42
3. Documentation ………. 42
F. Evaluation Criteria ………. 43
G. Technique of Data Analysis ………... 45
CHAPTER IV : THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH A. Cycle I……… 47
1. Planning ………... 47
2. The implementation of the action ……….... 47
3. Observation ………. 49
4. Score of speaking ……… 49
5. Reflection ……… 55
B. Cycle II……….. 55
1. Planning ……….. 55
3. Observation ………. 57
4. Score of speaking ……… 58
5. Reflection ……… 63
C. Discussion ……… 63
CHAPTER V : CLOUSURE A. Conclusion ……… 67
B. Suggestion ………. 68
1. Teacher ……… 68
2. Researcher ………... 68
3. Students ………... 69
LIST OF TABLE
1. The speaking assessment rubric
2. Education facilities and tools of SMP Negeri 3 suruh
3. The organization profession structure of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh
4. The situation of students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh
5. The students list of 8E class
6. The result of pre test and post test cycle I
7. The result of oral test cycle I
8. The result of pre test and post test cycle II
9. The result oral test cycle II
10. The mean of Student’s score
11.The percentages of oral test
A. Background of Study
The function of language is for communication. English is used by
millions of people in the world. In Indonesia English is considered as a
foreign language that is thought from elementary school until university.
In education teacher hope that students can be spoken English fluently.
Speaking is one of the important skills in language learning besides
listening, writing and reading. Speaking is the act, utterance of one who
speaks. Speaking also can be defined activity in giving and asking
information by two and more people. In speaking, there is a process of
communication between speaker and listener.
Speaking is one of the most important skills to be mastered. Its
success is measured in term of the ability to carry out conversation in an
interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing,
receiving, and processing information. Mastering speaking skill is very
significant because people can carry out conversation with others. On that
account, in speaking classroom the learned should work as much as
possible on their own, talk to another directly and think medium of the
To most people, mastering the art of speaking is the single most
important aspect of learning a second or foreign language, and success is
language. One of the big questions in any second language teachers’ head
is “how to develop our students’ speaking skill? This problem, according
to Stevick (1967) is due to the gap between linguistic expertise and our
teaching methodology. The ESL teacher’s growing concern over
communication is largely a reaction against the most extreme practice of
the Audio-lingual Method, which tended to dichotomize language
structure and content. The behaviorist theory of learning on which this
method was based stressed the development of automatic, conditioned
responses to teacher-directed cues. Memorization of short dialogues and
oral repetition of controlled structural drills became the activities through
which students gained phonological and syntactic habits. It was assumed
that students would be able to infer general rules and patterns from the
model sentences drilled and thus extend their control by recognizing
semantic and structural similarities which had never been explicitly
presented to them.
A considerable number of articles discuss specific methods by
which teachers might develop lots of examples for teaching students to
communicate more effectively. The majority depends upon fact that in
order to increase what West (1968) terms IPTT (Individual Pupil Talking
Time), the teacher must concern which development of student to student
In teaching learning English as the foreign language most of
factors can be derived by the teacher and students. Limitation of
vocabulary it can be caused difficult to speak. The students feel nervous
when he or she will to speak. Students are not ready to learn. There are
some factors from student. While factors from teacher are the teacher
teach focus on grammar. The real speaking need short time to speak. It is
very difficult to remember Grammar because English Grammar is very
complex. So, some students hate English.
Ideal English classroom should be enjoyable and learning methods
should be fun, so students fell enjoy during teaching learning process. In
contrary, most of students still consider that English is difficult lesson,
especially in speaking skill. In junior high school English becomes one of
subject in national examination. Thus, students must study hard about
speaking in an important element in English learning.
From these reasons above, the English teacher must give fun
method with games in teaching vocabulary to interest student motivation
like use who am I game. By using this game students will be easier to
improve their speaking skill. It must be remembered by everyone who
wants to be professional communication that speaking English is as
foundation to step forward their future.
Based on the explanation above, the researcher takes a title “THE
USE OF WHO AM I GAME TO IMPROVE THE STUDENTS’ SPEAKING
SKILL” (A Classroom Action Research in second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh
B. Statement of the Problem
Based on the Background of the study, there are many problems that
arise. Some problems that can be identified are as follows:
1. Can the use of Who Am I game improve the students’ speaking ability
of the second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang regency or not?.
2. How far the use of Who Am I game to improve students’ speaking
skillof second grade of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang regency?.
C. The Objective of the Study
Generally the objective of this research is to improve the Students’
speaking ability in the second year of SMP N 3 Suruh. The Objectives of
the research especially are to get information about:
1. Whether the implementation of Who Am I game to improve speaking
ability of the second grade students of SMPN 3 Suruh Semarang
2. The extent of use of Who Am I game to improve speaking ability of
D. Significance of the Study
The researcher hopes that the result of this research can give
information and the researcher hope by using Who Am I game and in
speaking class will be useful for both, for the teacher, the students and the
1. For the teachers
The result of the research can give additional information to teach
English especially speaking skill to improve the quality of teaching
learning process. Beside that researcher hope it can be solution of
problem teaching English.
