The Use Of Drawing Method For Diagnosing Students’ Misconception About Plant Structure In Relation To Photosynthesis.

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THE USE OF DRAWING METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING

STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTION ABOUT PLANT

STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

RESEARCH PAPER

Submitted as Requirement to Obtain Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan in

International Program on Science Education (IPSE) Study Program

by:

Desty Nurbaety

1100139

INTERNATIONAL PROGRAM ON SCIENCE EDUCATION

FACULTY OF MATHEMATICS AND SCIENCE EDUCATION

UNIVERSITAS PENDIDIKAN INDONESIA

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Desty Nurbaety, 2015

THE USE OF DRAWING METHOD FOR

DIAGNOSING STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTION

ABOUT PLANT STRUCTURE

IN RELATION TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Oleh Desty Nurbaety

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana Pendidikan pada Fakultas Pendidikan Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan

Alam

© Desty Nurbaety 2015 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Agustus 2015

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

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SHEET OF LEGITIMATION

THE USE OF DRAWING METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING STUDENTS’

MISCONCEPTION ABOUT PLANT STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

By Desty Nurbaety

1100139

Approved and Authorized by, Supervisor I

Prof. Dr. Hj. Nuryani Y. Rustaman, M. Pd

NIP. 195012311979032029

Supervisor II

Dr. Yayan Sanjaya, M. Si

NIP. 197112312001121001

Perceived,

Head of International Program on Science Education Study Program

Dr. Diana Rochintaniawati, M. Ed

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THE USE OF DRAWING METHOD FOR DIAGNOSING

STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTION ABOUT PLANT

STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS

Desty Nurbaety

International Program on Science Education (IPSE) Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia

desty.nurbaety@student.upi.edu

Abstract

The study of diagnosing students’ misconception about plant structure in relation to

photosynthesis among middle school using drawing method was conducted to identify

students’ misconception using drawing method concerning on this important concept. A descriptive research was applied in this study and a number of eight grade students (N=32) is participated in this research. Purposive sampling was implemented as the sampling technique of this study. Data was gathered from thirty two students’ drawings, modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI), interview, and questionnaire. These drawings were analyzed and categorized based on five level of drawings criteria by Köse. The result showed that the students intensify on Level 4 in which students’ drawings mostly demonstrate partial understanding and no misconception found in the concept of plant structure in relation to photosynthesis. From the drawings, there were 25% students identified which held misconception on plant structure and it is followed by 40,63% drawings with misconception for photosynthesis concept. This findings was supported by modified CRI analysis which shows there was 37,63% students that held misconceptions. Based on modified CRI analysis and interview result also found that students mostly held misconception on determining time when photosynthesis happen, location of photosynthesis occurred, and structure and function of plant that related with photosynthesis concept. Besides that, other interesting facts showed that the students cannot grasp the idea of root system, shoot system, and photosynthesis as interrelated

concept in science. The main causes of students’ misconception come from students’

itself, textbook, and their interaction with environment.

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PENGGUNAAN METODE MENGGAMBAR UNTUK

MENDIAGNOSA MISKONSEPSI SISWA PADA KONSEP

STRUKTUR TUMBUHAN DALAM KAITANNYA DENGAN

KONSEP FOTOSINTESIS

Desty Nurbaety

International Program on Science Education (IPSE) Indonesia University of Education, Indonesia

desty.nurbaety@student.upi.edu

Abstrak

Penelitian mengenai diagnosa miskonsepsi siswa pada konsep struktur tumbuhan dalam kaitannya dengan konsep fotosintesis telah dilaksanakan untuk mengidentifikasi miskonsepsi siswa pada konsep tersebut dengan menggunakan metode menggambar. Metode yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif dengan melibatkan sejumlah siswa (N=32) kelas VIII dan pengambilan sampel dilakukan secara purposive

sampling. Data penelitian ini diperoleh melaui gambar siswa, tes pilihan ganda disertai

