E-Business and. AMTI - Antonius Rachmat C, S.Kom, M.Cs

Teks penuh

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E-Business and

E-Commerce

E-Commerce

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Tradisional vs Elektronik

• Sulit promosi & akses pasar

• Harus Face-to-face

• Bersifat Paperwork

• Biaya tinggi & Birokrasi

• Prosedur manual

• Akses pasar mudah

• Penilaian independent

• Negosiasi & penawaran standard

• Bersifat Paperless

• Prosedur manual

• Pasar kurang kompetitif

• Butuh pegawai banyak

• Butuh lokasi fisik

• Alur informasi transparan

• Anywhere-anytime

• Keamanan?

• Bisa bersifat “maya”

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E-Business

E-Business merupakan kegiatan berbisnis di Internet yang

tidak saja meliputi pembelian, penjualan dan jasa, tapi juga meliputi pelayanan pelanggan dan kerja sama dengan rekan bisnis (baik individual maupun instansi).

E – Business meliputi E-Commerce E – Business meliputi E-Commerce

EC can also be conducted via: •Private networks,

•Local area networks (LANs)

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E-Commerce

• Penggunaan media elektronik untuk melakukan perniagaan / perdagangan

– Telepon, fax, ATM, handphone, SMS

– Banking: ATM phone banking, internet banking

• Secara khusus

• Secara khusus

– Penggunaan Internet untuk melakukan perniagaan

– Ada transaksi

• E-Commerce Perdagangan:

– Buy, sell, serving, transfer, exchange

• E-Commerce dimulai sejak 1970-an

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EC model newcomers

• Blogers: blogspot, wordpress

• Chemistry: match.com

• Photo sharing: flickr.com

• Video Broadcast: Youtube.com

• Community: facebook dan friendster

• Radio online: swaragama, yogyastreamers.com dll

• Online encyclopedia: wikipedia.org

• Online encyclopedia: wikipedia.org

• E-book sharing: swook.com, flazx.com

• E-learning: ratemyprofessor.com, collegerecruting.com, powerstudents.com

• Job market: jobsdb.com

• Travel Service: expedia.com

• Iklan: Google AdSense & AdWord

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E-Commerce Business Model

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E

E

E

E-

-

-

-Commerce

Commerce

Commerce

Commerce Application

Application

Application

Application

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

sistem informasi pendukung e-business, yg menyediakan berbagai macam kebutuhan

perusahaan seperti supply chain, CRM, marketing, warehouse, shipping, dan payment, serta mampu melakukan otomatisasi proses bisnis

melakukan otomatisasi proses bisnis

CRM (Customer Relationship management)

sistem kustomisasi real time yang memanajemen kustomer dan melakukan personalisasi produk dan servis berdasarkan keinginan kustomer

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E

E

E

E-

-

-

-Business Application

Business Application

Business Application

Business Application

(lanjutan..)(lanjutan..)(lanjutan..)(lanjutan..)

EAI (Enterprise Application Integration)

merupakan konsep integrasi berbagai

proses bisnis dengan memperbolehkan

mereka saling bertukar data berbasis

mereka saling bertukar data berbasis

message.

SCM (Supply Chain Management)

manajemen rantai supply secara otomatis

terkomputerisasi.

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Customer service step

Requirement: mengetahui kebutuhan customer, bs

didapat dari catalog / CD

Acquisition: membantu customer memilih produk,

termasuk order online, nego, dan delivery termasuk order online, nego, dan delivery

Ownership: support kepemilikan produk dari

customer, dgn forum, FAQ, renewal, mailing list

Retirement: support ttg layanan purna jual, online

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EAI system

integrating application

(contains the composition logic)

message broker, ex: CORBA, RMI

SmartQuotation DBMS

applications SmartForecasting XYZ

SmartQuotation adapter database adapter SmartForecasting adapter e-mail adapter XYZ adapter

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Components of EC

People: Sellers, buyers, intermediaries, information systems specialists and other employees, and any other participants

Public policy: Legal and other policy and regulating issues, such as

privacy protection and taxation

Marketing and advertising: Like any other business, EC usually

Marketing and advertising: Like any other business, EC usually requires the support of marketing and advertising