2. For students
The result of the research can give motivation the students to
interest in learning English. Use who am I game they can learn
English more fun and enjoy.
3. For the other researchers
It can lead to future researcher because it will be a good basic to
know why the students have low performance in speaking skill. The
result of the research can be used as an input in English teaching and
4. For institution
The result of this result can contribute the institution to fulfill the
demand of English curriculum. Thus, students are able to get
5. For the Writer
From this research, the writer can learn some ways to give
motivation for the students to improve speaking skill and study.
E. Limitation of the study
The researcher limits this research dealing with the improvement
of students’ speaking skill of the second grade in SMPN 3 Suruh trough
Who Am I game.
F. The Definition of Key Terms
Game is one of activities which can help to create dynamic,
motivating classes. The reason is that real learning takes place when
the students, in relaxed atmosphere, participate, in activities that
require them to use what they have been drilled on. Games are not only
suitable for children also for adult. Since there is always a child hidden
in every one of use. Bringing out this ‘child’ undoubtedly facilities the
learning of a foreign language. (Endang Fauziati, 2005:130).
Speaking is so much a part of daily life that we take it for granted. The
average person produces tens of thousands of word a day, although
some people-like auctioneers or politicians- my produce even more
than that. So natural and integral is speaking that we forget how we
how to do it all over again in a foreign language. (Scott Thornbury,
G. The Review of Previous Research
In this thesis, the writer uses the previous dealing with the topic of
this study. The research was done by Mut Mainah 2010 in “The Use of
Snake and Ladder Games to Improve Students Speaking Ability” (An
Action Research at The Seventh Grade of SMPN 09 Salatiga in Academic
Year 2010/2011). Research by Mut Mainah in 2011 the students of
English department of State Institute of Islamic Studies (STAIN) Salatiga.
She found that the use of snake ladder game can improve students
The second review related to this research, the title is “Improving
Students’ Speaking Ability Trough Communication Games” (A Classroom
Action Research at First Grade of MTs. Manaratul Islam, Cilandak)”,
Research by Ulviana 2011the student of teacher training Syarif
Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta. She was conducted in two
cycles, in which in the first cycle there were three meetings and in the
second cycle there were four meetings. Every cycle consisted of four
steps: Planning, Acting, Observing, and Reflecting. Planning is the first
step to do the research. Acting is the implementation of the planning that
has been planned by the teacher and the researcher as well. Each Acting
Observing students’ activity in the classroom is the duty. She observed
every single thing that happen in the classroom while the teaching and
learning process were accomplishing. She used observation form that has
been formed by the researcher concerning with cases to be observed.
Reflecting is time to reflect the all activities whether the implementation
of the communication game developed students’ speaking skill or it not.
Based on the result of data analysis, she inferred that teaching
English by using communication games is effective and can improve
students speaking ability. It can be proved through several data such as;
observation result, which it shows students enthusiastic, and actively
participated in learning process. They were also motivated to learn spoken
English with it reduces students’ hesitation to say in English.
H. Outline of Thesis Presentation
In order to make easy understand this thesis, the writer’s following
system of presentation as follows. Chapter I presents introduction. It
explains background of study, the statement of problem, the objective of
study, definition of keys term, and outline of thesis presentation. Chapter
II describes the reviews or related literature. It discusses the general
concept of classroom action research class, the activities of classroom
action research, the design of classroom action research, objective of
classroom action research and general concepts of who am I game and
general situation of SMP N 3 Suruh. It consists of geographical placed, the
history of SMP N 3 Suruh, the profile of teacher and students, the
condition of the infrastructure. Chapter IV is the implementation of
research, it contains about field note and scores of speaking. Chapter V as
the last part of this outline consists of closure which will be defied into
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE
Enjoyment of game is not limited by age. Some individual are not
seen from age but from the suitability of the games and the roles of the
players. It is usually accepted that young learners and adult are interested
in playing games. Moreover, Andrew Wright and Friends (1983:1) state
games help and encourage many learners to sustain their interest and work.
Games also help the teacher to create context in which language is useful
and meaningful. The learners want to take part, and in order to do so must
understand what other saying or have written, and they must speak or
write in order to express their own point of view or give information.
Games provide one way of helping the learners to experience language
rather than merely study it. The teacher should be careful to make the
games enjoyed by young learners and at the same time some language
items are learned. The game also has many advantages. They make the
students more easily to understand the teacher’s instruction, strengthen the
students’ understanding of the context of learning.
1. Kinds of Games
Classifying language games into categories can be very difficult
because categories often overlap. Therefore, different linguistics uses
character of a type of game and the way in which it engages the learner
can be helpful in the adaptation of games on the creation of new
games. According to Hadfield (1987:4), language games can be
divided into two further categories: Linguistic games and
communicative games. Linguistic games focus on accuracy, such as
applying the correct antonym. On the other hand, communicative
games focus on successful exchange of information and ideas, such as
two people indentifying the differences between their two pictures
which are similar to one another but not exactly alike. Hadfield
(1987:5) also classifies language games into many more categories as
a. Guessing Games
Guessing games are familiar variant on these principles. The
player with the information deliberately withholds it, while
others guess what it might be.
b. Search Games
Search games are another variant, involving the whole class. In
these games everyone in the class has one piece of information.
