PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE ACCOUNTING STUDENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT OF CONVERGENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCI

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PERCEPTION OF UNDERGRADUATE ACCOUNTING STUDENTS ABOUT THE IMPACT

OF CONVERGENT INTERNATIONAL FINANCIAL REPORTING STANDARDS (CASE

STUDY ON PRIVATE UNIVERSITIES IN INDONESIA)

Redaktur Wau

ABSTRACT

This study aims to describe the perception of undergraduate accounting students through the level of knowledge, level of desire and level of interpretation about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) at private universities in Indonesia. The research was conducted by observation approach and spreading of questionnaire in 28 (twenty eight) private universities. Data analysis technique which is used is ANOVA (Analysis of Variance). Based on ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test, there was no difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, whereas based on specialization field and the respondents’ college origin, there was a very significant difference. It was found that there was no difference in the level of desire of accounting students to study IFRS so that they were more understanding about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender and specialization field, whereas based on the respondents’ college origin, there was a very significant difference. And found no difference in the level of interpretation of accounting student about the impact convergent of International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender and specialization field, whereas based on the origin of universities there is a very significant difference.

Keywords: Level of Knowledge, Desire Level, Interpretation Level, Impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards.

Introduction

The changing global environment that is bringing together almost all the countries of the world in a single community, which is bridged by the development of increasingly inexpensive communication and information technology, demands transparency in all fields. A quality financial accounting standard is one of the key infrastructures to realize such transparency. Financial accounting standards can be likened to a mirror, where a good mirror will be able to describe the actual practical business conditions. Therefore, the development of good financial accounting standards is highly relevant and absolutely necessary in the present.

Companies that exist in Indonesia in preparing financial statements should be based on accounting standards, in order to produce relevant and reliable financial statements. The accounting standards establish the rules of recognition, measurement, presentation and disclosure in the financial statements between different companies. The Statement of Financial Accounting Standards is a recognized and used standard in Indonesia for preparing financial statements of companies with significant public accountability.

The financial reporting began to move from the Statement of Accounting Standards to the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). Within the time frame of 2008-2012 the first convergence was made by gradually reducing the difference between Statement of Financial Accounting Standards and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS), so that in the end financial reporting of public companies will use IFRS. Then in 2012-2014 the second convergence is done for perfection (Kartikahadi, et al, 2016),

Wahyuni and Juan (2012) argue IFRS to be a global phenomenon for now as more and more countries in the world adopt this international accounting standard. IFRS itself has been used by more than 150 countries, including Japan, China, Canada and 27 EU Countries. At least 85 of these countries have required their financial statements using IFRS for all domestic or listed companies listed in the capital market. Indonesia the IFRS transition is an unavoidable choice because Indonesia has become an important part of the market and the global economy.

Convergence or adoption of IFRS not only has implications for the business world, but also has implications for the world of accounting education, profession and financial reporting in Indonesia. Accounting high education needs to prepare graduates to be able to understand IFRS and be able to implement IFRS-based accounting standards well. The development of global financial reporting has implications for the need to educate students about global financial reporting (Saito, Hiratmatsu and Mayangsari, 2012).

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In recent years, countries with developing economies have become an important investment opportunity and IFRS implementation has become a means of attracting new investors (Albu et al., 2012).

The phenomenon occurs in the field just the opposite. There are still many private universities that are not ready to implement or integrate IFRS so that knowledge or understanding of students about IFRS is still shallow. Some factors that affect the unpreparedness of private universities in integrating or implementing IFRS in the curriculum are the inequitable socialization of IFRS from the facilitators so that lecturers' resources do not understand the latest financial report standards, the existence of self-limitation of universities based on poor management, lack of Innovation and creativity of lecturers in understanding every curriculum change, especially curriculum changes in accounting such as: Basic Accounting 1 and 2, Financial Accounting 1 and 2, Advanced Accounting 1 and 2, Accounting Checks I and 2, and Accounting Theory (Suhardianto, 2011) .

