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AN EVALUATION ON THE COLABORATIVE ENGLISH TEACHING PROGRAM BETWEEN ELTI-GRAMEDIA AND STELLA DUCE 1 SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL YOGYAKARTA A Thesis Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree in English Language Educ

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AN EVALUATION ON THE COLABORATIVE ENGLISH TEACHING PROGRAM BETWEEN ELTI-GRAMEDIA AND STELLA DUCE 1 SENIOR

HIGH SCHOOL YOGYAKARTA A Thesis

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Filomena Tunjung Sawitri Student Number: 051214068

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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AN EVALUATION ON THE COLABORATIVE ENGLISH TEACHING PROGRAM BETWEEN ELTI-GRAMEDIA AND STELLA DUCE 1 SENIOR

HIGH SCHOOL YOGYAKARTA A Thesis

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Filomena Tunjung Sawitri Student Number: 051214068

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

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I dedicate this thesis to myself, my

family, my dreams, and for those who

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ABSTRACT

Sawitri, Filomena Tunjung (2009). An Evaluation on the Collaborative English Teaching Program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

Considering the position of English in Indonesian society and the students’ needs to master English to become competitive human resources, the Indonesian Ministry of National Education has decided to adopt some strategies for Indonesian students. One of the strategies is particularly directed for those who are now in the twelfth grade of senior high school to learn English. Implementing English for active communication as an internally studied subject or in Indonesian we called it as a Muatan Lokal indirectly made students become active and critical learners. Unfortunately, there were some difficulties in implementing this subject. Realizing that fact, Stella Duce 1 Senior High School and English Language Training International (ELTI) Yogyakarta then made an agreement to carry out a collaborative teaching for the twelfth grade students from Stella Duce 1 Senior High School to develop the fluency of their Speaking skill.

Moreover, this research resolved three main questions in example: 1) How does collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School help the students develop the fluency of their speaking skill? 2) What are the strengths of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of their Speaking skill? 3) What are the weaknesses of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of their Speaking skill?

In order to evaluate the collaborative teaching English program, the adaptation of Kemp’s model (1977), some theories related to speaking principles, tasks and activities by Bailey (2005), the collaborative teaching by Fullan (1993) and Lieberman (1995) and program evaluation theory from Chelimsky (1997: 97-188) as cited in Hutchinson and Waters (1994) were employed.

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ABSTRAK

Sawitri, Filomena Tunjung (2009). An Evaluation on the Collaborative English Teaching Program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Mempertimbangkan posisi bahasa Inggris di dalam masyarakat Indonesia dengan kebutuhan siswa akan penguasaan bahasa Inggris untuk menjadi sumber daya manusia yang kompetitif, Kementrian Pendidikan Nasional Indonesia telah memutuskan untuk mengadopsi beberapa strategi bagi siswa Indonesia. Salah satu dari strategi itu secara khusus di tujukan bagi para siswa kelas dua belas untuk mempelajari bahasa Inggris. Diterapkannya bahasa Inggris untuk komunikasi aktif sebagai salah satu mata pelajaran di dalam muatan lokal secara langsung membuat siswa aktif dan kritis.

Sayangnya terdapat kesulitan-kesulitan dalam menerapkan pelajaran ini. Menyadari kenyataan itu, SMA Stella Duce 1 dan ELTI-Gramedia melakukan suatu kesepakatan untuk menjalankan suatu program pengajaran kolaboratif bagi siswi kelas dua belas SMA Stella Duce 1 untuk mengembangkan kefasihan siswi dalam berbicara.

Selebihnya penelitian ini akan menjawab 3 pertanyaan utama, yakni: 1) bagaimanakah program pengajaran kolaboratif antara ELTI – Stella Duce 1 membantu siswi mengembangkan kefasihan mereka dalam berbicara. 2) apa sajakah kelebihan dari program pengajaran kolaboratif antara ELTI – Stella Duce 1 dalam membantu siswi mengembangkan kefasihan mereka dalam berbicara.. 3) apa sajakah kekurangan program pengajaran kolaboratif antara ELTI – Stella Duce 1 membantu siswi mengembangkan kefasihan mereka dalam berbicara. Dalam melaksanakan penelitian ini, penulis menerapkan metode survey yang menggunakan wawancara dan kuesioner sebagai alat mengumpulkan data.

Untuk mengevaluasi program pengajaran kolaboratif dan untuk menjawab pertanyaan pertama , penulis mengadaptasi Kemp Instructional Design Model (1977)

sebagai kerangka kerja dalam mengevaluasi materi yang sudah didisain. Sebagai tambahan, beberapa teori yang berkaitan tentang aturan-aturan, latihan dan juga aktfitas berbicara menurut Bailey (2005); teori pengajaran kolaboratif menurut Fullan (1993) dan Lieberman (1995), serta teori evaluasi program menurut Chelimsky (1997: 97-188) yang dikutip dari pendapat Hutchinson dan Waters (1994)

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menggunakan umpan bailik dari kuesioner guru dan kuesioner siswi. Berdasarkan umpan balik dari kuesioner itu maka dapat disimpulkan secara umum bahwa program pengajaran kolaboratif telah dijabarkan dengan baik dan menarik. Materi-materi ini membantu siswi dalam belajar bahasa Inggrios, dan juga memotivasi siswi untuk lebih berani berbicara di depan umum. Akan tetapi, masih ada beberapa bagian yang memerlukan perbaikan seperti materi, permainan, buku, dan latihan-latihan.

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ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

It would be a wonderful opportunity for me to express my deepest gratitude to everyone who helped and supported me in accomplishing this thesis.

First of all, I would like to express my greatest gratitude to Jesus Christ and Mother Mary for all the blessings, strengths, and love They have given me since the moment I came to this world. Without God’s grace I am but nothing.

From the sincerest bottom of my heart, I am thankful to Mrs. Dr. Retno Muljani, M.Pd, my thesis sponsor, for all her guidance, opinions, suggestions, encouragements, patience, and supports. She has been great in her invaluable supports, criticism, and suggestions to my thesis.

My special thanks also go to my proofreaders, Bapak Drs. Barli Bram, M.Ed., Bapak Petrus Gandhi Prastowo S.Pd., Father L. Suharjanto, S.J., S.S., B.S.T., Hermas Bram S.Pd., Theresia Vina Indriyani S.Pd., for their understanding, support, help, and suggestions. Thank you so much.

