THE COMPARISON OF LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT AND ACTIVITIES BETWEEN STUDENTS TAUGHT WITH
GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL WORK OF PBL IN GRADE XI IA SMAN 1MATAULI
ACADEMIC YEAR 2012/2013
Triana Puspasari Gultom 409342033
Biology Bilingual Education Study Programe
Submitted to fulfill the requirement for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND NATURAL SCIENCE STATEUNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
First of all, the writer would like to praise God for His Love and grace that has given health and wisdom, so this thesis can be completed properly in accordance with planned time.
Thesis with the title “The Comparison of Learning Achievement and Activities between Students Taught with Group and Individual Work of PBL Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013” is aimed in fulfilling a requirement to get the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan at Biology department, faculty Mathematics and natural science, State University of Medan.
Firstly the writer would like to express her great gratitude to Prof. Dr Herbert Sipahutar,M.S,M.Sc as her consultant for her generous assistance, guidance, advices and valuable time to read and discuss the thesis until it is completed. The author also would like thank profusely to Prof. Drs. Motlan,
M.Sc, Ph.D., as dean of the Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Science, State University of Medan. Thank Dr. Fauziah Harahap, M.Si., Dra. Meida Nugrahalia, M.Sc., Dr. Hasruddin, M.Pd., as the lecturer team of examiners, for their suggestions and constructive criticisms for the revision of this thesis and Drs. H. Ashar Hasairin, M.Si. as her academic supervisor who has guided the author during academic program. The writer also thanks to Drs. H. Tri Harsono, M.Si as the head of Biology department, Prof. Dr Herbert Sipahutar,M.S,M.Sc as the coordinator of bilingual study program and also all officers in Biology department who had help the writer in arranging this thesis. Thank the headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Matauli, Murdianto,S.Pd, M.M and Biology teacher, Mrs. Suhrotul widyah,S.Pd, Mrs. Irmayanti, S.Si, and all the teachers also students especially XI IA 2 and XI IA 3 in SMA Negeri 1 Matauli who received the presence of the
writer during research in the classes.
Writer thanks fully her beloved father Ombis Gultom and mother Lukeria
Martogap, Virnando, Dedearta and Ona Gultom who always give support and pray to the writer.
The writer thanks her small family in UKMKP (B’Doyar, Rina, and Ivo) and also family in El-Senyor Choir (B’Lambok, and all the members) and also for all her friends in Biology Bilingual ’09 and especially 7 sun (Ivo, Rina, Remli, Tresia, Nella, Wiwik) who always give spirit and motivation to the writer as the struggling friends. Writer also thanks B’Risya, B’Jhon, Mona and team PPLT MTN, and also for all the students Ank 17 MTN who always support the writer and thanks Ozora Choir (Mami ve, K’Maya, K’Ina and all the members). And
special thanks to Gregorius Tinambunan who always supports, motivates and prays for the writer.
The writer had tried as much as possible in the completion of this thesis, but the writer is aware there are still many weaknesses in terms of content and
grammar therefore the writer is pleased to receive some suggestions and constructive criticism from readers for thesis perfectly. Presumably the contents of this thesis are useful in enriching science and education.
Medan, July 2013 Author,
THE COMPARISON OF LEARNING ACHIEVEMENT AND
ACTIVITIES BETWEEN STUDENTS TAUGHT WITH
GROUP AND INDIVIDUAL WORK OF PBL
GRADE XI IA SMAN 1 MATAULIlearning achievement and students activities between students taught with group and individual work of problem based learning model on human excretory topic in SMAN 1 Matauli Academic year 2012/2013. The population of this research was all students in SMAN 1 Matauli totaling 202 students. The sample was taken by using cluster random sampling and was obtained the sample for 30 students of PBL with group work and 30 students of PBL with individual. The instrument of research was student’s cognitive learning achievement test in multiple choise with 30 questions which had been validated by expert lecturer. The result of data analysis showed that pretest has nearly value, in free PBL with group work class (61.27±4.18) and pretest in PBL with individual work class (61.05±3.97) which statistically have no significant difference. Post-test in PBL with individual work class (89.69±3.84) is higher than PBL with group work class (81.70±4.53). Prerequisite test of analysis consisted of normality test and homogeneity test. The result was showed that all groups were in normal distribution and the sample has same of variant value (homogeneous data). After t-test was carried out by using significance degree ά = 0.05, it was obtained that tcount = 0.17> ttable= 1.683, so based on the criteria that Ho accepted if tcount < ttable, so this research rejected Ho and accepted Ha. The conclusion of this research is there is significant difference of student’s cognitive learning achievement between PBL with group work and PBL with individual work on human excretory system in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli academic year 2012/2013. Then, result of students activities in PBL with group work has average 69.70 and in PBL with individual work has average 76.42. Based on the result of data, students activities in both classes also shown the different percentage of classroom activities.