modifikasi Certainty of Response Index (CRI), wawancara, dan angket siswa. Data gambar siswa dianalisis dan dikategorikan berdasarkan lima level gambar yang dikembangkan oleh Köse. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa presentasi tertinggi dari gambar siswa berada pada Level 4. Berdasarkan data gambar, terdapat 25% siswa yang mengalami miskonsepsi pada konsep struktur tumbuhan dan 40,63% siswa pada konsep fotosintesis. Penemuan ini ditunjang dengan analisa tes pilihan ganda beralasan terbuka yang disertai dengan modifikasi CRI. Berdasarkan analisis CRI dan wawancara juga menunjukkan bahwa terdapat 37,63% siswa mengalami miskonsepsi dalam menentukan waktu dan tempat terjadinya fotosintesis, struktur dan fungsi tumbuhan yang berkaitan dengan konsep fotosintesis. Selain itu, penelitian ini menemukan bahwa siswa belum berhasil memahami konsep sistem akar, sistem pucuk, dan fotosintesis sebagai konsep yang saling berhubungan. Penyebab utama miskonsepsi siswa berasal dari siswa itu sendiri, buku, dan interaksinya dengan lingkungan.

Kata kunci: metode menggambar, miskonsepsi siswa, konsep struktur tumbuhan,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

LIST OF APPENDICES... ix

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

F. Organization Structure of Research Paper ... 5

CHAPTER II STUDENTS’ MISCONCEPTION ABOUT PLANT STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO PHOTOSYNTHESIS A. Misconception 1. Conceptualizing Misconception ... 6

2. Sources of Misconception ... 7

B. The Use of Drawing Method for Diagnosing Misconception ... 9

C. Identification of Misconception Using CRI ... 11

D. An Overview of Plant Structure and Photosynthesis Concept 1. Plant Structure Concept ... 13

2. Photosynthesis Concept ... 17

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CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

A. Research Design ... 24

B. Population and Sample ... 24

C. Operational Definition ... 25

D. Research Instrument ... 26

E. Research Procedure ... 43

F. Research Plot ... 44

CHAPTER IV RESULT AND DISCUSSION A. Research Result 1. Result of Students’ Drawings ... 45

2. Result of CRI ... 50

3. Result of Students’ Interview ... 51

4. Result of Questionnaire . ... 52

B. Research Discussion 1. Analysis of Students’ Misconception Through Drawings ... 54

2. Analysis of Students’ Misconception Using CRI ... 59

3. Analysis of Questionnaire ... 67

CHAPTER IV CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION A. Conclusion... 69

B. Recommendation... 70

REFERENCES. ... 71

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Rubric for Students’ Drawing ... 26

Table 3.2 Questionnaire Item Specification ... 27

Table 3.3 Specification of Multiple Choice with Open Reason Item ... 28

Table 3.4 Classification Validity Coefficient... 30

Table 3.5 Classification of Reliability Coefficient ... 31

Table 3.6 Discriminating Power Classification ... 32

Table 3.7 Coefficient Classification Of Difficulty Index ... 33

Table 3.8 Recapitulation of Multiple Choice Item Test ... 34

Table 3.9 Interview Guideline ... 36

Table 3.10 Rubric of Level of Drawing . ... 38

Table 3.11 Modified Certainty of Response Test ... 41

Table 4.1 The most frequent elements for function of plants’ organs ... 46

Table 4.2 The most frequent elements for photosynthesis ... 48

Table 4.3 The most frequent organs and organelles ... 48

Table 4.4 Students’ misconception obtained from drawings ... 49

Table 4.5 Percentage of Students’ Misconception Using CRI ... 50

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 A typical body plant of angiosperm... 13

