Strategy to Minimaze The Leakage of Bali Tourism.

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STRATEGY TO MINIMIZE THE LEAKAGE OF BALI TOURISM

By

Made Antara1), I Gusti Ayu Oka Suryawardani2), Agung Suryawan Wiranatha3) University of Udayana, Bali, Indonesia

Email: 1) antara_unud@yahoo.com; 2) gungdani@gmail.com; 3) balitruly@yahoo.com

ABSTRACT

Tourism has become an engine of the economy, both at the national and regional levels, as well as in Bali. Tourists expenditure in Bali for various purposes has been captured by various groups engaged in tourism activities. But there is a phenomenon that the tourists expenditure in Bali is not all enjoyed by the people of Bali, because there is a leak (leakages). The goal of the second (2013) was formulated 'strategy to minimize leakage of tourism in Bali’. If the at first-year study (2012) using quantitative methods, but research in second year (2013) using qualitative methods, i.e. with the help of SWOT and Focus Group Discussion (FGD), the respondent is expert in tourism to make an assessment and consideration of the internal factors and external factors of bali tourism, and the strategies and programs that have been formulated to minimize the leakage of Bali tourism. The results of research showed that the strategy of minimizing leakage bali tourism, especially the leakage of accommodation, among others: (1) Improve the image of Bali as a world tourism destination based on the unique local culture; (2) Improve comfort for travelers in Bali; (3) Enhance the competitiveness of bali tourist products; (4) Improve the quality and quantity of managers/ local workforce, making them competitive; (5) Develop and promote domestic and local agriculture to supply of bali hotels; (6) Develop and promote the national production hotels equipment in order to international standard, so it is ready to supply the needs of the hotels; (7) Reduce the import needs of the hotel and substitution with domestic or local product; (8) Reduce foreign investment by providing local and domestic investment priorities; (9) Increase the quantity, quality and continuity and diversification of local agricultural products, so as to reduce imports; (10) Increase production of hotel equipment, thus reducing imports; (11) National Policy for pro-local products, in order to stimulate the development of agricultural and industrial of hotels equipment; (12) Improve the performance and competitiveness of tourist destinations of Bali, so as to compete with other tourist destinations of the country ; (13) Increase the quality of goods and services of domestic and Bali, so as to compete in the era of economic globalization, and (14) Increase competitiveness manager local hospitality workforce. Based on the research results, it can be recommended, among other things: (1) Stakeholder tourism, especially the hotel and restaurant management in hotels need to implement programs that are formulated in this study, resulting in leakage of tourism, particularly from sector accommodation can be minimized, and (2) In an effort to determine the leakage impact on the economy of Bali, simulation leakage reduction through further research needs to be done in 2014 MP3EI the "Impact of Bali tourism leakage on the growth sectors of the economy and the distribution of income (year-3, 2014).

Keywords: Strategy, Minimize

,

Leakages, Bali Tourism

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INTRODUCTION

GBHN TAP MPR No. II/MPR/1998 confirms and statement of President of republic Indonesia Joko Widodo in 2015 that tourism has becomes a beacon of hope in supporting the economic development with various of positive aspects for national economy. Therefore Indonesian Government seriously encourage the development of tourism with continuing to effort to improve the image of tourism by increasing of security, organized an international conference, to develop the attractions and uniqueness as one element of attraction, improve the tourism facilities and infrastructure as an element of amenities, so accesibility of and to lead the tourist destination is created, and regulations relating to the institutional and organizational of tourism services as an ancillary element, so that increasing the convenience of tourists in visiting attractions and tourist destinations in Indonesia.

From an economic perspective, the positive impact of tourism in Bali in general are (1) bring in foreign exchange for the country, through the exchange of foreign currency to spend in tourist destinations; (2) The potential market for goods and services in Bali; (3) increase the income of the people whose activities are directly or indirectly related to tourism services; (4) expand job creation, both on sectors directly related such as hotels, restaurants, travel agencies, as well as sectors that are not directly related such as craft industry, the supply of agricultural products, cultural attractions, retail, others services and so on; (5) The sources of local governed revenue, and (6) stimulating the artists creativity, both artist and craftsman of small industry as well as percussion and dance artists dedicated for tourist consumption.

The tourism sector is the priority in the development of Bali's economy has shown very rapid development, which is marked by several indicators, among others, an increase in the foreign exchange, tourist visits, length of stay, tourist spending and the number of tourism facilities and infrastructure. Tourist visiting which directly comes to Bali every year continues to increase, only when the first Bali bombing in 2002 tourist visiting declined. In 1989 foreign tourists visiting who directly to Bali only amounted to 436 358 people by the contribution of foreign exchange of 26.87% of the national tourism foreign exchange. Direct foreign tourists visiting Bali in 2000 as 1.42.839 people with foreign exchange contribution amounting to 20.91%, and in 2012 foreign tourists visits directly to Bali as many as 3,137,385 with foreign exchange contributed approximately 40% of the total national income (Bali Tourism Office, 2012). So it seems clear that the increase in tourist arrivals will increase total spending travelers as an injector in the economy of Bali. The foreign tourist spending will be the perpetrators of tourism revenue, and then removed again for various purposes, and this expenditure will be the income of the other economic actors outside the tourism sector, and ultimately will create a multiplier effect in the form of creating income and labor absorption in the sectors economy in the Province of Bali.