This research is a replication of Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) research on the investigation of accounting students’ perceptions of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) conducted at Krida Satya Wacana University; Chiang (2013) about IFRS in the Accounting Curriculum-Implications from Different Perspectives; Helen and Wong (2013) on An Empirical Study-Adoption of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) in Hong Kong Education. The gap between the previous research and this research is the characteristics of the respondent into the variable measuring components such as gender and field of interest, summarizes the results of previous research into the variable components consisting of the level of knowledge of accounting students, the level of students' desire for learning IFRS and level of student interpretation. Another gap is the demographic difference, where the authors conduct research only on private universities in Indonesia. The reason for the election of 28 (twenty eight) private universities in Indonesia is that the whole private university contributes high enough to produce graduates of accountants. However, most of these private universities are not ready to implement or integrate IFRS into the curriculum to improve the quality of their education. The author has proven it by observing directly or observing directly to several universities whose results reflect the subtle refusal by the college on the grounds that the internal curriculum should not be published. Another reason is that private universities are managed by the community so there is a need for special closeness with regulators and facilitators to upgrade the curriculum development information. Unlike the case with state universities according to Government Regulation No. 4 of 2014 is a college established and / or organized by the government so that the systematic curriculum in accordance with the policies of the regulator and facilitator.

Based on the background of the above problem, it can be formulated problem in this research are:

1. Is there a difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, specialization and origin of university?

2. Is there a difference in the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS so as to better understand about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, specialization and origin of university?

3. Is there a difference in the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting student about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, specialization and origin of university?

Literature review

According to Waluyo (2014), the convergence vocabulary is a noun derived from the verb "converge" which means "to be similar or the same". It Means IFRS convergence is making accounting standards to be the same or similar to IFRS, by adopting full or harmonizing.

IFRS convergence program that is programmed is necessity in this era of globalization which is undoubtedly to pay attention to the range of IFRS convergence and the issues that need attention. It is realized that the factual Financial Accounting Standards with International Accounting Standards(IAS) / IFRS there is a difference as the result of IAS / IFRS has grown rapidly. Economic globalization is the driving force of the Financial Accounting Standards in foreign countries that initially characterized the diversity that further led to IFAS's IASB convergence. The convergence process to IFRS is faced with many challenges and impacts that require attention, since the development of Financial Accounting Standards becomes an obligation given the dynamics and business development. Financial Accounting Standards are certainly related to economics, social, law, and culture, it is this that not only create different concepts but also lead to diversity of accounting standards that result in inefficient in preparing financial statements (Kartikahadi, et al, 2016).

IFRS is an international accounting standard issued by the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). The International Accounting Standards (IAS) is composed by four major international organizations: the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), the European Commission (EC), the International Capital Market Organization (IOSOC), and the International Accounting Federation (IFAC). The International Accounting Standards Board (IASB), formerly known as the International Accounting Standards Commission (AISC), is an independent institution to develop accounting standards. The organization has the goal of developing and encouraging the use of high-quality, understandable and comparable global accounting standards (Wahyuni and Juan, 2012).

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IFRS convergence activities are programmed to be imperative in the era of globalization and no doubt about the reach of IFRS convergence and issues that need attention. It is realized that the factualFinancial Accounting Standardswith International Accounting Standards(IAS) / IFRS has a difference as the result of IAS / IFRS has grown rapidly. Economic globalization is the driving force of the Financial Accounting Standards in foreign countries that initially characterized the diversity that further led to IFAS's IASB convergence. The convergence process to IFRS is faced with many challenges and impacts that require attention, since the development of Financial Accounting Standards becomes an obligation given the dynamics and business development. Financial Accounting Standards are certainly related to economics, social, law, and culture, it is this that not only makes a difference concept but also leads to diversity of accounting standards that result in inefficient in preparing financial statements (Waluyo, 2014).

Significant differences between US GAAP and IFRS are common areas of approach. IFRS is based on basic principles of accounting with limited guidance on application while US GAAP is rule based with specific application guidelines (Martani et al., 2012). The next difference is in the inventory cost flow method; IFRS allows using the FIFO method (first in first out) and the average method but does not allow using LIFO (Smith, 2012). According to GAAP, PPE (Property, Plant and Equipment) is recorded at the cost of acquisitions less accumulated depreciation and losses due to impairment. US GAAP also prohibits the revaluation of PPE; otherwise IFRS permits revaluation and records it for fair market value (Persons, 2013).

Arifin (2015) revealed that perception is a process of organizing; interpreting the stimulus received by organisms or individuals so that it becomes something meaningful, and is an integrated activity within the individual. Knowledge is an impression in the human mind as a result of the use of its five senses and different from belief, superstition and misinformation. Desire or interest is a sense of preference and a sense of interest in a thing or activity, with no one to order. Interest is essentially the acceptance of a relationship between oneself and something outside of self. Interpretation is to interpret or assemble facts into a harmonious and reasonable unity.