TABLE OF CONTENT
Ratification Sheet i
Curriculum vitae ii
Table of Content vi
List of Figure viii
List of Table ix
List of Appendices x
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Background 1
1.2 Problem Identification 3
1.3 The Scope of Study 4
1.4 Research Question 4
1.5 Research Objectives 4
1.6 Significance of Research 5
CHAPTER II REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE
2.1 Understanding of Learning 6
2.2 Learning Achievement 7
2.3 Learning Plans 7
2.4Students Activities 8
2.5Problem Based Learning 10
2.6 The Advantages and Weaknesses of Group and Individual Work 15 2.7The Description Materials of Excretory System 15
2.8Research Hypothesis 22
CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHOD
3.1 The Location and Time of the Research 23
3.3 Research Variable 25
3.4 Research Design 25
3.5Research Instrument 26
3.6Research Procedure 32
3.7 Data Analysis 35
CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION
4.1 Result 37
4.2. Discussion 42
CHAPTER V CONCLUSION
5.1 Conclussion 46
LIST OF TABLE
Table 2.1 Syntax of FBL 14
Table 3.1 Number of Grade X1 science student 23 SMAN 1 Matuli Pandan Academic Year 2012/2013
Table 3.2 The design of study two groups (pre-test and post-test) 26 Table 3.3Thecognitive levels of questions of instrument 27
divided from indicators of syllabus
Table 3.4 TeachingLearning Activities 33
Table 4.1 Normality Test Data 37
Table 4.2 Homogeneity Test Data 37
Table 4.3 Data of t-test for post-test between PBL with 38
LIST OF APPENDICES
Appendix 1 Syllabus 49
Appendix 2 Lesson Plan PBL with Group Work 51 Appendix 3 Lesson Plan PBL with Individual Work 63 Appendix 4 Student’s Activity Sheet with Group work 75 Appendix 5 Student’s Activity Sheet with Individual work 87
Appendix 6 Student’s Achievement test 99
Appendix 7 Answer key 106
Appendix8 Observation Sheet of Student’s activity 107 Appendix 9 Validation Sheet of Instrument Test 109
Appendix 10 Validity Instrument 110
Appendix 11 Calculation of Validity Instrument 111
Appendix 12 Reliability Instrument 113
Appendix 13 Calculation of Reliability Instrument 114
Appendix 14 Difficulty Index 115
Appendix 15 Calculation of Difficulty index 116
Appendix 16 Discrimination Index 117
Appendix 17 Calculation of Discrimination Index 118
Appendix 18 Normality Test 120
Appendix 19 Calculation of Normality Test 122
Appendix 20 Homogeneity Test 126
Appendix 21 Calculation of Homogeneity Test 129
Appendix 22 Hypothesis Test 132
Appendix 23 Calculation of Hypothesis Test 133
Appendix 24 Normalized Gain 137
Appendix 25 Calculation Hypothesis Testing of Normalized Gain 139
1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION
1.1 Research Bacground
Natural science is related to how to search and how to find natural problem sistematically. Thus natural science is not only a way to master knowledges in the form of facts, concepts or principles, but also a process of discovery. One of the problem in education is the weakness of learning process, especially in natural science subject (Mathematics, Physics, Biology, and Chemistry). Learning
process in class is focus on the students ability to memorize and to remember all the information without be expected to understand that information.
Macarandang (2009) said that many schools in Batangas city (Philippines) are producing non qualify graduates.Many students are good in memorizing the
information, facts and conceptsbut pour in understanding, so students did not know how to connect and applicate it in daily life. For natural science, concepts understanding and application is very important for students in order to be able to solve any problem in their daily life. A major challenge in the teaching and learning of biology isthe development of students’ abilities to gather, analyze,apply, and synthesize information. These skills are importantfor students to understand the basic biological concepts and the scientific process (Gehring et al, 2008).
Some factors that influence the quality of learning, as indicated by the
student’s learning achievement, are students themselves, teachers, strategy or
methods of learning, learning models, learning tools and evaluation (Fana, et al, 2011). So to increase the learning quality, it needs to plan and design the learning
process by developing learning tools (Hamzah, 2008:2). One of the important component of learning tools that influence learning outcomes is the learning methods.
In the process of teaching and learning in classroom, teacher is one of the
chance for students to develop their discovery and problem solving skills (Trianto, 2009:5).
The role of teachers in education can not be separated from their ability to deliver material to students. Therefore, teachers need to enhance the ability to disign, develop and implement teaching tools and processes in order to improve
the students’ potential (Tirtarahardja & Sulo, 2008:1). In the tools, teacher should
be ableto determine the best strategy, materials, time allocation, relevancy, feasibilty and the goals of study before doing teaching process (Harjanto, 2010:4).All that planning is arranged in learning tools, such as syllabus, lesson
plan, worksheet, evaluation instrument, test, learning media and students’ text book (Trianto, 2009:201).