Players must obtain all or a large amount of the information
available to fill in a questionnaire or to solve a problem. Each
student is thus simultaneously a giver and collector of
c. Matching Games
Matching games are based on a different principle, but also
involve a transfer of information. These games involve
matching identical pairs of cards or pictures, and may be
played as a whole class activity, where everyone must circulate
until they find a partner with the same card or picture.
d. Exchanging and collecting games
Exchanging and collecting games are based on the barter
principle. Players have certain articles or cards which they are
willing to exchange for others in order to complete a set. This
may be played as a whole class activity, where players circulate
freely, exchanging cards or articles at random: or as an
inter-group activity, where players agree to collect a certain set of
articles as a group and then exchange articles between groups;
or as a card game on the ‘rummy’ principle.
e. Combining activities
Combining activities are those in which the players must act on
certain information in order to arrange themselves in groups
such as families or people living in the same flat.
2. Kinds of Communication Games Activity
According to Harmer (1982:349), there are two particular
a. Information-Gap Games: games that involves solving a
puzzle, drawing a picture (describe and draw), putting
things in the right order (describe and arrange), and
finding similarities and differences between pictures.
These games are commonly accomplished in pairs.
Student has to talk to his/her partner in order to obtain
b. Television and radio games: this games activity is
accomplished in grouping or team work. Each team has
to ask “yes/no question” to the chairperson from the
other team. The chair person has to think of an object
that is either animal, vegetables or mineral or
combination of two or three of these by giving
opportunities to other team to ask about 20 questions
and each team must guess what object is being
imagined by the chairperson. The team will get points if
they guess the answer correctly in fewer.
Other games are also suggested by Harmer such as “just a
minute” in which each participant has to speak for 60 seconds on
the subject that is given by the chairperson without hesitation,
reception, or deviation. If another contestant hears any mistakes, he
or she has to interrupt, by which she/he gets a points. The person
From the games suggested by Hammer, as for the writer the
Television and radio games (Who Am I Game) are considered the
suitable one for teaching speaking. In view of students limited
vocabulary and expression, that to play the game they only have to
ask question in the form of simple sentence. So these games will
not force them to do what they can do.
3. Implementation of “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking
This game is supposed to be useful for teacher in encouraging
game, the teacher gives materials such as expressions, vocabulary,
picture, realties, and other media which are enable students to expose
their English through the activities. For instance, information gaps, it is
a classroom activity where the teacher chooses two students make
groups A and B, then the teacher gives them different picture to play
4. Picture as a Media to Support “Who am I Game” in Teaching
To get the goals of the study, the teacher should decide to use the
appropriate media in teaching learning activity. There are many kinds
of media, one of them is picture. Pictures are appropriate media to be
used in teaching learning process, especially in teaching speaking.
Picture also can be used as media in “Who Am I Game”. The students
will not get difficulties to describe a particular thing by using picture.
creative and attract the students to speak. According Gerlack and Ely
(1980:218) state the advantages of the picture are:
a. The pictures are inexpensive and widely available.
b. They provide common experiences for an entire group.
c. The visual detail makes it possible to study subject which
would otherwise be possible.
d. Picture can help to prevent and correct misconception.
e. Picture offer a stimulus further study reading and research.
Visual evidence is powerful tool.
f. They help to focus attention and help develop critical
5. Steps of Who Am I Game
According to Walidi (2006:30) there are five steps in Who Am I
Game, there are:
a. Formed two groups, namely the Group A and Group B, the
number of its members should be equal and balanced.
b. A card given to one player from one group, for example, Group
c. After that the player observing cards, for 90 seconds in front of
the group with a convincing expression, he tried to give the
traits or descriptions of mysterious objects/animals on the card.
d. With a view of the traits described his friend, the other
objects/animals, and delivered orally after time runs out (90
seconds) by the interlocutor of the interpreter.
e. Once the time runs out, the next sign turn Group B with the
opportunity and the same time. Soon
Meekis (2013) list procedures of playing “Who am I” game such
as; Pick one name for each person playing. Do not let any of the players
see the names until the game starts. The names can represent real people
you know, celebrities, animated characters, story book, characters,
historical figures, or animal such mammals, birds, etc. Stick one label on
each person is back. Do not allow him/her to see the name before you put
it there. Tell everyone the rules. Each person gets “yes or no” question to
find out who she / he is. For instance, she can ask, “Am I a male?” Am I
alive?” and so on. The question cannot be either / or questions like “Am I
male or female?” The players have roam around the room to ask other
people the questions. Tell them they cannot ask only one person all
questions; the point to mingle. Whoever guesses correctly first wins the
game. No hints are allowed, unless everyone is stuck and cannot figure out
who they are. Vary the game by using the names of objects instead of
6. Advantages of Using “Who Am I Game” in Teaching Speaking
There are several advantages teaching English use Who Am I
Game, they are:
a. “Who Am I game” can be make students to be more creative
b. Provide more opportunities for students to express their
opinions and feeling
c. This game gives positive effect on the students’ interest and
motivation in studying English as well as to increase their
d. Increase cooperation among students.
e. Increase tolerance among students.