Research Hypothesis

Helen and Wong's (2013) study shows that there is no difference in the level of knowledge about IFRS based on gender groups and areas of interest. While research conducted by Chiang (2013) shows those respondents do not believe IFRS will be integrated into the curriculum. The average of students has a high level of knowledge of US GAAP compared to IFRS. From the results of this study, the authors concluded that the level of student knowledge about IFRS becomes the main problem. Similar research conducted by Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) the results showed no difference in the level of knowledge of IFRS by sex group. In this study the authors remain focused on the level of knowledge with the development of indicators such as fields of interest and the origin of universities. From the inconsistent results, it can be formulated hypothesis as follows:

H1 = There is a difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergence of

International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, specialization field and college origin.

According to Chiang's research (2013) shows that the level of students' desire to study IFRS standards is still low because it is used to study US GAAP. However, if IFRS is implemented it is entirely the responsibility of educators and universities to apply financial standards into the curriculum. Another study conducted by Helen and Wong (2013) which shows that the level of student desire to study IFRS is very high. Student responses to IFRS are shown enthusiastically to take courses on IFRS outside of the college-taught curriculum.

While in research conducted Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) found that the level of interest has an important role to the decision of students taking classes about IFRS if colleges offer it. In addition, research conducted Kurniawan (2013) found that interest or desire to learn a positive and significant impact on the level of understanding or perception of IFRS. From the description, can be drawn hypothesis as follows:

H2 = There is a difference in the level of willingness of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS so as to better

understand about the impact of convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender, special interest and origin of university.

Helen and Wong's (2013) study shows that students' perceptions of the impact of IFRS are still very low. It is proved by the number of students who decide to deepen the level of knowledge by increasing interest in learning IFRS through the course. The decision is taken on the grounds that it will assist them in future career development. Another study conducted by Chiang (2013) shows that students' perceptions about the impact of IFRS are still very low as students understand more US GAAP than IFRS.

While in research conducted by Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) found that students’ perception about IFRS impact is very high. Students understand correctly that IFRS greatly affects the company's financial performance. In this research there is a development of indicators that serve as a variable that is the use of the word perception is replaced with the word interpretation in accordance with the definition of perception put forward by experts. Then the addition of an indicator of the area of interest that according to the author is very related and influential as well. From the description, can be drawn hypothesis as follows:

H3 = There is a difference in the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting student about the impact of convergent

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Research methods

Population used in this research is undergraduate accounting student of private universities in Indonesia. After conducting a preliminary survey on the student affairs section of 28 (twenty eight) private universities in Indonesia, the number of undergraduate student population of 1200 students is obtained. The sample rate used is 10 respondents for each private university so that the number of samples used is 280 respondents from 28 (twenty eight) private universities in Indonesia.

Data analysis technique used in this research is validity test, reliability test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test. Validity test is used to measure about questions on the questionnaire that should be discarded or replaced because it is considered irrelevant. The reliability test is used to measure the degree of accuracy, accuracy or accuracy of the measuring instrument. For reliability testing, the authors use the Alpha method (Alpha-Crobanch method). Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is one multivariate analysis technique that serves to differentiate the mean of more than two groups of data by comparing the variance. In this study ANOVA test used is One-Way ANOVA. One-Way ANOVA is a procedure used to produce one-way variance analysis for the dependent variable with a quantitative data type with an independent variable as a factor variable.

Research Results Validity Test

Based on the result of the validity test showed that all the items on the variable of the level of knowledge of the undergraduate students of accounting (X1), the variable of the students' desire level of accounting student for learning IFRS (X2), the

interpretation level of the accounting student (X3) and the convergence impact variable IFRS (Y) Is valid, because the value of

r-test each question is greater than r-table (0.1381).

Reliability Test

Based on the results of reliability test showed that all the questions on the variable level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students (X1), the variable level of desire of undergraduate accounting students for learning IFRS (X2), variable level

of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students(X3) and variable impact of convergent IFRS (Y) is reliable, because Alpha

Cronbach’s value of each variable is> 0.60.