Support services: Many services are needed to support EC. They range from payments to order delivery and after sales services

Business partnerships: Joint ventures, e-marketplaces, and partnerships are some frequently occurring relationships in e-business

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A framework for E-commerce

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Kemampuan E-Commerce

OTOMATISASI, proses otomatisasi yang menggantikan proses

manual.(“enerprise resource planning” concept)

INTEGRASI, proses yang terintegrasi yang akan meningkatkan

efisiensi dan efektivitas proses. (“just in time” concept)

PUBLIKASI, memberikan jasa promosi dan komunikasi atas produk

dan jasa yang dipasarkan secara elektronik. (“electronic cataloging” concept)

concept)

INTERAKSI, pertukaran data atau informasi antar berbagai pihak

yang akan meminimalkan “human error” (“electronic data interchange/EDI” concept)

TRANSAKSI, kesepakatan antara 2 pihak untuk melakukan transaksi

yang melibatkan institusi lainnya (pihak ketiga) sebagai pihak yang menangani pembayaran (“electronic payment” concept)

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Manfaat E-Commerce

Jenis bisnis baru

– Bisa menjual tanpa modal besar

Market exposure, melebarkan jangkauan

Memperpendek waktu product cycle

Memperpendek waktu product cycle

– Tidak perlu banyak tangan

Meningkatkan customer loyality

Mengurangi biaya produksi dan promosi

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Manfaat EC

• Mengurangi biaya komunikasi

• Hampir tidak terlihat perbedaan antara perusahaan besar dan kecil

• Memudahkan konsumen memilih barang, 24 jam nonstop

nonstop

• Mempercepat dan mempermudah transaksi, anywhere

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Layanan E-Commerce Khas Indonesia

• Contoh layanan khas Indonesia – Wartel & Warnet

– SMS

– Berganti-ganti handphone (lifestyle?)

– Games, kuis

– Games, kuis

• Peluang bisnis baru yang khas Indonesia – SMS/Mobile-based applications

– nonton TV dengan chatting

– Games, kuis

– Sport (World Cup)

– Jual Buku online (bukabuku.com, bukukita.com)

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Jenis E-Commerce

• Business-to-Consumer (B2C) – Electronic storefronts/mall • Business-to-Business (B2B) – Google/Amazon • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) – Eceran / Lelang • Business-to-Employee (B2E)

– Employee juga sebagai customer/supplier

• E-Government

– Layanan online pemerintah

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Hambatan / Tantangan

• Infrastruktur telekomunikasi yang masih terbatas dan mahal • Delivery channel

– Pengiriman barang masih ditakutkan hilang di jalan.

– Ketepatan waktu dalam pengiriman barang

– Jangkauan daerah pengiriman barang

• Kultur dan Kepercayaan (trust) • Security

• Munculnya jenis kejahatan baru • Munculnya jenis kejahatan baru

– Penggunaan kartu kredit curian / palsu

– Penipuan melalui SMS, kuis

• Ketidakjelasan hukum

– Digital signature

– Uang digital / cybermoney

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Faktor

Faktor

Faktor

Faktor-

-

-

-Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan

Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan

Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan

Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan

E

E

E

E-

-

-Business

-

Business

Business

Business

• Tidak ada komitmen yang utuh dari manajemen.

• Penerapan e-business tidak diikuti proses change management.

• Tidak profesionalnya vendor teknologi informasi yang menjadi mitra bisnis

• Buruknya infrastruktur komunikasi

• Tidak selarasnya strategi TI dengan strategi perusahaan. • Tidak selarasnya strategi TI dengan strategi perusahaan. • Adanya masalah keamanan dalam bertransaksi

• Kurangnya dukungan finansial

• Belum adanya peraturan yang mendukung dan melindungi pihak-pihak yang bertransaksi (cyberlaw),

• Menggunakan target jangka pendek sebagai pijakan investasi e-business.

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Kiat Membangun E

Kiat Membangun E

Kiat Membangun E

Kiat Membangun E-

-

-

-Business

Business

Business

Business

Membenahi terlebih dahulu sistem pengelolaan sumber

daya perusahaan secara terpadu.