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that when the average leak developed on the population (blow-up), obtained leaks groups of non-star hotel to be larger than the leakage of 1, 2, and 3 hotel groups. Efforts to minimize leakage of tourism should be made by tourism stakeholders, both tourism and local government actors. In this regard, it is necessary to research a ‘strategy to minimize the leakage of tourism Bali'.

The research objective is to formulate strategies and programs to minimize leakage of Bali tourism. Based on the results of the study are expected to obtain the benefits of the practice as a basis for policy making tourism players such as hotel and restaurant businesses, central and local governments in order to minimize the leakage of tourism in Bali, and the theoretical benefit is as an academic reference for similar or related research in other areas that the regional economy based on tourism.

LITERATURE REVIEW

The term leakage is used to refer to the amount spent on importing goods and services to meet the needs of tourists. Leakages occur when the local economy is unable to provide reliable, continuous, competitively priced supply of the required product or service and of a consistent quality to meet the market demand (Lorton Consulting, 15 April 2015). In the study of tourism, the leakage is the way in which revenue generated by tourism is lost to other countries’ economies. Leakage may be so significant in some developing countries that it partially neutralizes the money generated by tourism. Leakage occurs through six different mechanisms. It is an intrinsic component of international tourism and thus is present in every country, to widely varying degrees. (1) Goods and services. Many countries must purchase goods and services to satisfy their visitors. This includes the cost of raw materials used to make tourism-related goods, such as souvenirs. For starting tourism industries, this is a significant problem, as some countries must import as much as 50% of tourism-related products; (2) Infrastructure. Some less economically developed countries do not have the domestic ability to build tourism-related infrastructure (hotels, airports, etc.). The cost of such infrastructure is then leaked out of the country; (3) foreign factors of production. Smaller countries often require foreign investment to start their tourism industry. Thus, profits from tourism may be lost to foreign investors. In addition, travel agents outside of the destination country remove money from that market as well; (4) Promotional expenditure. Many countries spend considerable sums of money for advertisements and publicity. Maintaining a presence abroad may increase the volume of tourists to a country but also represent a considerable loss of money to foreign markets; (5) Transfer pricing. Many foreign companies manipulate their pricing to reduce taxes and other duties. In smaller or less developed countries, where many tourism-related companies may be foreign owned, this can represent a substantial loss of income; (6) Tax exemptions. Countries with a small tourism industry may have to give tax exemptions or other offers to increase foreign investment. While this may enlarge the tourism industry there, it must be taken into account as an instrument of income loss (Wikipedia, April 2015; Archer and Fletcher, 1996; Unluonen, et al., 2011). Leakages are payments made outside the destination economy: in other words, the proportion of the total holiday price that does not reach or remain in the destination. Some leakage happens internally, where tourists spend money at the destination but this pays for imported goods and services. Other tourism leakages are external payments that never make it to the destination country, such as travel agent commissions, tour operator profits and foreign airlines (Eldis, April 25, 2015).

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restricted to less-developed countries. Australia experiences a significant leakage effect from Japanese tourists. Though they spend the most per capita of all tourists to Australia, much of what they spend is through Japanese travel companies, Japanese hotels, and other foreign-owned businesses. There is thus significant leakage to Japan's economy. Leakage not only varies from country to country, but also from industry to industry. High-income tourism may well significantly increase leakage, as that industry likely involves importing more goods and services than usual. Ecological or adventure tourism may exhibit a very small degree of leakage, however, as they place value solely on what the host country has to offer.

As a result of the leakage effect, tourism industries in developed countries often are much more profitable per dollar received than tourism in smaller countries. Islands, in particular, suffer from significant leakage. In countries such as Turkey and the United Kingdom, the benefit to the economy from tourism is twice the dollar amount spent by tourists. In smaller places, such as Micronesia and Polynesia, that benefit is half the dollar amount spent. Some locations have managed to nullify the leakage effect almost entirely - New York City claims to generate seven dollars for the local economy per dollar spent by tourists.Some estimates of the degree of leakage claim only 5% of money spent on tourism remains in a developing country's economy (Wikipedia, 22 April 2015)