ANOVA (Analysis of Variance)

1. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students (X1) compare between

t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 0.517 or smaller than t-table (0.517 < 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.473 greater than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards by gender. 2. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS (X2)

compare between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 2.048 or smaller than t-table (2.048 < 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.154 greater than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS so as to better understand about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards by gender.

3. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students (X3) compare

between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 0.982 or smaller than t-table (0.982 < 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.323 greater than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards by gender.

4. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students (X1) compare between

t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 4,984 or greater than t table (4.984 > 3.8415) or with significance level 0.002 less than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on specialization.

5. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS (X2) to

compare between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 0188 or smaller than t-table (0.188 < 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.904 greater than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS so as to better understand about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on specialization field.

6. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students (X3) compare

between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 0.734 or smaller than t-table (0.734 < 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.532 greater than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on specialization field.

7. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students (X1) compares

between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 4,116 or greater than t-table (4.116 > 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.000 smaller than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on universities.

8. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of students' desire to study IFRS (X2) to compare between test with

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9. ANOVA Testing (Analysis of Variance) the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting student (X3) compare

between t-test with t-table. Based on the above data the value of t-test is 14,375 or greater than t-table (14.375 > 3.8415) or with a significance level of 0.000 less than 0.05. Thus, it can be concluded that there is a difference in the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards based on respondents’ origin college.

Discussion

Measuring the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) by gender shows insignificant results. It can be concluded that the level of knowledge of male sex respondents does not have differences with the level of knowledge of female respondents. The results of this study are consistent conducted by Nugroho and Kristanti (2013); Helen and Wong (2013). These findings suggest that the sexes of both women and men have a low level of knowledge about the impact of IFRS convergence.

Measuring the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on the field of specialization showed significant results. It can be concluded that there are differences in the level of knowledge of respondents who take the area of specialization in financial accounting, tax accounting, auditing and sharia accounting. In the results of this study based on questionnaires distributed level of knowledge of students who take the field of financial accounting and auditing higher than the level of knowledge of students who take the field of accounting taxation and sharia accounting. The results of this study are consistent with research conducted by Helen and Wong (2013). However, this study also falls into the category of recent findings because the authors explain in more detail the areas of interest.

Measuring the level of knowledge of undergraduate Accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on university shows significant results. It can be concluded that there is difference of knowledge level of respondent based on university. These results are measured by the questionnaire I know IFRS well, I understand IFRS well and I rate IFRS very useful in the world of work later. In the results of this study based on questionnaires are distributed about the level of knowledge of students who come from large universities (university scale) is very different from the level of knowledge of accounting students who come from lower-middle-class colleges. It can be concluded that the integration of the IFRS-based curriculum is more applied to universities at the University and some STIE colleges. These findings are at once a new finding that there is a significant difference in knowledge level based on the origin of the college.

Measuring the level of desire of undergraduate accounting students to study IFRS is more understanding about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on gender shows insignificant results. It can be concluded that the level of respondents desire of male gender does not have differences with the level of wishes of respondents who female gender means that all respondents both male and female sex have a desire to learn IFRS through books, literatures or courses (if the campus offers IFRS classes). This research is consistent with the research conducted by Helen and Wong (2013), Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) and Kurniawan (2013) which found that there is a similarity between the male and female respondents.

Measuring the level of desire of undergraduate Accounting Student to study IFRS is better to understand the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on specialization field shows insignificant results. It can be concluded that there is no difference in the level of desire of respondents who have different areas of specialization means that all respondents either choose the field of financial accounting interests, tax accounting, auditing and sharia accounting equally have the desire to learn IFRS either through books, literatures,courses (if the campus offers IFRS classes). This research is consistent with the research conducted by Helen and Wong (2013), Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) and Kurniawan (2013) which found that there is a similarity level of respondent's wishes that have different areas of interest.

Measuring the level of desire of undergraduate accounting student to study IFRS is better to understand the impact convergent of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on universities shows significant results. It can be concluded that there are differences in the level of desire of respondents based on universities. This result is measured by questionnaires, namely having a desire to study IFRS through books, literatures, or courses (if the campus offers IFRS classes). In the results of this study based on questionnaires distributed the level of desire of students who come from upper secondary colleges is very different from the level of desire of accounting students who come from large scale universities. It can be concluded that the level of accounting students 'desire from middle to lower scale universities is higher than the level of accounting students' desire from large universities (university-scale). These findings are at once a new finding that there is a significant degree of desirability based on the origin of the college.