Speaking skill is an important skill needs to be teaching in
language class. However, it does not mean the other skills such as
listening, reading, and writing are less important rather than speaking skill.
Those skills are sustaining each other, for instance; speaking skill
preceded by listening. Through listening people know vocabulary they do
1. The Definition of Speaking
Speaking in linguistics term has various definitions. In Oxford
Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, speak means saying something to express
ideas and opinions.
Speaking is an interactive process of contracting meaning that
involves producing and receiving and processing information (Born, 1994;
Bums & Joyce, 1997). Its form and meaning are dependent on the context
in which it occurs, including the participants themselves, their collective
experience, the physical environment, and the purposes for speaking. It is
often spontaneous, open-ended, and evolving. However, speech is not
always unpredictable. (Flores, 1999:2).
Speaking is a means to deliver opinions. Speaking ability is
important in language learning, because we can communicate through our
oral expression to gain much more information. In addition, Fulcher
(2003:23) defines that, speaking is the verbal use of language to
communicate with others”. By speaking, people will be able to
communicate with other because they could deliver their ideas, opinions,
feels, and interact to each other.
From the above definition, it can be concluded that speaking is a
crucial part of second language learning and teaching. Dealing with the
importance of speaking in EFL, Stovall (1998) in Malihah (2010:88) states
those language learners need recognize that speaking involves three areas
a. Mechanics (pronunciation, grammar, and vocabulary): using
the right words in the right order with the correct
b. Function (transaction and interaction): knowing when clarity of
message in essential (transaction/information exchange) and
when precise understanding is not required
c. Social, cultural, and norms (turn-talking, rate of speech, length
of pauses between speakers, relative roles of participants):
understanding how to take into account who is speaking to
whom, in what circumstances, about what, and for what reason.
2. The Elements of Speaking
The ability to speak fluently presupposes not only knowledge of
language features, but also the ability to process information and language
on the spot (Harmer, 2001:269).
a. Language Features
Among the elements necessary for spoken production, are the
1) Connected speech: effective speakers of English need to able
not only to produce the individual phonemes of English in
connected speech sounds are modified (assimilation), omitted
(elision), added (linking), or weakened (through construction
students in activities designed specifically to improve their
2) Expressive devices: native speakers of English change the pitch
and stress of particular parts of utterance, vary volume and
speed, and show by other physical and non-verbal
(paralinguistic) means how they are feeling (especially in
3) Lexis and grammar: spontaneous speech id marked by the use
of a number of common lexical phrases, especially in the
performance of certain language functions.
4) Negotiation language: effective speaking benefits from the
negotiator language we use to seek clarification and show the
structure of what are saying.
b. Mental/social processing
If parts of a speaker’s productive ability involves the knowledge of
language skills such as those discussed above, success is also
dependent upon the rapid processing skills that necessitates.
1) Language processing: effective speakers need to able to process
language in their own heads and put it into coherent order so
that it comes out in forms that are not only comprehensible, but
also convey the meanings that are intended. Language
processing involves the retrieval of words and phrases from
propositionally appropriate sequences. One of the main reasons
for including speaking activities in language lessons is to help
students develop habits of rapid language processing in
2) Interacting with others: most speaking involves interaction with
one or more participants. This means that effective speaking
also involves a good deal of listening. An understanding of
how the other participants are feeling. And a knowledge of how
linguistically to take turns or allow others to do.
3) (On the spot) information processing: quite apart from our
response others’ feeling. We also need to able to process the
information they tells us the moment we get it. The longer it
takes for the penny to drop the less effective we are as instant
communicators. However, it should be remembered that this
instant response is very culture-specific, and is not prized by
speakers in many other language communities.
3. Teaching Speaking Skills
Speaking is considered as a productive skill. Productive skills used
to put ideas into words. It means that students do not only keep silent and
listen to the teacher’s explanation, but also should speak actively. In this
case, teacher should give opportunity to the students in order they can
In speaking class, teacher plays an important role because teacher
is the key for the students to help them having good English proficiency.
Moreover, teacher should not only create enjoyable learning, but also
academically beneficial in speaking class. According to Dornyei
(2007:73), there are three types of strategy to make the class more
interesting and enjoyable. Those are:
a. The teacher is able to break the monotony of learning.
b. The teacher is able to make the tasks more interesting.
c. The teacher is able to increase the involvement of the students.
There are similar categories apply to the kinds of oral production that
students are expected to carry out in the classroom. (Douglas, 2001:271):
A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may
legitimately be spent generating “human tape recorder” speech,
where, for example, learners practice an intonation contour or
try to pinpoint a certain vowel sound.