For many countries, some sources of leakage are unavoidable. Foreign-owned hotels and airlines are necessary for all but the most established of tourism industries. However, encouragement of domestic involvement in a country's tourism industry may reduce leakage in the long run. Currently, the most popular measure is restrictions on spending. Countries may limit the use of foreign currency within their borders, reducing the effect of transfer pricing (see above). Many countries require visitors to have a certain amount of money before entering, as well (Wikipedia, 22 April 2015). Meanwhile According Lorton Consulting (22 April 2015). when the local economic linkages are weak that revenue from tourism receipts in a local economic area leaks out. Engaging with local suppliers, using local capital and resources and developing the skills necessary to deliver consistently at an appropriate quality and at a competitive price can reduce leakage. One of the best ways to enhance economic benefits to the local community and to increase the contribution to poverty reduction is to increase the extent of linkages between the formal tourism sector (hotels, lodges, restaurants, tour operators and transport providers) and the local economy. Increased integration can develop strong linkages between tourism and other economic sectors including agriculture, fisheries, manufacturing, construction and crafts production

According Lorton Consulting (15 April 2015), the creation of local linkages needs to be part of the overall tourism development strategy in the planning, construction and operational phase. Three key sets ` factors are important in enhancing the extent of local linkages, i.e.:

1) The creation of employment at all skills levels and particularly where there is existing capacity

2) New attractions created through anti-poverty tourism development strategies need to be integrated into the tour programmers of the ground handlers and inbound operators. Creating mutually beneficial linkages between the formal and informal sectors is critical. Local government needs to ensure that micro-enterprises and emerging entrepreneurs are promoted in local tourism marketing initiatives where they are often neglected.

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Economic linkages stop leakages. Buying supplies from people in the host country allows the benefits to remain. Many developing countries now encourage local farmers to supply fresh fruit and vegetables to hotels. Labor is often the most important linkage between a hotel and the local economy, through the payment of salaries and wages. Even a foreign owner will recruit locally to minimize costs. Hotels enhance economic linkages by working with informal tourism businesses (such as a local taxi company). Governments and tourism companies in destination countries can support initiatives to reduce leakages further by (Eldis, 25 April 2015):

• using locally-owned accommodation (this can be up to half of the total holiday cost) • endorsing destinations that integrate tourists into the local economy, where they can

purchase local products

• promoting resorts that employ local • staff and pay reasonable salaries

• Using airlines from the host country (for long-haul destinations this may constitute one-third of the total package cost).

RESEARCH METHODS

Research Location

The research location is the Bali selected purposively, based on several considerations, namely: (1) Bali is a popular tourist destination in the world, which is annually visited by at least 3 million people, where the total tourist expenditure in Bali captured by various groups thus becoming community and government revenue Bali. (2) So far there has never been conducting research on strategies to reduce the leakage of Bali tourism, so it is urgent to do research "Strategies Minimize Tourism Leakages Bali", then the following year as the base material for dissemination to the actors of Bali tourism.

Key Informan of Research

In formulating research strategies to minimize leakage of Bali tourism unknown sample population terms, but it is known the key informan or expert is the person who really knows and experts in the field of tourism, especially in the field of hospitality. Expert in this study amounted to as many as 25 people were invited to discuss the focus group, which is known as Focus Group Disccusion (FGD), discuss justify internal and external factors of tourism and hospitality, and give consideration to strategies and programs formulated by the researchers. Expert determination purposively, means deliberately chosen people or leaders who know and understand about the tourism and hospitality in bali

Kind and Sources of Data

The kind of data collected is quantitative data and qualitative data. Quantitative data is numeric data, among others, the development of the number of foreign tourist viisiting, the average tourist expenditure per person per day, the average length of stay of foreign tourists, the contribution of foreign tourist in Bali on a national exchange, etc. Qualitative data is data in the form of words or sentences, among others, internal factors such as the strength and weaknesses of Bali tourism, external factors such as opportunities and threats of Bali tourism, the opinion of the expert on internal and external factors, etc.

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Source of research data is a primary source and a secondary source. The primary source is the data from the first source or obtained directly or in a place of research, ie non-star hotel, and the non-star hotel, both of not chain and international chain which is the object of research. Secondary sources are data from the second party as governments office, such as the Statictic Central Bureau of of Bali Province, Bali Tourism Board, Regional Development Planning Agency, Bali Provincial Tourism Office, etc.

Method of Collecting Data

Collecting data using several methods, namely, observation, in-depth interviews, Focus Group Discussion (FGD), and documentation study.

1) Observation, is action observations to the location of the hotel, especially star hotels and non star hotels that do import various products and services.

2) In-depth interviews, are doing a question and answer with the hotel management to dig up information that is qualitative, especially strategy to minimize leaks of various kinds of imported foods, drinks, etc.

3) Focuss Group Discussion (FGD), which held discussions focused to talk internal and external factors of tourism and hospitality in bali, and discuss strategies and programs to minimize the leakage.