I devote my special gratitude to my parents, Bapak Aloysius Bambang Tri Santosa and Ibu Theresia Susilowati for their unconditional love, care and prayer. My brother, Albertus Aryo Saloko; he is the best sibling in the world. To My beloved dogs, Emo, Molly, and Honji, thanks for being my bestfriends when I typed and studied during the hard, tough but beautiful process.

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am thankful for all your encouragements, supports and thank you for being so inspiring. I also thank Mbak Danik and Mbak Tari from PBI Secretariat for their help.

My appreciation also goes to all of the respondents in this study, especially the twelfth grade students of Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta. My heartfelt appreciation goes to Sr. Petra CB, S.Pd, the Headmaster of Stella Duce 1 Senior High school Yogyakarta. My special thanks to Ibu Sri Murni Mustika Djati, the Academic Manager of ELTI – Gramedia Yogyakarta and Bapak Yusup the ESP Academic Manager of ELTI – Gramedia Yogyakarta who have been a great supervisor in ELTI – Gramedia Yogyakarta. Thank you so much for your opinions, suggestions, and supports.

I will never forget the lovely experiences with my “MILESTONE” mates, Wahyu, Datia, Siska, Daniel, Adit “kotak”, Rimas, Endru, Nita for being a good partners and companions during my ups and downs in SPD “HELL” class. I thank all my best friends in PBI for their friendships, smiles, and help during my study in this university, especially to Indra, Yayas, Fidel, Top-X, Gendis, Riri, Ella, Mega, Siska ‘Ncit, Uuth, Pilus, Kanya, Esti, Mba’ Retno, Sedik, Lia for their wonderful friendship and encouragement as well as their corrections and suggestions. All of you are the best I have ever had in my life and time shows that you are the best one. I love you madly guys…

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friends for me. I will never forget the time we laughed, argued, chatted, and did many wonderful experiences together. Love you also Asiners, YEC, and Cokelat Café family…

My gratitude also goes to those whom I cannot mention by names. I would like to thank them for their support, help, and encouragements.

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STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY ... v

ABSTRACT... vi

ABSTRAK ... viii

LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH UNTUK KEPENTINGAN AKADEMIS ... x

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS ... xi

TABLE OF CONTENTS... xiv

LIST OF TABLES ... xvii

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE a.Theoretical Description... 10

1. Speaking... 10

a. The Nature of Speaking... 10

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c. Types of Classroom Speaking Performance ... 14

d. Speaking Tasks ... 16

e. Speaking Fluency ... 17

2. Collaborative a. The Theory of Collaborative ... 18

b. The Theory of Collaborative Teaching ... 19

3. Program Evaluation ... 21

4. Instructional Design ... 22

5. Twelfth Grade Characteristic ... 25

b.Theoretical Framework ... 26

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Research Methods ... 28

B. Research Participants ... 29

C. Research Setting... 32

D. Research Instruments ... 32

1. Interview ... 32

2. Questionnaire ... 33

3. Video Recording………36

E. Data Gathering Technique ... 38

F. Data Analysis Technique ... 39

G. Research Procedure ... 41

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Research Findings ... 42

1. The Contribution of the collaborative English Teaching program ... 42

a. Data Presentation of Interview... 42

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2. The strengths of the Collaborative English

Teaching Program ... 50

3. The weaknesses of the collaborative English Teaching Program ... 57

B. Discussions ... 58

1. The fluency developments……….. 58

2. The strengths………... 62

3. The weaknesses………... 63

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ... 65

B. Suggestions ... 68

1. For ELTI Yogyakarta ... 68

2. For English teachers of ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School ... 68

3. For Stella Duce I Senior High School... 68

4. For Other Researchers... 69

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LIST OF TABLES

Table Page

Table 3.1 : The Interview Guideline ...33

Table 3.2 : The Questionnaire Blueprint ...35

Table 3.3 : The Writer’s Collected Data ...37

Table 3.4 : The Writer’s Data Gathering Technique...39

Table 4.1 : The Results of the Interviews ...43

Table 4.2 : The Students’ Questionnaire Results ...47

Table 4.3 : The Teachers’ Questionnaire Result...49

Table 4.4 : The Students’ Questionnaire Results...50

Table 4.5 : The Teachers’ Questionnaire Results ...53

Table 4.6 : The Students’ Questionnaire Results...57

Table 4.7 : The Teachers’ Questionnaire Results...58

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure Page

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Page

Appendices………. 72

Appendix 1 Letter of Permission... 73

Appendix 2 KTSP………...75

Appendix 3 Questionnaire for Students...85

Appendix 4 Questionnaire for Teachers...91

Appendix 5 Interview Questions...96

Appendix 6 Interview Data ………...98

Appendix 7 One Unit of Student’s Material………..103

Appendix 8 Student’s Mid-semester Test…..………111

Appendix 9 Student’s Mid-semester Report………..116

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1 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION

A. Research Background

English has been widely considered as a main language in international communication today. It is used in the fields of education, social, economic, culture, politic, and many more (Harmer, 1991: 1). That is why in Indonesia, English becomes an essential subject at school. According to the Peraturan Menteri Pendidikan Nasional Nomor 22 Tahun 2006 (Peraturan Menteri, 2006: 9), English has become one of the main school subjects to be taught since Elementary level.

In addition, the Department of National Education has been started to apply a new curriculum namely the School Based Curriculum (SBC) or

Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan Pendidikan (KTSP) in 2006. SBC only provides a teaching guideline and requires every school to develop its own curriculum based on it in every subject including English. In English subject, the learning materials are divided into some basic topics like analytical exposition, recount, procedure, report, hortatory exposition, and narrative. English subject covers four skills; speaking, listening, reading, and writing (Pusat Kurikulum, 2008).

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as an internally studied subject or Muatan Lokal. In directly, English for active communication is aimed to help the students to be more active and critical.

On the other hand, Stella Duce 1 Senior High School as one of the reputable schools in Yogyakarta found difficulties in implementing English for active communication. Therefore, Stella Duce 1 Senior High School and English Language Training International (ELTI) Yogyakarta made an agreement to carry out a collaborative English teaching for the twelfth grade students. This program is aimed to develop the fluency of the twelfth grade students’ speaking skill.