Intensive speaking goes one step beyond imitative to include
any speaking performance that is designed to practice some
phonological or grammatical aspect of language. Intensive
speaking can be self-initiated or it can even form part of some
pair work activity, where learners are “going over” certain
A good deal of student speech in the classroom is responsive:
short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or
comments. These replies are usually sufficient and do not
extend into dialogues.
d. Transactional (dialogue)
Transactional language, carried out for the purpose of
conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended
form of responsive language.
e. Interpersonal (dialogue)
The other form of conversation mentioned in the previous
chapter was interpersonal dialogue, carried out more for the
purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the
transmission of facts and information.
f. Extensive (monologue)
Finally, students at intermediate to advanced levels are called
on to give extended monologues in the form of oral reports,
summaries, or perhaps short speeches. Here the register is more
formal and deliberative. These monologues can be planned.
4. Principles for Designing Speaking Techniques
a. Use techniques that cover the spectrum of learner need, from
language based focus on accuracy to message-based focus on
In our current zeal for interactive language teaching, we can
easily slip into a pattern of providing zesty content-based,
interactive activities that don’t capitalize on grammatical
pointers or pronunciation tips.
b. Provide intrinsically motivating techniques
Try at all times to appeal to students’ ultimate goal and interest,
to their need for knowledge, for status, for achieving
competence and autonomy, and for “being all that they can be”.
c. Encourage the use of authentic language in meaningful
This theme has been played time and again in this book, but
one more reminder shouldn’t hurt. It is not easy to keep coming
up with meaningful interaction.
d. Provide appropriate feedback and correction
In most EFL situations, students are totally dependent on the
teacher for useful linguistic feedback. In ESL situations, they
may get such feedback “out there” beyond the classroom, but
even the you are in a position to be great benefits.
e. Capitalize on the natural link between speaking and listening
Many interactive techniques that involve speaking will also of
course include listening. Don’t lose out on opportunities to
f. Give students opportunities to initiate oral communication
A good deal of typical classroom interaction is characterized by
teacher initiation of language. We ask question, give direction,
and provide information, and students have been conditioned
only to “speak when spoken to”. Part of oral communication
competence is the ability to initiate conversation, to nominate
topics, to ask question, to control conversations, and to change
g. Encourage the development of speaking strategies
The concept of strategies competence is one that few beginning
language students are aware. They simply have not thought
about developing their own personal strategies for
accomplishing oral communicative purpose.
5. Indicators of Speaking Competence
Brown (2004:141-142) indicating that one can be called has
speaking competence if he/she is able to:
a. Imitate a word or phrase or possibly a sentence (imitative).
b. Produce short stretches of oral language design to demonstrate
competence in a narrow band of grammatical, phrasal, lexical,
or phonological relationship. Such as prosodic
elements-intonation, stress, rhythm, juncture, intensive ability
c. Respond a very short conversation, standard greetings and
small talk, simple requests and comments, and the like
d. Take the two form of either transactional language which has
the purpose of exchanging specific information, or
interpersonal exchanges which have the purpose of maintaining
social relationships (interactive).
e. Maintain social relationships with the transmission of facts and
f. Develop (monolog) oral production including speeches, oral
presentations, and story-telling, during which the opportunity
for oral international from listener is either highly limited or
ruled out together (extensive)
Meanwhile, Ur says (1999:120) that the characteristics of a
successful speaking activity are as follows:
a. Learners talk a lot. As much as possible of period of time
allotted to activity is in fact occupied by learners’ talk. This
may seem obvious, but oven most time is taken up with teacher
talk or pauses.
b. Participation is even. Classroom discussion is not determined
by minority of talk active participants; all get chance to speak;
c. Motivation is high, learners are eager to speak; because they
are interested in the topic and have something new to say about
it or because they want to contribute to achieving a task
d. Language is of an acceptable level. Learners express
themselves in utterances that are relevant, easily
comprehensible to each other, and of an acceptable level of
A. The Setting of Research
1. History and General Situation of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh
The establishment of the SMP Negeri 3 Suruh was proposed in a
meeting between the head of office of education and the whole head
elementary school in district Suruh, in the moment Halal Bihalal. In
meeting attended by the head of Department of Education of Semarang
and the Muspika officials informed that in Semarang will get a
package of established Senior High School. It is offered to the villages
in the Sub-District of Suruh are willing to provide land about 1 hectare
to set up School. The information eventually came to the head of the
Sub-district of Suruh. The whole village officials then convened by
inviting LMD, LKMD, Chairman of the RT and RW, PKK, as well as
community leaders of Medayu. The decision of the meeting finally
agreed that the village of Medayu can provide land for building Senior
High School, that the land crooked Head Village covering an area of 1
hectare located in block/persil 23. Contraction of a planned Senior
High School turned out to be viewed less in accordance with the needs
of local community, then later decided to give development package
SMP Negeri 3 Suruh located on Jln Raya Suruh-Gunung Tumpeng
07 km of Suruh, Semarang Regency.Mission of SMP Negeri Suruh are
a. Implementing learning and tutoring effectively so every learner can
develop optimally with the provision of learning resources.
b. Carry out extracurricular activities in consistent and sustainability.
c. Carry out teaching remedial and enrichment lessons in planning
d. Foster a spirit of achievement and an advantage in an intensive
character to all the citizens of the school.
e. Cultivate appropriate behavior with the guidance of religious
norms, social and low.
f. Cultivate clean and orderly life in a school environment.
g. Implementing the details of character education in the social life of
the nation and state.