4) Study the documentation, which is studying the documents, the documents are owned by the hotel as well as government agencies, both as a source of primary data or secondary data sources.

Method of Data Analysis (1)Descriptive of Qualitative

Qualitative descriptive analysis is the process of arranging, sort, classify, give of code, categorizing, meaning and interpreting the data and information of qualitative and without any quantitative calculations. This process seeks to describe, illustrate the phenomena or relations between phenomena are studied systematically, actual and accurate

(1)Analysis of SWOT

The formulation of strategies and programs that are used in this research is SWOT analysis (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). Referring Rangkuti (2002), SWOT analysis is a way to identify the various factors systematically in order to formulate the company's strategy.

The formulation process of the 'Strategies Minimize Leakage of Bali Tourism' with SWOT can be done through the eight stages, namely:

1) Make a list of the internal strength of Bali tourism, especially hotels in Bali; 2) Make a list of internal weaknesses of Bali tourism, especially hotels in Bali; 3) Make a list of external opportunities of Bali tourism, especially hotels in Bali; 4) Make a list of external threats of Bali tourism, especially hotels in Bali;

5) Interpreting of the combination of strengths and opportunities and note the results in the cell SO strategy (Strengths-Opportunities, SO);

6) Interpreting of combination of weaknesses and opportunities and note the results in the cell WO strategy (Weaknesses-Opportunities, WO);

7) Interpreting of combination of strengths and threats and then record the result in cell ST strategy (Strengths-Threats, ST);

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of opportunities

SWOT Matrix of Formulation “Strategy to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism” (Ssource: Adapted from Rangkuti, 2002)

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Identification of Internal and External Factors Identification of Internal Factors

Based on the research team identification and agreement in the Focus Group

Discussion (FGD) with tourism stakeholders, success identified and agreed upon eight factors which become strength ( S) and five factors of weakness (W) of Bali tourism, as presented in Table 1.

Table 1

Internal Factors of Bali Tourism Internal Factors

Strength (S) Weaknesses (W)

1. Bali is world tourism destination 1. Import various needs of hotel (foods, beverages, fruits and vegetables, and utensils)

2. The facilities’ of star and non-star hotels very adequate

2. The activities of services abroad, such as .: promotions, public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in abroad and others 3. The hotel services very satisfactory 3. Payment for foreign productions, such as .: transfer commission payments, the cost of importing goods, transfer of profits to foreign owners, foreign fund loan interest payments, and more

4. unique culture Tourism 4. The ownership and / or management star hotel in Bali by foreign companies 5. Many Different tourist attraction 5. The limited supply of local agricultural

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6. Hospitality of local residents 6. Limited supply of industrial products so that should be imported hotel equipment 7. Bali as a competitive destination (value

for money)

7. The government's policy still pro-imports, thus inhibiting the development of

agriculture and hotels industrial equipment in domestic

8. Bali has strategic geographical location between Asia and Australia, as well as between Western Indonesia and Eastern Indonesia

Identifikasi of External Factors

Based on identification of the research team and agreement in the Focus Group Discussion (FGD) with tourism stakeholders, so can be identified five factors into opportunities (O) and seven factors become a threat (T) of Bali tourism as presented in Table 2.

Table 2

External Factors of Bali Tourism External Factors

Opportunity ( O) Threath (T)

1. The upward trend in the number of tourists the world (tourism as lifestyle)

1. The economic crisis in some European countries, such as Spain, Italy, Portugal, etc.

2. The globalization of information and technology

2. The development of tourism destinations in other countries

3. Many foreign direct flights to Bali 3. The economic globalization (World Trade Organization rules on free trade / free trade)

4. Bali often become international MICE locations, such as APEC, Miss World, etc.

4. Globalization and mobility managers / expatriate labor, especially in the hospitality

5. Increased prosperity of East Asian countries were becoming a supplier of foreign tourists to Bali, such as Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea, etc.

5. Implementation of the liberalization of services, including employment in

ASEAN started in 2015 (AFTA and AEC)

6. The development and progress of agriculture in countries abroad, such as Thailand, China, Australia, and New Zealand are more prepared to supply the needs of hotels

7. The development and progress of

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9 Strategy to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

SWOT Analysis "Strategy Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism” result the strategies and programs that can be implemented to reduce the leakage of tourism, in particular the leakage of accommodation based on a combination of internal and external factors, as follows:

1) SO strategy is a strategy that uses the strengths of Bali tourism to capitalize on the growing opportunities outside of Bali tourism.

2) ST strategy is a strategy that uses the strengths of Bali tourism to overcome threats which come from outside Bali tourism.

3) WO strategy is a strategy that minimizes the weaknesses of Bali tourism to capitalize on the growing opportunities from outside of Bali tourism

4) WT strategy is a strategy that minimizes the weaknesses of Bali tourism and avoids the threats that come from outside of Bali tourism.