Based on the interview with Mr Yusuf, the ESP Academic Director of ELTI Yogyakarta on 14 October 2009, the writer found that in collaborative English teaching, the roles of teachers are important since they have to determine materials for students based on the students’ needs, particularly in using English for active communication. The collaborative English teaching program itself has been implemented for three years. In some respects, the collaborative English teaching between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School also supported the SBI program. This is in line with the theory stated by Wright (1987). According to Wright, “collaboration affords the opportunity to overtly discuss and reflect upon a wide range of teaching and learning processes and activities.” Furthermore, in conducting this study, collaboration can be a new improvement of teaching program where teachers can cooperate together with other educators in the teaching learning process.

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Djati. Base on the interview on September 2009, She stated that based on the students’ reports in 2008, the implementation of the English program in the collaborative English teaching between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School was successful in supporting individual student achievement in the National Exam. After evaluating the program, she argued that collaborative teaching program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 was in line with KTSP curriculum.

In conducting this study, the writer chose the twelfth grade students of Stella Duce 1 Senior High School as the research subjects. Those students were expected to be more prepared to master the English language soon after they graduate from Senior High School. In addition, Stella Duce 1 Senior High School is the first school which had a collaborative teaching program with an English course, ELTI Yogyakarta.

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B. Problem Formulation

Considering the research background, this research addressed three main questions. The questions were formulated as follows.

1. What are the contributions of collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School in developing the fluency of students’ speaking skill?

2. What are the strengths of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of the students’ speaking skill?

3. What are the weaknesses of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of the students’ speaking skill?

C. Problem Limitation

To answer the questions formulated previously, the writer would focus on the strengths and weaknesses that emerged in the collaborative teaching process. Although the result of this program was not to measure the achievement of students in the National Exam, the research could be used as an evaluation program for ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta.

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and the Academic Director of ELTI Yogyakarta. Further elaboration on the research participants will be given in Chapter III.

D. Research Objectives

In accordance with the questions formulated in the Problem Formulation section, the objectives of this research were as follows.

1. To present a clear critical evaluation on the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School in developing the fluency of students’ speaking skill

2. To identify the strengths of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of students’ speaking skill

3. To uncover the weaknesses of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta in developing the fluency of students’ speaking skill

E. Research Benefits

In line with the objectives of the research, this research was expected to benefit the following:

1. Other Writers

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collaborative English teaching and thus is also expected to be helpful for everyone needing it for further research on the same or similar topic.

2. English Language Education Study Program Students

The research is expected to present clear information on the collaborative teaching by giving a clear and practical case of the real-life implementation of it. Thus, the students are expected to know and to apply the main principles of the collaborative English teaching program and also dealing with the problem on the implementation of the approach in the further development.

3. English Teachers

The research is expected to present a clear evaluation on the implementation of a certain style of teaching English, which is the collaborative English teaching, so that the English teachers will be able to make necessary improvements of the approach later on.

4. Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta

The research is expected to create a new teaching and learning atmosphere not only for the school but also for the students. Therefore, this research will help school to choose which teaching and learning style that are proper for the students.

5. ELTI Yogyakarta

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F. Definition of Terms

Below are the definitions of terms used throughout the study: 1. Speaking

Speaking is an interactive process of constructing meaning that involves producing and receiving and processing information. (Florez, 1999: 1) In this study, the term speaking is defined as a process of producing systematic verbal utterances to convey meaning.

2. Instructional Design

Instructional Design is the systematic development of instructional specifications using learning and instructional theory to ensure the quality of instruction. It is the entire process of analysis of learning needs and goals and the development of a delivery system to meet those needs. It includes development of instructional materials and activities; and tryout and evaluation of all instruction and learner activities (Srinivas, 2008). In this study, the term instructional design is defined as the process of analyzing needs and goals and evaluation of materials and activity in a practical way to help both teachers and learners in the process of transferring knowledge effectively.

3. An Evaluation

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the instructional program (Marsden, 1991). In this study, evaluation can be shown as a final result of the learning process. The evaluation of the course itself helps to asses whether the course objectives and the program are doing what they were designed to do. Through the evaluation which containing several reports about the learning and teaching progress; teachers, school, and the other educators can analyze the better quality of teaching.

4. Collaborative Teaching Program

According to Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary, program itself can be defined as an educational course in which the material to be learnt is presented in small, carefully graded, amount. (1994: 995). From this definition, the writer redefined program in this study as a self instruction which is put into effect in a classroom situation. In addition, collaborative teaching itself is not only interesting and creative in the planning, but provides opportunities for teachers to share their expertise (Minnett et al.,

1997). According to this study, the term of collaborative teaching program can be seen as a situation where teachers and educators in team are looking forward to preparing and would not willingly return to prepare alone. They would much rather prepare with capable partners who know the students’ needs and understand the goals for learning.

5. The Twelfth Grade Students

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6. Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta

Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta refers to a Private Catholic Senior High School for female students in Yogyakarta. Amongst high schools in Yogyakarta, only this school has a collaborative English teaching program with ELTI, an English course in Yogyakarta.

7. ELTI Yogyakarta

ELTI (English Language Training International) refers to English course in Yogyakarta whereas amongst English course in Yogyakarta, only ELTI has a collaborative teaching program with Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta.

8. Fluency

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10 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

A. Theoretical Description

This chapter presents some meaningful reviews from many sources to help develop the writing process of the thesis and dealing with the study conducted. First, this chapter will include, speaking, collaborative, evaluation, the review of instructional design, and students’ characteristic. Second it will deal with the theoretical framework of the study.

1. Speaking

a. The Nature of Speaking

Speaking is a fundamental human behavior that could not be stopped analyzing unless there is something noticeable about it. According to Savignon (1991), “we often talk about the four skills in language teaching.” They are speaking, listening, reading, and writing. Language generated by the learner (in speech or writing) is productive, and language directed at the learner (in reading or listening) is receptive. Modality refers to the medium of the message (aural/oral or written).