2. The list of Educational Facilities and Tools
SMP Negeri 3 Suruh has facilities and tools in order to make the
students easier and to support teaching learning process. it is because
Situation of Education and Facilities and Tools of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the
Academic Year of 2015/2016
No Facilities Total Condition
11 Chemistry Laboratory -
3. The list of teacher and staffs of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh
Situation of Teachers and Staffs of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic
No Name NIP Position
1 Siti Nur Supiyah, S.Pd, M.Pd. 196511191988032006 Head Master
2 Anst Suharsono, S.Pd 196202141984031010 English Teacher
3 Muh Supriyanto, S.Pd 195809161986031009 Civics Teacher
4 Sri Wuryani, S.Pd 196601261989022001 Indonesian Language
5 Suprapti, S.Pd 197204071998012001 Social Teacher
6 Nuryanta, S.Pd 196908141998021001 Javanese Language
7 Kasiyan, S.Pd 196407031998021001 Civics Teacher
8 Drs. Jumeri 196506271998021002 Sport Teacher
9 M. Hisyam, S.Pd 197207221998021004 Mathematics Teacher
10 Arin Romizah, S.Pd 197011291999032006 Religion Teacher
11 Wiwik Harwanti, S.Pd 197312222000122004 Science Teacher
12 Enik Wijayanti, S.Pd 197502172002122004 Mathematics Teacher
13 Dra. Kiptiyah 196808082002122003 Indonesian Language
14 Handis Salamah, S.Pd 197403062006042014 Indonesian Language
15 Setyo W. Anjari, S.Pd 197601212006042015 Social Teacher
16 Erma Lilis S, S.Pd 196607262006042002 Science Teacher
17 Ana Mariana, S.Pd 197407202007012005 Science Teacher
18 Dra. Siti Zulaekah 196711032007012006 Design Cloth Teacher
19 Inayah Mala Hayati, S.Pd 198209142009022007 English Teacher
21 Sukarni, S.Pd 198206252010012028 Computer Teacher
22 Nona Muanifah, S.Pd 197108012014062002 Guidance Counseling
23 Fitria Hidayanto, S.Pd 198108132014061004 Computer Teacher
24 Nanang Budiyanto, S.Sn, S.Pd GTT Art and Culture
25 Wisnu Aminudin, S.Pd.I GTT English Teacher
26 Witono 196904171990031006 Head Administration
27 Hadi Wibowo 198403032014061001 Administration Staff
28 Lilis Widyawati, S.E - Administration Staff
29 Fathul Munib - Administration Staff
30 Sri Lestari - Librarian Staff
31 Joko Budiyono - Administration Staff
32 Nur Cahyo - Administration Staff
33 Slamet - Administration Staff
34 Mukirah - Administration Staff
4. The Situation of Students
Situation of Students of SMP Negeri 3 Suruh in the Academic Year of
B. Subject of Study
The subject of the study is the second grade students of SMP
Negeri 3 Suruh especially in 8E class. The total numbers of students are 30
students. It consists of 12 male students and 18 female students. On this
research, the writer uses total sampling technique for taking sample
because all of students in 8B become the sample. Henry in his site said
that total sampling technique is the sample that represents all of
population, usually this technique use when the population less than 100
persons (http://teorionline.wordpress.com). The students’ list is presented
in detail below:
The Students’ List
No Name of Students Sex
1 AHMAD IQBAL SYAHPUTRA Male
2 AHMAD SYARIFUDIN Male
10 FITRIA LINDAWATI Female
11 ILSA AMELIA Female
12 IQBAL HANIF Male
14 LIA SAPUTRI Female
21 RAHMAWATI DEVI SUGESTI Female
22 RENI PUJI ASTUTI Female
23 RITA AMELLIA S. Female
24 RIZKI TRI HANDAYANI Male
25 SHINTA PUJIATI Female
26 SITI SUSANTI Female
27 SITI SYARIFAH Female
28 SOFIA DEFI Female
29 TIARA SEKAR KINANTI Female
30 WAHYU SETYONINGSIH Male
C. The Method of Research
In this study, the writer used classroom action research. According
to Car and Kemmis (1990:21) action research is a form of collective
self-reflective inquiry undertaken by participants in social situation in order to
improve the rationality and justice of their own social or educational
practices, as well as their understanding of this practices and situation in
which these practices are carried.
The second definition states that action research might be defined
action within it. The purposes of the method research is feeding practical
judgment in concrete situation, and the validity of the theories or
hypothesis in generate depend not so much on scientific test or truth, as on
their usefulness in helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully.
In action research theories are not validated independently and then
applied to practice (Hopkins, 1993:45).
In the classroom action research, there are the principles of action
research as follows (Arikunto, 2009:6-7):
a. The real activities in routine situation.
b. The awareness for recondition work ability.
c. SWOT as research foundation.
SWOT is summary of Strength, Weakness, Opportunity, and Threat.