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10 Table 3

Alternative Strategy to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Internal Factors

External Factors

Strength (S): Weakness (W):

1. Bali is a world tourist destination 2. The star and non-star hotel's

facilities very adequate

3. The hotel services very satisfactory 4. Unique culture Tourism

5. Many different tourist attraction 6. The hospitality of local residents 7. Bali as a competitive destination

(value for money)

8. Bali has strategic geographical location between Asia and Australia, as well as between Western Indonesia and Eastern Indonesia

1. Import the various needs of hotel (foods, beverages, fruits and vegetables, and utensils)

2. The activities overseas services, such as .: promotions, public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in abroad, and others 3. Activities overseas services (services abroad), such as .: promotions,

public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in LN, and others

4. Payment for foreign productions, such as .: transfer commission

payments, the cost of importing goods, transfer of profits to foreign owners, foreign fund loan interest payments.

5. Owner and / or management of star hotel in Bali by foreign companies

6. Limitations of local agricultural product supply (quantity, quality and continuity), so it must import

7. The limited supply of hotels industrial equipment products, so that should be imported

8. The government's policy is pro-imports, thus inhibiting the

development of agriculture and industrial equipment in domestic hotel

Opportunity (O): SO-Strategy WO-Strategy

1. The upward trend in the number of tourists the world (tourism as lifestyle) 2. The globalization of information and technology

3. Many foreign direct flights to Bali

4. Bali often become international MICE locations, such as APEC, Miss World, etc.

5. Increased prosperity of East Asian countries were becoming a supplier of foreign tourists to Bali, such as Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea, etc.

1) Increasing the image of Bali as a world tourism destination based on the unique local culture.

2) Increase travelers convenience for in Bali.

1) Reduce the import needs of the hotel and substitute with the local

Bali or domestic products.

2) Reduced the foreign investment with give priority to the local Bali or national investment

3) Increase the quantity, quality and continuity as well as the diversification of local agricultural products, so as to reduce imports

4) Increase the hotel equipment production, thereby reducing imports

5) The policy of pro-local Bali and national products, in order to stimulate the development of agriculture and industrial of hotel equipment (like Pergub 2013 on local fruits)

Threath (T): ST-Strategy WT-Strategy

1. The economic crisis in some European countries, such as Spain, Italy,

Portugal, etc.

2. The development of tourism destinations in other countries

3. The economic globalization (World Trade Organization rules on free trade /

free trade)

4. Globalization and mobility managers / expatriate labor, especially in the hospitality

5. Implementation of the liberalization of services, including employment in

ASEAN started in 2015 (AFTA and AEC)

6. The development and progress of agriculture in countries abroad, such as

Thailand, China, Australia, and New Zealand are more prepared to supply the needs of hotels

7. The development and progress of production equipment in foreign countries,

so it is ready to supply the needs of an international standard hotel

1) Increasing the competitiveness of tourism products bali

2) Develop the quality and quantity of the manager / local workforce, making it competitive

3) Develop and promote local and national agriculture to supply the needs of the hotels

4) Develop and advance the production of local and national hotels equipment become international standard, so it is ready to supply the needs of hotel

1) Increase the performance and competitiveness of Bali tourist destinations, so it can compete with tourism destinations in other countries.

2) Increase the quality of goods and services of local and national, so it can compete in the era of economic globalization

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Table 4

Strategy of Strength-Opportunity (SO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Internal Factors

Faktor Eksternal

Strength (S):

1.

Bali is a world tourist destination

2.

The star and non-star hotel's facilities very adequate

3.

The hotel services very satisfactory

4.

Unique culture Tourism

5.

Many different tourist attraction

6.

The hospitality of local residents

7.

Bali as a competitive destination (value for money)

8.

Bali has strategic geographical location between Asia and

Australia, as well as between Western Indonesia and Eastern

Indonesia

Opportunity (O):

SO-Strategy

1.

The upward trend in the number of tourists the world

(tourism as lifestyle)

2.

The globalization of information and technology

3.

Many foreign direct flights to Bali

4.

Bali often become international MICE locations, such as

APEC, Miss World, etc.

5.

Increased prosperity of East Asian countries were becoming

a supplier of foreign tourists to Bali, such as Japan, China,

Taiwan, South Korea, etc.

1.

Increasing the image of Bali as a world tourism destination

based on the unique local culture

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Table 5

Strategy of Strength-Threat (ST) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Internal Factors

External Factors

Strength (S):

1.

Bali is a world tourist destination

2.

The star and non-star hotel's facilities very adequate

3.

The hotel services very satisfactory

4.

Unique culture Tourism

5.

Many different tourist attraction

6.

The hospitality of local residents

7.

Bali as a competitive destination (value for money)

8.