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“Spoken language and written language differ in many important ways” (van Lier, 1995). Spoken language is received auditorially, whereas written language is received visually. As a result, the spoken message is temporary and its reception by the learner is usually immediate. In contrast, written language is permanent, and reception by the learner typically occurs some time after the text was generated (sometimes even centuries later).

b. The Principles for Teaching Speaking

The Indonesian Government Law number 19 year 2005 stated that there should be a special program called an internally studied subject or Muatan Lokal

implemented in all Senior High School in Indonesia. According to the Indonesian Government Law number 19 year 2005, “the twelfth grade students of every Senior High School in Indonesia are taught by using English for active communication.” In addition, teachers realize that developing English skill particularly in the speaking skill at least can help students to get along in the society since English becomes a Universal language nowadays.

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The following five guideline lists are as follows.

1. Students are able to ask and answer questions and participate in simple conversations on topics beyond the most immediate needs, such as personal history and leisure time activities

2. Students are able to improve pronunciation, which may continue to be strongly influenced by the first language, and fluency may still be strained.

3. Students are able to handle successfully a variety of uncomplicated, basic and communicative tasks and social situations

4. Students are able to talk simply about self and family members

5. Students are able to increase utterance length slightly, but speech may continue to be characterized by frequent long pauses, since the smooth incorporation of even basics conversational strategies is often hindered.

According to Bailey (2005: 96-98), there are three principles in teaching speaking to intermediate students.

1) Planning speaking tasks that involve negotiation for meaning

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To support the first principles, Schimidt and Frota (1986: 310-315) argued that Students may notice the gap between what they want to say and what they can say, or between what they say and what other people say. In line with Schimidt and Frota viewpoint, Bailey (2005: 97) added that by planning speaking tasks that require students to negotiate for meaning, teachers can give students valuable chance for practice and language development particularly for students in the intermediate level.

2) Designing both transactional and interpersonal speaking activities

When people talk to other people, they usually do so for interpersonal or transactional purposes. Interpersonal speech is communication for social purposes, including establishing or maintaining social relationships. Transactional speech involves communicating to get something done, for example the exchange of goods and/or services.

According to Nunan (1991:42) as stated in Bailey (2005:97), “most spoken interactions can be placed on a continuum from relatively predictable to relatively unpredictable.” Casual conversations-an example of interpersonal speech are relatively unpredictable and can range over many topics, with the participation of students taking turns and commenting freely. In contrast, Nunan says that transactional encounters of a fairly restricted kind will usually contain highly predictable patterns (Bailey, 2005:97).

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Personalization is the process of making activities matches the students’ own circumstances, interests, and goals. Omagio (1982) as cited in Bailey (2005: 97) states that “teachers who personalized language lessons were judged to be effective, by both their supervisor and their students.” Personalizing exercise can be as simple as using students’ names, academic majors, cities, or jobs in speaking activities. Or teachers can ask the students to build role plays around situations suggested by the students. In addition, Bailey (2005:97) adds that “personalizing language lessons is partly a matter of careful planning and partly of responding creatively to students’ questions and comments during activities.”

c. Types of Classroom Speaking Performance

Types of classroom speaking performance means what the students do in speaking technique. According to Brown (2001: 271), there are six types of classroom speaking performance as follows.

1. Imitative

A very limited portion of classroom speaking time may legitimately be spent by generating “human tape recorder “speech. In example, learners practice an intonation contour or try to pinpoint a certain vowel sound. Imitation of this kind is carried out not for the purpose of meaningful interaction, but for focusing on some particular element of language form.

2. Intensive

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even form part of some pair work activity, where learners are going over certain forms of language.

3. Responsive

A good deal of students’ speech in the classroom is responsive: short replies to teacher or student-initiated questions or comments.

4. Transactional (Dialogue )

Transactional language is carried out for the purpose of conveying or exchanging specific information, is an extended form of responsive language

5. Interpersonal (Dialogue)

Interpersonal language is carried out for the purpose of maintaining social relationships than for the transmission of facts and information.

6. Extensive (Monologue)

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d. Speaking Tasks

According to Bailey (2005: 98), there are some key tasks and exercise types for teaching speaking for intermediate learners. Bailey considers seven exercise types as follows.

1)Role plays

The purpose of role play is to create a context in which students must practice using communication strategies. Moreover, the activity lets the students do in a safe atmosphere with a supportive person who does not speak (or pretends not to speak) the student’s first language.

2)Picture-based activities

Picture based activity is a construction of story activity. It can be done individually or in pairs or groups. Students can work in a small group since the students can scaffold one another’s learning and build on each other’s ideas. According to Bailey (2005:104), picture based activities give students speaking opportunities and help students activate expressive vocabulary. 3)Logic puzzles and jigsaw activities

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4)Information gap

The idea of the information gap as an organizing concept for a speaking activity is that one person has information that another lacks. The students must use English to share that information in order to accomplish a task. Another researcher, Swain (1995) mentioned one of the benefits of students interacting in English is that when they speak or (or write) in a new language. Students have to focus on grammatical accuracy and on their pronunciation in order to be understood. It appears that in trying to speak, students have many opportunities to notice the gap between their outputs (their own speech writing in the target language) and that of native or more proficient users of English.

e. Speaking Fluency

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is the capacity to speak fluidly, confidently, and at a rate consistent with the norms of the relevant native speech community.”

As cited in Colorin Colorado (2007), fluency in reading is like fluency in public speaking. Fluent speakers and readers controlled their voices accuracy in speech as well as appropriate speed, phrasing, and expression. When the speaker uses these elements, it makes it easier for the listener to understand. Speaking in appropriate phrases, emphasizing certain words, raising and lowering volume, and varying intonation are help the listener.

2. Collaborative

a. The theory of Collaborative

Working in teams has emerged as an important part of the complex professional lives of teachers. According to Fullan (1993) and Lieberman (1995), “teaming provides collegial support and improves practice, but requires skills that rarely appear in teacher-training curricula.” Nevertheless, educators predict that collaborative skills will become even more important to teachers’ practices as their professional lives unfold in increasingly interactive and collaborative settings.

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relationships that they have developed and enjoyed. Furthermore, Nunan (1992) mentions that collaboration encouraged learners:

1) to learn about learning and to learn better

2) to increase their awareness about language, and about ourselves, and hence about learning;

3) to develop, as a result, meta-communicative as well as communicative skills;

4) to confront, and come to terms with, the conflicts between individual needs and group needs, both in social, procedural terms as well as linguistic, content terms;

5) to realize that content and method are inextricably linked, and

6) to recognize the decision-making tasks themselves as genuine communicative activities.

b. The Theory of Collaborative Teaching

According to this study, the term of collaborative teaching program can be seen as a situation where teachers and educators in team are looking forward for preparing and would not willingly return to prepare alone. They would much rather prepare with capable partners who know the students’ needs and understand the goals for learning. Minnett et al., (1997) argues that “collaborative teaching is not only interesting and creative in the planning, but also provides opportunities for teachers to share their expertise.”