Strength and weakness to identify researcher and it is subject. The
opportunity and threat are identified out of the teacher or researcher
d. Empiric and systematic endeavor.
e. Using SMART principle in planning
The meaning of SMART is:
S = Specific
M = Manageable
A = Acceptable or Achieable
R = Realistic
In the classroom action research, there are three elements or concepts
in the following (Kunandar, 2010:45):
a. Research is an activity to observe the definite object through
scientific methodology by collecting data and analyzing to finish
b. Action is an activity that does intentionally with certain purpose in
the form of cycle to increase quality of teaching learning process.
c. Class is a group of students that get similar lesson from teacher in
the same time.
Kunandar (2010:58-64) states that Classroom Action Research is
different from formal studies (conventional) in general. Classroom Action
Research has some characteristics on the job oriented problem, problem
solving oriented, improvement oriented, cyclic, (cycles), action oriented,
assessment of the impact of the action, specific contextual, collaborative,
the researcher as well as practitioners who perform the reflection, and hold
in a series of steps with a few cycles where one cycle consist of planning,
action, observation, and reflection stages and then started again in a few
The purpose of Classroom Action Research’s as state by Kunandar are as
a. To solve the real problems that occur in the classroom
students who are studying, increasing professionalism of
teachers, and fostering academic culture among the teachers.
b. Increasing classroom practices quality continually evolves
rapidly given society.
c. Increasing the relevance of education, this is achieved by
improving the learning process.
d. As a means of training service in, which equips teachers with
skills and new methods, sharpen and enhance the analytical
power of consciousness itself.
e. As a means to incorporate additional or innovative approaches
to continuous learning system that normally inhibits innovation
f. Improved quality of Education proceeding through fixing
learning process practice in the classroom by developing
various kinds of skills and increasing students’ motivation.
g. Increasing professional educator attitude and education
h. Developing academic culture in the school environment so as
to create a proactive stance to fix education quality of learning
in sustainable manner.
i. Improved efficiency of education management, increasing or
improvements learning process; in addition to improving
enhance the efficiency or utilization of these resource are
integrated in it.
The benefits of CAR can be seen from two aspects, the aspects of
academic and practical aspects are state by Kunandar (2010:58-64) are as
a. Benefits of the Academic Aspects
To help teachers produce an authentic and relevant
knowledge to their classroom and improve the quality of
learning in the short term.
b. Partical Benefits
There are two partical benefits of this method as follows:
Innovation is the implementation of learning from the
bottom. Improved quality and improvement learning
process that teacher do on a regular basis is a vehicle
for the implementation of learning innovation.
Therefore, teachers should always try to change,
develop and improve the approaches, methods, and
learning styles so they can give birth a learning model
in accordance with the conditions and characteristics of
School level curriculum development, meaning teacher
does Classroom Action Research the teacher that has
terms, namely, how the curriculum is developed and
customized with the solution and condition, so the
curriculum can be run effectively through a process of
active learning, innovation, creativity, and funny.
Those are good effect by using Classroom Action
D. The Procedures of Research
In this Classroom Action Research, the researcher has three cycles
that consists of one meeting every cycle. The steps in this research have
four stages in each cycle.
The activities in the planning are:
a. Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in
doing the action.
b. Preparing list of student’s name and scoring.
c. Preparing teaching aids.
d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation
of teaching learning process when the method or technique
e. Preparing a test (to know whether students’ speaking ability
a. Giving pre test.
b. Teaching speaking by using Who Am I Game.
c. Giving chance to the students to ask any difficulties or problems.
d. Giving post test.
Observing is an observation activity to know how far the action effect
have reach target. Observation was conducted by observing and
scoring through oral tests to students’ ability in speaking English.
Reflection was conducted for evaluating all of the actions done in
every cycle. The result of observation is analyzed, it is to remember
what occurs that has been written in observation; reflection seeks to
memorize sense of the process, problems and real issues in strategic
action. If the researcher fined problems in teaching in the first cycle,
Procedure Classroom Action Research
E. Technique of Collecting Data
In this classroom action research, the data is takes from:
According Arikunto (2010:226) test is used to measure the basic
capabilities and achievements. Especially for learning achievement,
test commonly used is schools can be divided into two general
a. Tests Created by Teacher
Tests made by the teacher with a particular procedure, but no
trails have repeatedly then is not yet know features and
b. Standardized Test
Test that usually already provided in the testing agencies,
which are already guaranteed quality. And Scandalized Tests
trials has experienced repeatedly so it can be said to be good.
Researcher prefers tests made by teachers. Because teacher can
measures students difficulties in learning English, especially in
speaking skill. The writer uses pre-test and post-test. Pre-test is
given to students at the very beginning of teaching and learning
process then Post-test is given after students receiving the
method from teacher. Pre and Post-test are to knowing the
differences of the students ability and after the teacher use the
In the observation method is the most effective way to complete the
format or list of observation as instruments (Arikunto: 2010:272).
In this research, the researcher observes the leaning process, notices all
the activities related with learning process use check list.
Method of documentation that is looking for data about things or
variables in the form of notes, transcripts, books, newspaper,
In this case, the researcher chooses to use the media to record the
activities of students in class so that the data obtained is valid, which is
by using camera.