Figure 2.2 Monocots and eudicots leaf venation ... 16

Figure 2.3 Variation of leaf shape ... 17

Figure 2.4 Energy from the sun drives the process of photosynthesis ... 18

Figure 2.5 Zooming in on the location of photosynthesis in a plant ... 20

Figure 3.12 Research Plot ... 44

Figure 4.1 Percentage of Students’ Drawing Level ... 45

Figure 4.2 Drawings with Misconception (Level 3) about Plant Structure ... 54

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LIST OF APPENDICES

A. INSTRUMENT JUDGEMENT FORM

Appendix A1. Result of Instruments Judgment ... 77

Appendix A2. Instrument Judgment Forms ... 92

B. RESEARCH INSTRUMENTS Appendix B1. Drawing Instruction Form of Plant Structure ... 98

Appendix B2. Drawing Instruction Form of Photosynthesis ... 99

Appendix B3. Questionnaire Form ... 100

Appendix B4. Interview Guideline Form ... 102

Appendix B5. Multiple Choice Item Test (PROPOSED) ... 104

Appendix B6. Multiple Choice Item Test (USED) ... 112

C. RESEARCH RESULTS Appendix C1. Drawings Result for Plant Structure ... 126

Appendix C2. Drawings Result for Photosynthesis ... 128

Appendix C3. Recapitulation of Misconception ... 130

Appendix C4. Interview Transcription ... 134

Appendix C5. Questionnaire Result ... 137

Appendix C6. Recapitulation of Level of Drawings ... 140

D. DOCUMENTATION ... 142

E. ADMINISTRATION ... 144

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background

Students come to school with varying experience and ideas about the

natural word. The scope of these ideas are as diverse as the students’

background and they are often different from those of scientist. Fisher stated

that these differing frameworks have been described as misconception

(Tekkaya, 2002).

Misconceptions can be resulted due to the number of contacts students

make with the physical and social world around them (Wiley and Klosterman,

2012), they may occur due to something the student experienced in their

personal life, from communication with different teachers and friends or

through source of media (Stajonavska et al., 2012). Previous studies also

highlighted that textbooks are another prevalent source that contributes to the

formation of misconceptions by students (Abimbola and Baba, 1996).

All of the above statements could be described as the origin of

formation of misconception and it can result a powerful, extremely persistent,

and hard to change, and creating obstacle to further learning (Canpolat et al. in

Stajonavska et al., 2012). Then, misconception also is one of important factors

which prevent students’ meaningful learning (Köse, 2008). This dangerous condition is one crucial reason why the study of misconception should be

investigated well by the science educators.

In education major, there are several methods that used for diagnosing

conceptual understanding and misconception, such as open-ended questions

(Mondal and Chakraborty, 2013; Ozcan, Yildrim, and Ozgur, 2012), two-tier

diagnostic test (Bayrak, 2013; Balushi et al., 2012), interviews about concepts

(Stajonavska et al., 2012; Lemma, 2013; Thompson, 2006; Gültekin and

Topsakal, 2014), drawings (Halim et al., 2014; and Gultekin and Topsakal,

2014; Wekesa, 2013), and word association (Kurt, 2013). According to Köse

(2008), drawings could be considered as simple research instruments that

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dislike answering the questions, drawings can be completed quickly, easily

and in an enjoyable way. Children’s drawings provide a window into their

thoughts and feelings; mainly because they reflect an image of his/her mind

(Köse, 2008).

Recent research shows that drawing can be used as an effective form

of providing a creative way to gather misconceptions and giving insight to

alternative conceptions. Drawing activities and interview section are

successfully carried out to explore children’s idea about abstract concept, e.g.

basic chemical concept (Lemma, 2013). In another studies, drawing is used to

improve the students’ performance in biology (Wekesa, 2013) and determine

the level of misconception in forces concept (Halim et al., 2014). In the

previous studies, the children were asked to draw a plant and label parts of

them after the researcher showed them the plants (Gultekin and Topsakal,

2014) and Köse (2008) showed that drawing method is applied to determine

university students’ misconception concerning on photosynthesis and

respiration. In this study, misconception about plant structure and

photosynthesis concept using drawing method in combination with interview

are exposed.

Plant structure and photosynthesis are important science concepts

which are in the middle school curriculum of many countries. Plant structure

concept describes the basic morphology of plants and bridges the students to

understand another correlated topics, such as photosynthesis. By acquiring the

knowledge of plant structure concept, the students could understand how the

plant basic organs as the external structure of plant form specialized function

and take the crucial roles in photosynthesis process. Since these fundamental

concepts are extremely necessary to be learnt, thus it is very important to

determine the misconception and trace the sources of misconception on the

relationship between plant structure and photosynthesis concept among middle

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B. Research Problem

The research problem of this study is “How is the misconception concerning plant structure in relation to photosynthesis among middle school students that

is diagnosed using drawing method?”

C. Research Question

Based on the research problem above, the research questions that developed

and explore in this study as follow:

1. What kind of misconceptions that is holded by the middle school students

regarding to plant structure include root system and shoot system that

diagnosed using drawing method?

2. How is the misconception holded with the photosynthesis in plant among

middle school students that diagnosed using drawing method?