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1) Team teaching permits team members to take advantage of individual teacher strengths in planning for instruction and in working with learners.

2) Team teaching spurs creativity because teachers know they must teach for their colleagues as well as for their learners

3) Team teaching facilitates individualized instruction because it is possible to provide learning environments involving close personal contact between teachers and learners.

4) Team teaching provides for better sequencing and pacing of increments of instruction because perceptions of an individual teacher must be verified by at least one other team member.

5) Team teaching builds program continuity over time. Team teaching programs abide. Specific teachers within a team do not.

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3. Program Evaluation

The important form of evaluation is the evaluation of the course itself. This evaluation helps to asses whether the course objectives are being met – whether the program is doing what it was designed to do. In this study, evaluation can be shown as a final result of the learning process. Through the evaluation which contain several reports about the learning and teaching progress; teachers, school, and the other educators can analyze the better quality of teaching. Furthermore, according to Chelimsky (1997: 97-188) as cited in Hutchinson and Waters (1994), “evaluation is an aid to strengthen our practice, organization and programs. Evaluation helps to show how well the course is actually fulfilling the need.” Thus, evaluating a program helps to establish whether it is meeting its aims. Then the writer agreed that moreover course evaluation also plays a useful social role by showing the various parties involved (teachers, learners or sponsors and so on) that their views are important.

Consistent with Alderson and Waters, 1983 (as cited in Hutchinson and Waters, 1994), there are four main aspects of course evaluation. The aspects can be illustrated as follows.

• What should be evaluated?

• How can English specific program be evaluated?

• Who should be involved in the evaluation?

• When should evaluation take place?

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satisfying and agreeable to the parties as possible. The origins of the course lie in satisfying and fulfilling needs. In addition, evaluation helps to asses how well the needs that have created demand for a course as being served.

4. Instructional Design

Instructional-design theory provides guidance on how to help people learn (or develop) in different situations and under different conditions. Instructional design includes rules about what to teach and how to teach materials. Nevertheless, instructional conditions are factors beyond the influence of the instructional designer that impact upon the effects of the methods of instruction. Conditions may include the nature of what is being learned (the content), the learner, the learning environment, and the instructional development constraints (e.g., time and money). Instructional-design theory, in attempting to provide guidance for people to help others learn, ought to state explicitly the conditions under which different methods should and should not be used.

In instructional design, the writer lies on Kemp’s model. The Design of an Instructional System according to Kemp is divided into eight parts (Kemp, 1977: 19-91).

a. Goals, Topics, and General Purposes

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planners usually list general purposes that express the planners’ own aims or purposes for the topic or unit.

b. Learner Characteristics

Learner Characteristics is about what factors that the teachers want to know about the student group or individual learners. Furthermore, the learner characteristic will affect the plan for their learning. Teachers must consider the academic factors (number of students, academic background, grade point average, etc.), social factors (age, maturity, etc.), learning condition, and students’ learning styles.

c. Learning Objectives

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d. Subject Content

A teacher must choose subject contents that support each objective. Subject content comprises the selection and organization of the specific knowledge, skills, and attitudinal factors of any topic.

e. Pre-Assessment

Pre-Assessment is important to do because the teachers can find, first, to what extent each student has acquired the prerequisites for studying the topic. Second, to what extend of each student may have already mastered the subjects to be studied.

f. Teaching Learning Activities and Resources

The teachers must determine the most efficient and effective method for teaching. After that, teachers should select materials to provide learning experiences that will utilize the content associated with each objective.

g. Supporting Services

These services include funds, facilities, equipment, and personnel whose time must be scheduled for participation in the instructional plan. Supporting services must be considered at the same time instructional plans are being made and materials being selected.

h. Evaluation

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several reports about the learning and teaching progress; teachers, school, and the other educators can analyze the better quality of teaching.

Figure 2.1 Kemp’s Model (Kemp, 1977:9)

5. Twelfth Grade Characteristic

The students of senior high school (SMA) at twelfth grade have the same characteristic as like the eleventh grades that enter transitional era from children to adolescence after passing puberty. Nevertheless, they are more mature than the eleventh but still less mature than the first semester of university student, so they are in the middle. According to Hurlock (1949: 204), the twelfth grade students

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have two specific characteristics. First, students will only care and make a big effort in the subjects that they are most interested in.

“Interest and motivation are closely related, and so the adolescent who has a strong interest in a subject, based on the belief that it will help him achieve his vocational goal, will put great effort into mastering it. As a result, he will do best

in the subjects he regards as useful.” Hurlock (1949: 204)

Second, most students will do their tasks better if they are taught by a teacher they considered as a kind and nice teacher. The adolescent who enjoys his / her studies and feels that his / her teachers treat him / her fairly will do good academic work.

Entering Stella Duce 1 Senior High School, the school is considered having high human resources in learning. Based on the writer’s observation, some characteristics of the twelfth grade students in Stella Duce 1 Senior High School in teaching-learning activities showed that first; they love challenge when they are given new or difficult materials. Second, they demand interesting, enjoyable materials and activities. In some way, the materials can reinforce the students to get involved in the activities and obtain the best result on them.

B. Theoretical Framework

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other. To ensure whether a program is going well or not, the writer need to evaluate it. In addition, the writer’s viewpoint was in line Chelimsky (1997: 97-188). As cited in Hutchinson and Waters (1994), Chelimsky explained that evaluation is an aid to strengthen practice, organization and programs. He also added that evaluation helps to show how well the course is actually fulfilling the need. To support an evaluation on the collaborative English teaching program, the adaptation of an Instructional Design System of Kemp (1977) was employed. In this research, the writer adapted one of the parts of an Instructional Design System of Kemp to measure students’ fluency in speaking. The part that the writer employed was an evaluation part. Based on Kemp (1977), evaluation was a part where the teachers ready to measure the learning outcomes to the objectives.