Measuring the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) that based on gender shows insignificant results. It can be concluded that the level of interpretation of respondents of male gender does not differ from the level of interpretation of female respondents. This research is consistent with research conducted by Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) and Kurniawan (2013) which suggests that there is a similarity of interpretation level between male and female respondents.

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the company's existing operations in Indonesia and IFRS will affect the performance of accounting education field. This research is consistent with research conducted by Nugroho and Kristanti (2013) and Kurniawan (2013) which suggests that there is an equation of interpretation level among respondents who choose the area of interest in financial accounting, tax accounting, auditing and sharia accounting. However, this study is not in line with the research of Helen and Wong (2013) and Chiang (2013) which suggests that the level of student interpretation is still very low because their knowledge is more directed towards US GAAP.

Measuring the level of interpretation of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) based on universities shows significant results. It can be concluded that there are different levels of interpretation of respondents based on universities. These results are measured by the IFRS questionnaire will affect the financial performance of companies in Indonesia, IFRS will affect the performance of the company's existing operations in Indonesia and IFRS will affect the performance of the field of accounting education. In the results of this study based on questionnaires distributed level of interpretation of students coming from upper secondary colleges is very different from the level of interpretation of accounting students who come from universities which is large scale. It can be concluded that the interpretation level of accounting students from middle to lower scale universities is lower than the interpretation level of accounting students from large universities. This is because accounting students from large-scale universities more understand and know about IFRS so that the interpretation is wider than accounting students who come from college scale. These findings are at once a new finding that there is a significant difference in interpretation levels based on the origin of universities.

The results of the implementation or application of the level of knowledge of accounting students, the level of accounting students' wishes accounting for learning IFRS and interpretation level of accounting student about the impact of convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) through ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test based on gender, The origin of the respondent's college shows a fluctuating result. Overall the level of student knowledge about the impact of IFRS is still very low, especially students who come from small and medium scale universities. The low level of knowledge affects the level of student desire to study IRFS because most students have interpretations that IFRS positively impact the development of Indonesia's economic flows in particular and the world at large. To that end, business colleges with accounting and faculty study programs play an important role in integrating IFRS into the curriculum. A good curriculum and learning method will help students understand IFRS. State or private universities or universities that implement IFRS in their curriculum will improve the quality of their education, which ultimately affects the graduates they produce. Graduated Accounting Students who’s a good knowledge of IFRS,havesuperiority during employee recruitment. It certainly brings the consequence that accounting education institutions should prepare them to be ready for change. For that readiness of teachers who understand IFRS convergence is needed to realize IFRS-based accounting learning. This requires commitment and teamwork in each institution. Colleges and lecturers are personally responsible for the mastery of IFRS material. Although academics may reject IFRS, an understanding of IFRS is absolutely necessary before determining an objective and proportional attitude.

Conclusions

Based on ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) test, there was no difference in the level of knowledge of undergraduate accounting students about the impact of convergent International Financial Reporting Standards by gender, whereas based on specialization field and college origin there is a very significant difference. It was found that there was no difference in the level of desire of accounting students to study IFRS so that they were more understanding about the impact convergent of International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender and specialization field, whereas based on the origin of college respondents there was a very significant difference. There was no difference in the level of interpretation of accounting students on the impact of convergence of International Financial Reporting Standards based on gender and specialization field, whereas based on university there was a significant difference.

The results showed the coverage of IFRS teaching materials in the course, the readiness of each college, and the support of the study program which is still relatively low. This needs to be followed up by joint efforts of study programs, Indonesian Institute of Accountants, and other institutions that have an interest in the Financial Accounting Standards to further improve the readiness of qualified accountants through the integration of IFRS standards in the curriculum applicable in each private universities in Indonesia in particular And international in general. In addition, information can be used as consideration and evaluation related to curriculum policies and class offerings on International Financial Reporting Standards.

Recommendations

Based on the above conclusions, it is recommended for the next research to focus on the teaching method of the accounting lecturer. From the observation during the research process the level of student understanding about the impact of IFRS convergence is determined by the teaching method of accounting lecturers.Middle to lower private universities have a low understanding because they are almost never taught about IFRS or the prevailing financial accounting standards in Indonesia.

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Redaktur Wau

Faculty of Economics and Business

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