Bali has strategic geographical location between Asia and

Australia, as well as between Western Indonesia and

Eastern Indonesia

Threath (T):

ST-Strategy

1.

The economic crisis in some European countries, such as

Spain, Italy, Portugal, etc.

2.

The development of tourism destinations in other countries

3.

The economic globalization (World Trade Organization rules

on free trade / free trade)

4.

Globalization and mobility managers / expatriate labor,

especially in the hospitality

5.

Implementation of the liberalization of services, including

employment in ASEAN started in 2015 (AFTA and AEC)

6.

The development and progress of agriculture in countries

abroad, such as Thailand, China, Australia, and New Zealand

are more prepared to supply the needs of hotels

7.

The development and progress of production equipment in

foreign countries, so it is ready to supply the needs of an

international standard hotel

1)

Increasing the competitiveness of tourism products bali

2)

Develop the quality and quantity of the manager / local

workforce, making it competitive

3)

Develop and promote local and national agriculture to

supply the needs of the hotels

4)

Develop and advance the production of local and national

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Table 6

Strategy of Weakness-Opportunity (WO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Internal Factors

\

External Factor

Weakness (W):

1.

Import the various needs of hotel (foods, beverages, fruits and

vegetables, and utensils)

2.

The activities overseas services, such as .: promotions, public

relations, pay strangers who became an agent in abroad, and others

3.

Activities overseas services (services abroad), such as .: promotions,

public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in LN, and others

4.

Payment for foreign productions, such as .: transfer commission

payments, the cost of importing goods, transfer of profits to foreign

owners, foreign fund loan interest payments.

5.

Owner and / or management of star hotel in Bali by foreign

companies

6.

Limitations of local agricultural product supply (quantity, quality and

continuity), so it must import

7.

The limited supply of hotels industrial equipment products, so that

should be imported

8.

The government's policy is pro-imports, thus inhibiting the

development of agriculture and industrial equipment in domestic hotel

Opportunity (O):

WO-Strategy

1.

The upward trend in the number of tourists the

world (tourism as lifestyle)

2.

The globalization of information and technology

3.

Many foreign direct flights to Bali

4.

Bali often become international MICE locations,

such as APEC, Miss World, etc.

5.

Increased prosperity of East Asian countries were

becoming a supplier of foreign tourists to Bali,

such as Japan, China, Taiwan, South Korea, etc.

1)

Reduce the import needs of the hotel and substitute with the local

Bali or domestic products.

2)

Reduced the foreign investment with give priority to the local Bali or

national investment

3)

Increase the quantity, quality and continuity as well as the

diversification of local agricultural products, so as to reduce imports

4)

Increase the hotel equipment production, thereby reducing imports

5)

The policy of pro-local Bali and national products, in order to

stimulate the development of agriculture and industrial of hotel

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Table 7

Strategy of Weakness-Threat (WT) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Internal Factors

External Factors

Weakness (W):

1.

Import the various needs of hotel (foods, beverages, fruits and vegetables, and utensils)

2.

The activities overseas services, such as .: promotions, public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in abroad, and others

3.

Activities overseas services (services abroad), such as .: promotions, public relations, pay strangers who became an agent in LN, and others

4.

Payment for foreign productions, such as .: transfer commission payments, the cost of importing goods, transfer of profits to foreign owners, foreign fund loan interest payments.

5.

Owner and / or management of star hotel in Bali by foreign companies

6.

Limitations of local agricultural product supply (quantity, quality and continuity), so it must import

7.

The limited supply of hotels industrial equipment products, so that should be imported

8.

The government's policy is pro-imports, thus inhibiting the development of agriculture and industrial equipment in domestic hotel

Threath (T):

WT-Strategy

1. The economic crisis in some European countries, such as Spain, Italy, Portugal, etc.

2. The development of tourism destinations in other countries 3. The economic globalization (World Trade Organization rules

on free trade / free trade)

4. Globalization and mobility managers / expatriate labor, especially in the hospitality

5. Implementation of the liberalization of services, including employment in ASEAN started in 2015 (AFTA and AEC) 6. The development and progress of agriculture in countries

abroad, such as Thailand, China, Australia, and New Zealand are more prepared to supply the needs of hotels

7. The development and progress of production equipment in foreign countries, so it is ready to supply the needs of an international standard hotel

1)

Increase the performance and competitiveness of Bali tourist

destinations, so it can compete with tourism destinations in other

countries.

2)

Increase the quality of goods and services of local and national, so it

can compete in the era of economic globalization

3)

Increase the competitiveness of the manager / workforce of local

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15 Program to Minimizes the Leakage of Bali Tourism

The program is the elaboration of the strategy is assumed still general or global, or set of activities. Programs are translated from a strategy intended to better concrete of strategy. Actually the program could be further elaborated and targeted activities that have been put into practice. However stripped down to the level of activity and the target is not done, because it is already dealing with budgeting.