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28 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

This chapter elaborates the whole methodology of the research. Thus, this chapter will discuss the research method, research participants, research instruments, data gathering techniques, data analysis, and research procedures.

A. Research Method

The study was a descriptive qualitative study that was carried out to evaluate a collaborative teaching program between Stella Duce 1 Senior High School and ELTI Yogyakarta. Thus, qualitative research usually employs the form of description to present data instead of the numbers. In this research, the data collected was in the form of statements. The statements gathered from the perceptions of teachers, students and the academic directors of ELTI Yogyakarta.

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Related to this study, the writer conducted a survey to evaluate collaborative teaching program between ELTI Gramedia and Stella Duce 1 senior high school Yogyakarta. According to Chelimsky (1997: 97-188) as cited in Hutchinson and Waters (1994), “evaluation is an aid to strengthen our practice, organization and programs.” Evaluation helps to show how well the course is actually fulfilling the need. Supporting the previous theory from Chelimsky, Hutchinson & Waters (1987: 145) stated that, a program or course evaluation research that is supposed to be able to asses whether the course objectives are being met – whether the course, in other words, is doing what it was designed to do. Course evaluation also plays a useful social role, by showing the various parties involved (teachers, learners, sponsors and so on) that their views are important.

B. Research Participants

As a survey research, this study required a group of people as participants. Since the number of the participants should be limited to make it accessible, a sampling procedure was implemented.

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In this research, the Academic Directors of ELTI Yogyakarta, the Assistant Principals of Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta, the English teachers of Stella Duce I Senior High School, the twelfth grade students of Stella Duce I Senior High School, and the English teachers of ELTI Yogyakarta who were involved in collaborative teaching program were chosen as the participants.

The participants for the questionnaire were forty twelfth grade students of Stella Duce I Senior High School, two English teachers of Stella Duce I Senior High School, and ten ELTI English teachers. The participants for the interview were two Academic Directors of ELTI Yogyakarta and two Vice Principals of Stella Duce 1 Senior High School Yogyakarta. The writer considered the data result as a supporting data would support the primary data which was the questionnaire data result.

This research implemented purposive sampling. The participants were chosen based on the information that were intended to be obtained. According to Ary et al. (2002: 168), “gathering the data from all of the population will be expensive and needs much time.”

1. The Academic Directors of ELTI Yogyakarta

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2. The Assistant Principals of Stella Duce I Senior High School

The writer conducted interview to the Vice Principals of Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta. The Vice Principal for Curriculum and the Vice Principal for Public Relations were chosen since they possessed the knowledge about the collaborative English teaching program’s background, the students’ needs, and the difficulties in learning speaking English in school.

3. The English Teachers of Stella Duce I Senior High School

The writer distributed questionnaire to two English teachers of Stella Duce I Senior High School Yogyakarta. They were chosen as participants since they knew the students’ characteristics, needs, performance in class, and difficulties in learning speaking.

4. The Twelfth Grade Students of Stella Duce I Senior High School The twelfth grade students of Stella Duce 1 Senor High School Yogyakarta were the main participants of this study since the collaborative English teaching program were designed for them. The writer gave the students questionnaires to obtain information about their understanding and opinions about collaborative English teaching program, their needs and difficulties in learning speaking.

5. The English Teachers of ELTI Yogyakarta

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C. Research Setting

The collaborative teaching English program was conducted in the ELTI Yogyakarta class. In addition, the writer conducted this research in 22nd September 2009 until 14th October 2009.

D. Research Instruments

To answer the research questions, the writer employed two instruments: interview and questionnaire. To support the data from interview and questionnaire, the writer also included the video recording.

1. Interview

To obtain deeper answers from the respondents and the clarity of the respondents’ answers, the writer used interview. According Fetterman as cited by Fraenkel and Wallen (1994: 385), “interview is described as the most important data collection technique a qualitative researcher possesses.” However, in this study the writer employed semi-structured interview. The semi-structured interview aimed to enable the participants to answer the questions freely but still in the line of some principle questions. In order to keep the interview in track, the writer used interview guideline.

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interview questions were intended to reveal the respondents’ response further. The examples of interview guide could be seen as mentioned below.

Table 3.1 the interview guideline

NO Aspects 1. The descriptions of the collaborative English teaching

program’s background

2. The difficulties in teaching the twelfth grade students

3. The strengths of the collaborative English teaching program

Further, the writer interviewed the Academic Directors of ELTI Yogyakarta as participants since the academic directors possessed the knowledge about the program’s backgrounds and characteristics, the students’ needs, the materials, and the teaching learning process.

2. Questionnaire

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This study employed both close-ended and open-ended questionnaires. To analyze the result, the writer applied Likert scale. According to Fraenkel and Wallen (1994: 371), “Likert scale assesses attitudes toward a topic by presenting a set of statements about the topic.” In this research, the questionnaire provided responses one up to four. The number indicated whether they strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. In this research, scale 1 represented strongly agree e. Scale 2 represented agree. Scale 3 represented disagree. The last scale, scale 4 represented strongly disagree. The various agree-disagree responses are assigned a numeric number and the total scale is found by summing up the numeric numbers. This total score represents the individual’s attitude toward the topic.

To provide the answer of the research questions, the questionnaire was divided into two parts. The first was close-ended. In close-ended question part, the participants were provided several questions and the participants should answer based on the provided responses. The writer provided thirteen questions to be responded. The second part was open-ended. In this part, the participants were given free opportunity to provide the response to the questions.

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Below is the blueprint of the questionnaire.

Table 3.2 Questionnaire Blueprint

Number Question Description

1. 1 to 2 These two questions gathered information about the participants’ background knowledge about

Collaborative Teaching English Program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School.

2. 3 to 4 These two questions gathered information about the participants’ perception on Collaborative Teaching English Program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School.

3. 5 to 8 These four questions gathered information about the participants’ perception on the materials and activities given on Collaborative Teaching English Program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School.

4. 9 to 13 and A to C

These five questions gathered information about the participants’ perception on the effect of conducting Collaborative Teaching English Program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School.

Underlying on the blueprint, the questionnaire was divided into four

categories of questions. The first part was asking the respondents’ background

knowledge about Collaborative English Teaching Program between ELTI and

Stella Duce 1 Senior High School. According to Altman et al,(1994: 100) “past

experiences is one of perceptual factors affecting someone’s perception.” The first

two questions dealing with the respondent’s background knowledge about the

collaborative teaching program.