3. How is the misconception holded by middle school students about plant

structure in relation to photosynthesis that diagnosed using drawing

method and modified Certainty of Response Index?

D. Limitation of Problem

In order to bring this study into focus, the problem is limited as follow:

1. Students’ misconceptions are diagnosed using drawing method based on

Köse (2008) item test with Modified Certainty of Response Index (CRI)

based on Hakim et al. (2012), and interview.

2. Students’ misconception that examined in this study about plant structure

that includes the root system and shoot system (i.e. Stems, leaves, and

flowers).

3. Students’ misconception that examined in this study about photosynthesis

process in plant, include sites of photosynthesis, components needed for

photosynthesis, product of photosynthesis, and the role of plant basic

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E. Research Objective

The objective of this research is to identify students’ misconception about

plant structure in relation to photosynthesis using drawing method.

F. Research Benefit

The study was expected to provide some benefits for students, teachers,

schools and researcher as follow:

1. Teacher

Enrich teacher’s knowledge of diagnosing method to identify student’s

misconception about science concept and discover a better learning

strategy that can reduce misconception.

2. Student

Helping the students to contruct and reveal their understanding about

certain science concepts (e.g. plant structure and photosynthesis concept)

through drawings.

3. School

Planning and preparing a learning strategy and select teaching media (e.g.

textbook) which can decrease the potential of misconception in the

classroom.

4. Further Research

a. Giving experience to implement drawing method and interview as the

method combination for determining students’ misconception in

science concept.

b. Contribute the study about student’s misconception that could be

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G. Organization Structure of Research Paper

Chapter one tells about the background and problem identification which

become the base of this research. Based on the research problem, the study

will be brought into several research questions which determine the objectives

of this research. This chapter also is crucial to determine the flow of the next

chapters, such as literature review and methodology.

Chapter two gives the fundamental concepts and theories that needed by

the author to analyze the result of the findings. Chapter two will be divided

into different focus, namely misconception, drawing method, and an overview

of plant structure and photosynthesis concept. This chapter is designed to

support the argument and result analysis in this research.

Chapter three describes the methodology used in this research. Besides

that, the population, sampling technique, and a brief explanation related

operational definition. In this chapter three, a set of instruments that applied in

this research is explained concisely.

Chapter four contains the research result and discussion. This chapter tells

about the findings and analysis concerning on this study. Chapter four also

will answer the research problem that has been described in the first chapter.

Through chapter 4, each findings are analyzed using a selected theory and

supported by previous findings in the same field of research.

Chapter five is the closure chapter which draw the conclusion of this

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION

A. Conclusion

The drawing method in combined with individual interview and Certainty

of Response Index (CRI) has been applied to explore students’ misconception about plant structure in relation to photosynthesis concept

and it provides valuable information which can be used as a mirror of

students’ representational world misconceptions and the conclusion can be drawn as follow:

1. The implementation of drawing method in combined with interview have

identified students’ misconception about photosynthesis concept which is

higher than plant structure concept and the misconception intensify on

determining time when photosynthesis happen, location of

photosynthesis occurred, as well as structure and function of plant that

related with photosynthesis concept.

2. The students cannot grasp the idea of root system, shoot system, and

photosynthesis as interrelated concept in science.

3. The multiple choice item test in combined with open reason and

Certainty of Response Index (CRI) has shown that the percentage of

students with misconception is higher than the students understand the

concept well. The students’ misconceptions are mostly found on plant

structure related to the higher plants and lower plants, structure of types

of root, function of chlorophyll, products of photosynthesis and

components needed for photosynthesis, and time when photosynthesis

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B. Recommendation

Based on the research findings, there are several recommendation that

could be considered for a better and more qualified research as follow:

1. The drawing method as one instrument to diagnose misconception

could be used to identify the misconception in other science

concepts. Then, it would be better if the construction of item test in

combined with CRI should be based on the misconception pattern on

the topic that used, so that the misconception could be identified

precisely.

2. The researcher should consider the students’ interest of drawings, because this aspect gives influence to the result of the drawings.

3. Not only descriptive study, the drawing method also could be

developed by next researcher in other design of research, such as

experiment that focus on diagnosing students’ misconception and

remediation.

4. In order to obtain the data which merely represent students’ misconception among middle school students, the number of

samples should be increased. So that the samples do not only come

from one school.

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