Nowadays, learning models that expected can change the learning environment are available. Therefore, to increase student outcomes, teachers
should able to select and use the suitable learning models, mainly student-centered models, that motivate students to be more active in learning process. One of the models is Problem Based Learning(PBL).Preliminary research on the development of learning tools based on Problem Based Learning model(Paidi, 2009), indicatesthat student’s achievement in biology is increased if thought with any student-centered models. Biology learning tools based on PBL model was able to improve the student’s ability to solve any problem and to enhance their critical thinking. Furthermore, Oguz - Unver and Sertac (2011) reviewed that there is no any study reporting significant negative findings on the students outcomes and skill related to PBL.
Fana (2011), reported that PBL is effective to increase student’s learning achievement and problem solving skill in SMA IPA students. In this study, PBL
was effectively increase student minimum criteria of mastery from 60 % to 93 %. From many lerning models that mostly developed in education tend to cooperative learning which implemented by student’s group working. Cumming (2010) said that group work can encourage the development of key professional
can be a complex problem. Heller and Hollabaugh (1992) reported that group work is not always effective to improve the learning outcomes. The data of questinare indicates that not all the students were statisfy with cooperative- group problem solving. There were 72% of students agreed that group discussion helped them understand the course material while 28% of them was not agree. Then when doing test, there were 68% students agreed that group discussion could improve the students result while 325 of them were not agree for that.
Biology is a knowledge that has an important role in the development science and technology. So students are not only need to memorize the concept of
biology butthey need to understand and even to know how to apply it. Excretory system is one of the biology topic which is categorized as difficult lesson to be understood because of its complicated characteristics of physical and chemical process. Students must have already been on the stage of formal conceptual
thinking while learning Excretory system topic (Lazarowits, 1992:12)
Based on the background, the writer interested to conduct research with the title “ The Comparisonof Learning Achievement and Activities betweenStudents Taught with Group and Individual Work of PBL in grade
XI SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013”.
1.2 Problem Identification
From the background above, the following problems areidentified:
1. Learning process tends to focus on teacher domination and students are dependent on teacher information.
2. Teachers are lacking of use learning tools with variance model in teaching and learning activities.
3. Students are good in memorizing the information, facts and concepts but poor in understanding.
4. Apart of students can not work in group so it causes the different of constributing in discussion.
6. The student’s mastery learning in biology are generally below the school
1.3 The Scope of Study
Based on the identification on the problem above, the scope of study are:
1. Learning biology which can improve the students’ learning achievement by
using Problem Based Learning.
2. The comparison of both grouping strategy using PBL is seen by the result of student’s learning achievement. Student’s learning achievement that intended in this study is cognitive test and problem solving skill.
3. Subject matter is limited to the Human Excretory System topic in grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013.
1.4 Research Question
In accordance with the issues that have been stated, then the problem can be formulated:
1. Is there any difference in learning achievement between students taught with group and individual work of Problem Based Learning on HumanExcretory System in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013?
2. Is there any difference of activities between students taught by group and individual work of Problem Based Learning on HumanExcretory System in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013?
1.5 Reseach Objectives
The objectives of this research are:
1. To Know the difference of learning achievement between students taught by group and individual work of Problem Based Learning on Human Excretory System in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013.
2. To know thedifference of activities between students taught by group and
1.6 Significances of Research
The significances that expected from the results of this research are:
1. For teachers, they can enhance the innovative learning model by using Problem Based Learning in Learning tools on teaching and learning process in the classroom.
2. For students, they can mastery the concepts in the Human Excretory System topic easier and also can solve any problem about Human Excretory System in their daily life.
46 CHAPTER V
CONCLUSSION AND SUGGESTION
The conclussion of this research are:
1. Learning achievement of students taught by PBL with individual work is higher than PBL with group work and based on t-test, Ho is rejected and Ha is received, means that there is a significant differenceof learning achievement between students taught with group and individual work of
Problem Based Learning on Human Excretory System in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013.
2. Students activitiesof PBL class with individual work is higher than PBL class with group work and based on t-test, Ho is rejected and Ha is received,
means that there is a significant difference of students activitiesbetween group and individual work of Problem Based Learning on Human Excretory System in Grade XI IA SMAN 1 Matauli Academic Year 2012/2013.
Having considered the findings of this research, the suggestions are:
1. Biologyteacherscan enhance the innovative learning model by using Problem Based Learning which expected to increase students’ learning achievements and students’ problem solving skill and better to use Problem Based Learning Model with individual work for more focus on
the student’s ability in solving the problem.
2. In practice, teachers also need to choose the material according to the
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