The second part and the third part– the question number three to eight –

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Program between ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School. To answer the first

research problem, thus questions number three to four were concerned on the

student’ perception.

The fourth part was to address the second and third problems. This part

consisted of five close-ended questions- questions number nine to thirteen. Next,

there were three open-ended questions about the respondents’ perception on the

effect of conducting Collaborative Teaching English Program between ELTI and

Stella Duce 1 Senior High School.

3. Video Recording

According to Bodgan (1982: 104), video recording is one of the methods to obtain data in qualitative research. Moreover, he states that the visual record taken from video can help the researcher to remember and help manage the data. In this research, the writer used video recorder to provide additional data that would be used to answer the first question listed in the problem formulation. The writer would take notes based on the visual record or the video in order to give additional data and support the main data from the questionnaire.

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teacher gave some questions based on what was explained previously, the students could not give any answer.

Based on the explanation of the research instruments above, the following is the table of the data collection:

Table 3.3 the Writer’s collected data

Instruments Participants Time Data Obtained Research Problem

Interview The Vice

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Table 3.3 the Writer’s collected data

Instruments Participants Time Data Obtained Research Problem Questionnaires the twelfth

grade students

E. Data Gathering Technique

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In interviewing the participants, the writer allowed them to explore and expand their answers. In addition, the writer also conducted class observation in order to record the video of the collaborative English teaching activities in the classroom. The writer conducted the video recording on 8th – 14th October 2009.

Table 3.4 the Writer’s Data Gathering Technique

F. Data Analysis

After the writer carried out interviews and distributed questionnaires to collect the data, the writer analyzed the recorded interviews as the research data in order to evaluate the materials.

In this study, the writer calculated the questionnaires data in the form of percentage before analyzing the data. As stated by Ary, Jacob, and Razavieh (2002: 125), percentages are calculated by dividing the total number in one category by the total number in all categories and multiplying the result by 100.

Data Collection Purposes

Library study , Academic Directors of ELTI and Assistant Principals of Stella Duce 1 Senior High School interviews, and

questionnaires

To answer the first problem

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Formulation:

P = (X ÷ X’) x 100%

X= total number in one category

X’= total number in all categories P = number of percentage

In this particular research, the writer collected the data trough the questionnaires, afterwards the data were analyzed inductively and referred to the theory from Kemp (1977) and Bailey (2005) to the result in the collaborative English teaching program. Furthermore, to answer the first research question on the contributions of the collaborative English teaching program between ELTI-Gramedia Yogyakarta and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School in developing the fluency of students’ speaking skill, the writer referred to the results of questionnaire, the theory given by Bailey (2005) and also the theory from Kemp (1977). Next, to answer the second and third research questions, the writer referred to the results of the questionnaire and also the Program evaluation theory from Chelimsky (1997: 97-188).

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G. Research Procedure

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42 CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the research findings and the discussion of the findings. This chapter is an effort to resolve the contributions of the collaborative English teaching program (research problem no.1), the strengths of the collaborative English teaching program (research problem no.2) and the weaknesses of the collaborative English teaching program (research problem no.3).

A. Research Findings

1. The Contributions of the collaborative English teaching program a. Data Presentation of Interview

To obtain deeper answers from the respondents and the clarity of the respondents’ answers, the writer used interviews. According to Fetterman as cited by Fraenkel and Wallen (1994: 385), interview is described as important data collection technique a qualitative researcher possesses. Further, the interview had two aims. First, it aimed to provide much information and data. Second, it aimed to find out the answer the research problems. The interview result is used as additional data supporting the primary data, questionnaire result.

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further. Deeper information was required to find out the answer of the research problems. The detailed results of the ELTI’s coordinator and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School teacher interviews were specified as follows.

Table 4.1 the Results of the Interviews

No. Statements Responses

1. Descriptions of the collaborative English teaching

program

The collaborative English teaching program at the research setting was classified into an English program in which English active communication is taught by ELTI Yogyakarta in cooperation with Stella Duce 1 senior high school. 2. Description of the program’s

background

Speaking had been taught more intensively since the Ministry of National Education Implements English for active communication as an internally studied subject recently. The students’ responses were positive since the activities in speaking were very interesting.

3. The specification of the collaborative English teaching

program

ELTI applied functional language which is directly used as an English daily communication. Functional language specifically required students to be able to practice their skill in speaking. This program not only deals with speaking but also come together with listening since the focus of this program is on the active skill. 4. Difficulty in teaching the

twelfth grade students

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Table 4.1 the Results of the Interviews

No. Statements Responses

5. The strengths of the collaborative English teaching

program

There are so many strengths that I found in this program as follows

1. Students can learn English with interesting materials and topics

2. Students can improve their fluency in English.

3. Students get a lot of variation in the learning method and materials.

4. The learning process is very interesting because teachers use games, songs, pictures, cards and so on. The learning process is not only based on textbook.

5. The students feel the moving class through this program so they feel something different with the new class and new condition.

6. This is a new experience not only for the students but also the teachers. Most of the teachers are accustomed to teach in general classes but not in a collaborative class.

7. The students show their participation in the learning process and they show their activeness in the process. 8. For the teachers, this program can be

used as a teaching improvement 9. The teachers can try to handle a new

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Table 4.1 the Results of the Interviews

No. Statements Responses

6. The strengths of the collaborative English teaching

program

There are so many strengths that I found in this program as follows

10.Students can learn English with interesting materials and topics

11.Students can improve their fluency in English.

12.Students get a lot of variation in the learning method and materials.

13.The learning process is very interesting because teachers use games, songs, pictures, cards and so on. The learning process is not only based on textbook.

14.The students feel the moving class through this program so they feel something different with the new class and new condition.

15.This is a new experience not only for the students but also the teachers. Most of the teachers are accustomed to teach in general classes but not in a collaborative class.

16.The students show their participation in the learning process and they show their activeness in the process. 17.For the teachers, this program can be

used as a teaching improvement 18.The teachers can try to handle a new

classroom managements

19.Since the teachers should teach the twelfth grade students that enter transitional era from children to adolescence after passing puberty, the teachers can practice their patient much better and understand teenagers’ characteristic better.