Strategies to minimize the leakage of tourism in Bali translated into a program, meaning that every strategy can be elaboration at least two programs, or more than two kinds of programs. The programs that have been formulated from each of the strategies presented in Table 8; 9; 10; and 11.

Table 8

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on SO-Strategy SO-Strategy

(Create a strategy that uses

the strengths to take benefit

of opportunity)

Program

(Elaboration of any strategy based on the interpretation and judgment of experts and researchers)

1. Increasing the image of Bali as a world tourism destination based on the unique local culture

1) Preserving a unique Balinese customs 2) Fostering a unique Balinese arts groups 3) Maintain Balinese hospitality towards tourists

4) Urge the actors of tourism businesses in order to be fair and friendly towards tourists

5) Socialization ‘Sadar Wisata’ and ‘Sapta Pesona’ to society

2. Increase travelers convenience for in Bali

1) Implement the integrated security system based on community with involving a security officer

2) Assigning security officers (tourism police) to maintain security and comfort in various tourist attraction 3) Improving the quality of facilities / infrastructure

supporting tourism (such as pedestrian, parking, traffic, etc.)

(17)

16 Tabel 9

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on ST-Strategy ST-Strategy

(Create a strategy that uses the strengths to overcome threats)

Program

(Elaboration of any strategy based on the interpretation and judgment of experts and researchers)

1. Increasing the

competitiveness of tourism products bali

1) Increase the quality of tourism products Bali

2) Increase the quality of services to tourists

3) Keeping the standard of product prices of Bali tourism 4) Avoid fraud committed by businesses towards tourists

2. Develop the quality and quantity of the manager / local workforce, making it competitive

1) Provide training to local human resources on a variety of tourism competency in collaboration with industry associations and professional organizations

2) Certifying the competence of local tourism human resources in cooperation with the industry association, professional organization, and the Professional Certification Agency

3) Labor exchange abroad through the cooperation of professional organizations and industry associations 3. Develop and promote local

and national agriculture to supply the needs of the hotels

1) Increase domestic agricultural production to supply hotels in Indonesia

2) Increase the Bali agricultural production to supply the needs of Bali hotels in Bali

3) Provide training to the farmers on quality agricultural production an appropriate the standards of tourism needs

4) Provide financial support to the farmers to produce quality agricultural products according to the needs of tourism

4. Develop and advance the production of local and national hotels equipment become international standard, so it is ready to supply the needs of hotel

1) Fostering industrial the hotel equipment in the country to be able to produce hotel equipment that meets international standard

(18)

17 Table 10

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WO-Strategy WO-Strategy

(Create a strategy that minimize the weaknesses to take benefit

of opportunities)

Program

(Elaboration of any strategy based on the interpretation and judgment of experts and researchers)

1. Reduce the import needs of the hotel and substitute with the local Bali or domestic products

1) Reduce imports of food and substitute with domestic products and local Bali

2) Reduce imports of drinks (beverages) and substitute with domestic products and local Bali

3) Reduce imports of fruit and vegetables (fruits and vegetables) and substitute with domestic products and local Bali

4) Reducing Import tableware and kitchen (utensils), substitute with domestic products of international standard

2. Reduced the foreign

investment with give priority to the local Bali or national investment

1) Giving priority to domestic investors, and in particular Bali local to invest in Bali

2) Provide incentives to local investors to invest in Bali 3) Develop investment rules that incorporate elements of

local culture (local wisdom) requirements of investment in Bali

1) Increase the quantity of local agricultural products, so as to supply the needs of hotels in Bali are increasing 2) Increasing the quality of local agricultural products, so

as to compete with imported products

3) Improving continuity of local agricultural products, so as to meet the needs of hotel

4) Diversifying local agricultural products, so that more diverse products

4. Increase the hotel equipment production, thereby reducing imports

1) Improve the quality and quantity of food and drink products equipment used hotel which is produced by the domestic industry, so as to reduce imports 2) Improve the quality and quantity of the kitchen

equipment products used hotel produced by the domestic industry, so as to reduce imports 5. The policy of pro-local Bali

and national products, in

1) Central government policies that prioritize the hotel equipment industrial products in the domestic 2) Government policies that prioritize domestic

agricultural products

(19)

18 Tabel 11

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WT-Strategy WT-Strategy

(Create a strategy that minimize weaknesses to overcome threats)

Program

(Elaboration of any strategy based on the

interpretation and judgment of experts and

researchers)

1) Increase the performance and

competitiveness of Bali tourist destinations, so it can compete with tourism destinations in other countries

1) Digging, identifying, and developing new tourist attraction based on Bali local potentials

2) Develop artificial tourist attraction (like Safari Park) that do not conflict with Bali local wisdom 3) Optimization of empowerment of the local culture

as a tourist attraction

4) Maintaining the uniqueness of the Bali local culture

2) Increase the quality of goods and services of local and national, so it can compete in the era of economic globalization

1) Standardization of the quality of goods and services produced in the country and Bali 2) Certification of product quality of goods and

services in domestic and bali production

3)

Increase the competitiveness of the manager / workforce of local hospitality

3) Standardization of quality manager / labor hospitality in Bali

4) Competency certification of manager / labor of Bali hospitality in order to compete with the foreign manager / labor

CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS Conclusion

Strategy to minimize the leakage of Bali tourism, especially leakage of accommodation, namely:.