F. Evaluation Criteria
The Assessment Scale for Oral Ability
In the oral test, the writer used speaking assessment rubric
(http://aguswuryanto.wordpress.com) in the following:
Aspect Score Details
25 Easy to understand pronunciation and have a
20 Easy to understand though with a certain accent
15 There is a problem of pronunciation that make the
listener must concentrate fully and sometimes
there are misunderstanding
10 It is difficult to understand because of
pronunciation problems, often asked to repeat
5 A serious pronunciation problems that cannot be
25 No or few grammatical eror
20 Occasionally makes grammatical errors but does
not affect the meaning
15 Often make grammatical errors which effect
10 A lot of grammatical errors that impede meaning
5 A grammatical error is so severe that it is difficult
25 Using the vocabulary words and phrases such as
20 Sometimes uses inappropriate vocabulary
15 Frequent use of inappropriate vocabulary,
conversation is limited due to limited vocabulary
10 Using the wrong vocabulary and vocabulary is
limited so it is difficult to understand
5 A very limited vocabulary so that the conversation
is not possible
25 Easy to express ideas although there is repeating
in certain part
20 Sometimes difficult to express ideas due to limited
15 Little difficult to express ideas verbally and a lot
10 Difficult to express ideas searching for vocabulary
does not complete utterances
5 Limited to express ideas communication difficult
although in simple dialogue
The students’ Achievement
Criteria of Assessment Grade
81-90 Very Good
Less than 50 Vary poor
G. Technique of Data Analysis
After collecting the data, the writer will calculate the mean of the students’
score. This method is used to know the students’ score of speaking in each
cycle. The formula according Hadi (1981:246) is:
a. M =
M : Mean of students’ score
∑X : The sum of students’ score
N : The total number of students
b. SD (Standard Deviation)
The first step, the writer calculate SD, the formula is:
SD : Deviation Standard for one sample t-test
D : Different between pre-test and post-test
N : Number of observation in sampl
After calculating the SD, the writer doing test to know is there
any significant different or not between pre-test and post-test,
the formula is:
t0 : T-test for the differences of pre-test and post test
SD : Deviation Standard for one sample t-test
D : Different between pre-test and post-test
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH
In this research implementation, the writer as the research in SMP
Negeri 3 Suruh has arranged two cycles. Planning, Acting, Observing and
A. Cycle 1
The activities are prepared:
a. Preparing the materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in
doing the action.
b. Preparing list of students: name and scoring.
c. Preparing teaching-purpose
d. Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation of
teaching learning process when the method applied)
e. Preparing a test (to know whether students’ speaking will improve or
2. The implementation of the action
On Monday morning, September, 21th 2015 at 08.00 a.m. the
researcher as the English teacher and the observer entered the English
class in 8E classes. Then, both of English teacher and researcher stood up
the Teacher conditioned and waits the students until they were ready to
get lesson. Than researcher said salam and led to pray by reciting
Bassamallah together. After that he greeted the students and also the
The researcher introduced his self before began the class. He said
that he was graduated from SMP N 3 Suruh. The researcher told them
about his participates in their classroom for about two weeks. He hoped
the students and the researcher can be cooperative learning. After checked
the absent of the students researcher gives picture one by one and each
student only gives times 30 seconds. When the students have finished
their pre test, Researcher continued to explain about Descriptive text to
students. Researcher explained about definition, general structure and
language feature of Descriptive text. Students looked so pay attention with
Researcher explanation carefully. After giving the explanation Researcher
divided student into six groups to apply the method. Then students are
counting one until six. After finish counting Researcher make groups
based on the number of the students. Researcher got five groups.
Researcher told them the rules Who Am I game. Each student gave
picture by researcher and then researcher gives time 10 seconds to
describe the picture to their group. Other members of group guess what
characteristic the picture. If their group gives true answer will get 10
points. He began game from group one. After finished change group two
After all of groups finished their game, time to researcher
announced the winner. The winner is group three with score 60 point.
Then researcher concluded the lesson with the students and explained
again points connected with the material. After that, before closing the
lesson, researcher and students prayed by reciting Hamdallah together.
Researcher reminded the students to study for the next meeting. If the
winner he will gave reward. He closed by reciting Wassalamu’alaikum
Wr.Wb and the students answered by reciting Waalaikumsalam Wr.Wb.
In this first cycle, the researcher observed the teaching learning
process by monitoring the student’s activity and attention during the
action; we can see that most of the students were enthusiastic in the
teaching learning process. This was because using who Am I game, but
there were some students who had a little difficult to describe that picture
because lack of vocabulary. When students describe that picture in front
of class, they still did not have confidence. Besides that, some of them had
cracked joke too much they were also shy to speak up and afraid if they
would do mistake in their pronunciation. Most of them were also poor in
4. Score of Speaking
27 SITI SYARIFAH 70 80 10 100
28 SOFIA DEFI 60 70 10 100
29 TIARA SEKAR KINANTI 50 70 20 400
30 WAHYU SETYONINGSIH 70 80 10 100
Total 1630 1980 350 4900
a) Mean of pre test I
= 54, 33
b) Mean of Post test I
c) SD of Pre test and Post test I