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Table 4.1 the Results of the Interviews

No. Statements Responses

21.Since the teachers should teach the twelfth grade students that enter transitional era from children to adolescence after passing puberty, the teachers can practice their patient much better and understand teenagers’ characteristic better.

22.Many materials improvements in this program related to speaking tasks. 7. The weaknesses of the

collaborative English teaching program

There are some weaknesses that I found in this program as follows

1. Time allocation is very limited

2. Some tutors couldn’t create fun or interesting class atmosphere.

3. Sometimes, the used of textbook was not really effective

4. Some tutors are not creative enough in explaining or giving the materials.

b. Data Presentation of the Questionnaire

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September 2009, after the writer conducted class observation. The questionnaire is aimed to answer the research questions.

1) For Students

The questionnaires were distributed to forty students. The following is the results of the questionnaires.

Table 4.2 Students’ Questionnaire Results

No. Statements Strongly

ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School is clear.

0 0 62% 37%

2. The background of the implementation of the Collaborative Teaching English Program between

ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School is clear.

0 0 85% 15%

3 The implementation of this program is aimed to improve

students’ English communication proficiency.

0 0,25% 57,5% 37%

4. The Collaborative Teaching English Program is a new

teaching and learning program in order to facilitate students to be more active in

speaking English

0 0,5% 87% 0,7%

5. The topics and materials given are suitable for the

students’ needs

0,25% 27% 67% 0,25%

6. Class activities are proper with the topics given.

0 20% 70% 10%

7. Class activities and teaching learning media are able to

facilitate the students improving their English communication proficiency.

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Table 4.2 Students’ Questionnaire Results

No. Statements Strongly

Disagree

Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 8. Class activities, teaching

learning media and classroom atmosphere are

able to catch students’ attention to be more active in

class.

0 25% 72% 0,25%

9. Students’ activeness in speaking English was improving after joining the

Collaborative Teaching English Program.

0 10% 87% 0,25%

10. Students’ self-confidence in speaking English was improving after joining the

Collaborative Teaching English Program.

0 30% 67% 0,25%

11 Students’ English proficiencies are increase after joining this program

0 15% 82% 0,25%

12 The Collaborative English Teaching program still has some weaknesses aspects

0 10% 80% 10%

13. Generally, the Collaborative English Teaching program needs to be continued with

several improvements.

0 0,25% 67% 30%

2) For Teachers

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Table 4.3 Teachers’ Questionnaire Results

ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School is clear.

0 0 62% 37%

2. The background of the implementation of the collaborative English teaching program between

ELTI and Stella Duce 1 Senior High School is clear.

0 0 85% 15%

3. The implementation of this program is aimed to improve

students’ English communication proficiency.

0 0,25% 57% 37%

4. the collaborative English teaching program is a new

teaching and learning program in order to facilitate students to be more active in

speaking English

0 0,5% 87% 0,7%

5. The topics and materials given are suitable for the

students’ needs

0,25% 27% 67% 0,25%

6. Class activities are proper with the topics given.

0 20% 70% 10%

7. Class activities and teaching learning media are able to

facilitate the students improving their English communication proficiency.

0 27% 70% 0,25%

8. Class activities, teaching learning media and classroom atmosphere are

able to catch students’ attention to be more active in

class.

0 25% 79% 0,25%

9. Students’ activeness in speaking English was improving after joining the

collaborative English teaching program.

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Table 4.3 Teachers’ Questionnaire Results

No. Statements Strongly

Disagree

Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 10. Students’ self-confidence in

speaking English was improving after joining the

collaborative English teaching program.

0 30% 67% 0,25%

11 Students’ English proficiencies are increase after joining this program

0 15% 82% 0,25%

12 the collaborative English teaching program still has

some weaknesses aspects

0 10% 80% 10%

13. Generally, the collaborative English teaching program needs to be continued with

several improvements.

0 0,25% 67% 30%

2. The strengths of the collaborative English teaching program a) For Students

Table 4.4 Students’ Questionnaire Results

No. Statements Strongly

Disagree

Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 5. The topics and materials

given are suitable for the students’ needs

0,25% 27% 67% 0,25%

6. Class activities are proper with the topics given.

0 20% 70% 10%

7. Class activities and teaching learning media are able to

facilitate the students improving their English communication proficiency.

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Table 4.4 Students’ Questionnaire Results

No. Statements Strongly

Disagree

Disagree Agree Strongly Agree 8. Class activities, teaching

learning media and classroom atmosphere are

able to catch students’ attention to be more active in

class.

0 25% 72% 0,25%

9. Students’ activeness in speaking English was improving after joining the

collaborative English teaching program.

0 10% 87% 0,25%

10. Students’ self-confidence in speaking English was improving after joining the

collaborative English teaching program.

0 30% 67% 0,25%

11 Students’ English proficiencies are increase after joining this program

0 15% 82% 0,25%

From the questionnaire result, most of the students agreed that the topics and materials given were suitable for their needs. It was proved by the data gathered from the questionnaires, as shown in table 4.4. More than half of participants (67%) did agree that topics and materials given were suitable for their need, while the 27% of the participants disagree with that statement.

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class, such as games, discussion, and group work. They agreed that those activities could help them also in improving the fluency of their speaking skill.

Further, the participants possessed positive perception towards class activities and teaching learning media that were able to facilitate the students in improving their English communication proficiency. More than 60% participants agreed with the statement given. They thought that the learning media became the most interesting that could attract them to learn English. The learning media could be some pictures, cards, books, games, and so on. This result had a correlation to the next statement that class activities, teaching learning media and classroom atmosphere were able to catch students’ attention to be more active in class.

When someone was interested in perceiving certain stimulus at the first time, he or she would intend to know and learn more about it. In this case, having good impression could encourage someone to learn about something. These impressions would ultimately lead to the positive perception, in which the person felt happy and like the thing. On contrary, having bad impression would lead people to develop negative perceptions, in which people would feel unhappy and dislike the thing. From the result, there were 72% of participants agreed that the class activities, teaching learning media and classroom atmosphere were able to catch their attention to be more active in class.

Gambar

Figure 2.1  Kemp’s Model (Kemp, 1977:9)……………………………….25
Figure 2.1 Kemp’s Model (Kemp, 1977:9)
Table 3.1 the interview guideline
Table 3.2 Questionnaire Blueprint
+7

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