1) Increasing the image of Bali as a world tourism destination based on the unique local culture.

2) Increase travelers convenience for in Bali

3) Increasing the competitiveness of tourism products bali

4) Develop the quality and quantity of the manager / local workforce, making it competitive 5) Develop and promote local and national agriculture to supply the needs of the hotels 6) Develop and advance the production of local and national hotels equipment become

international standard, so it is ready to supply the needs of hotel

7) Reduce the import needs of the hotel and substitute with the local Bali or domestic products.

8) Reduced the foreign investment with give priority to the local Bali or national investment

9) Increase the quantity, quality and continuity as well as the diversification of local agricultural products, so as to reduce imports

10)Increase the hotel equipment production, thereby reducing imports

11)The policy of pro-local Bali and national products, in order to stimulate the development of agriculture and industrial of hotel equipment (like Pergub 2013 on local fruits)

(20)

19

13)Increase the quality of goods and services of local and national, so it can compete in the era of economic globalization

14)Increase the competitiveness of the manager / workforce of local hospitality

Recommendation

Based on the research results, it can be recommended, among others:

1) Tourism stakeholders, in particular the management of hotel and restaurant in Bali needs to implement strategies and programs formulated in this study, so that the leakage of tourism, especially from the accommodation sector can be minimized.

2) Regional government (provincial or district) have to make regulation a kind of local regulations (perda) or the governor regulations (pergub) or regent regulation (perbup) which requires tourism stakeholders, such as hotel and restaurant employers to prioritize the consumption of the products and services of local bali or Indonesia, so that the leakage of tourism revenue to decline and tourism revenue captured by the community to increases.

3) Starting grown attitudes and properties fanaticism toward the local Bali or Indonesia products among the society in general and actors Bali tourism in special, as things Japanese society.

REFERENCES

Antara, Made; I GA Oka Suryawardani, Agung Suryawan Wiranatha. 2012. Identifikasi Jenis dan Besar Kebocoran Pariwisata Bali. Laporan Penelitian Prioritas Nasional Master Plant Percepatan dan Perluasan Pembangunan Ekonomi Indonesia 2011-2025 (Penprinas MP3EI 2011-2025).

Dinas Pariwisata Bali, 2012. Statistik Pariwisata Bali 2012. Dinas Pariwisata Provinsi Bali. Eldis. 25 April 2015. Sharing the best of the Development Policy, Practice and Research.

(http://www.eldis.org/id21ext/insights62art4.html

Garis-Garis Besar Haluan Negara (GBHN) TAP MPR No. II/ MPR/1998.

Lorton Consulting, 15 April 2015. The Impact of Leakagee and Linkages of

Tourism-Led Local Economic Development. http: //tourism planning

professionals.com/?p=262.

Rangkuti, F. 2002. Analisis SWOT Teknik Membedah Kasus Bisnis. Jakarta: Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Unluonen, K., A. Kiliclair and S. Yukel. 2011. The Calculation Approach for Leakages of International Tourism Receipts: The Turkish Case. Tourism Economics Journal. 17(4) 785-802.

Figur

Table  1

Table 1

p.8
Figure 1  SWOT Matrix of Formulation “Strategy to  Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism”

Figure 1

SWOT Matrix of Formulation “Strategy to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism” p.8
Table 2 External Factors of Bali Tourism

Table 2

External Factors of Bali Tourism p.9
Table 3

Table 3

p.11
Table  4 Strategy of Strength-Opportunity (SO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Table 4

Strategy of Strength-Opportunity (SO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism p.12
Table  5  Strategy of  Strength-Threat (ST) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Table 5

Strategy of Strength-Threat (ST) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism p.13
Table  6  Strategy of Weakness-Opportunity (WO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Table 6

Strategy of Weakness-Opportunity (WO) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism p.14
Table  7  Strategy of Weakness-Threat (WT) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism

Table 7

Strategy of Weakness-Threat (WT) to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism p.15
Table  8

Table 8

p.16
Table  10 Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WO-Strategy

Table 10

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WO-Strategy p.18
Tabel  11 Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WT-Strategy

Tabel 11

Program to Minimize the Leakage of Bali Tourism Based on WT-Strategy p.19

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