Membuat perencanaan investasi

teknologi secara mendetail dan komprehensif.

Menentukan arah investasi teknologi

Menentukan arah investasi teknologi

untuk menjawab kebutuhan jangka panjang.

Membentuk struktur organisasi yang fleksibel dan adaptif terhadap perubahan.

Melakukan kerjasama kondusif dengan berbagai mitra bisnis (vendor, pemasok barang, lembaga keuangan, dan lain sebagainya).

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Jenis E-Payment

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How e-credit cards work.

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Auctions and Bartering

The major mechanism for buying and selling on the Internet is the electronic catalog.

There are two common mechanisms used in its implementation: electronic auctions and bartering online

• Electronic Auctions (e-Auctions): A market mechanism by which sellers place offers and buyers make sequential bids

• Forward auctions are auctions where sellers place items at sites for auction and buyers bid continuously for the items.

• Reverse auctions, have one buyer, usually an organization, that wants to buy a product or a service. Suppliers are

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Mobile Commerce: Overview

Mobile commerce (m-Commerce,

m-Business)—any e-Commerce done in a

wireless environment, especially via the

Internet

Internet

– Can be done via the Internet, private communication lines, smart cards, etc.

– Creates opportunity to deliver new services to existing customers and to attract new ones

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Contoh M-commerce

Pembayaran tagihan melalui mobile phones

Pengenalan suara melalui mobile phones untuk

membeli karcis bioskop

Pembelian tiket pesawat melalui mobile phones

Pembelian tiket pesawat melalui mobile phones

SMS informasi kuliah

Pembayaran uang kuliah

Transfer dana melalui mobile phone

Informasi kurs dan saham

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m-Commerce Terminology

• Generations

– 1G: 1979-1992 wireless technology

– 2G: current wireless technology; mainly accommodates text

– 2.5G: interim technology accommodates graphics

– 3G: 3rd generation technology (2001-2005) supports rich media (video clips)

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Terminology and Standards

• GPS: Satellite-based Global Positioning System

• PDA: Personal Digital Assistant—handheld wireless computer

• SMS: Short Message Service

• SMS: Short Message Service

• EMS: Enhanced Messaging Service

• MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service

• WAP: Wireless Application Protocol

• Smartphones—Internet-enabled cell phones with attached applications

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Tantangan m-commerce

Security, protocol, standards

Usability user interface

Heterogeneous Technologies

– Platform, programming language, databases, etc

– Platform, programming language, databases, etc

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Usability Approaches

Graffiti (Scaled-down handwriting recognition, Palm

devices)

T9 Text Input (Word completion, most cell phones)

Full alphanumeric keypad & scrollbar (Blackberry)

Restricted VoiceXML grammars for better voice

Restricted VoiceXML grammars for better voice recognition

Careful task-based Graphical User Interface & Dialog Design

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Limitations of m-Commerce

Usability Problem

– small size of mobile devices (screens, keyboards, etc)

– limited storage capacity of devices

– limited storage capacity of devices

– hard to browse sites

Technical Limitations

– lack of a standardized security protocol

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Limiting technological factors

Networks •Bandwidth •Interoperability •Cell Range Localisation •Upgrade of Network •Upgrade of Mobile Devices Mobile Middleware •Standards •Distribution Mobile Devices •Battery •Memory •CPU •Display Size •Roaming •Precision Security •Mobile Device •Network •Gateway

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Di belakang Layar EC & MC

Teknologi Client Server

– Three tier layer (+ web)

Teknologi Web Database (Database Layer)

– Oracle, MySQL, SQL server, Postgres

– Oracle, MySQL, SQL server, Postgres

Teknologi Middleware

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Application Layer Technologies

• Micro-browser based:

WAP/WML, HDML: Openwave iMode (HTML): NTT DoCoMo Web Clipping: Palm.net

XHTML: W3C

• Voice-browser based:

• Voice-browser based: VoiceXML: W3C

• Client-side:

J2ME: Java 2 Micro Edition (Sun) WMLScript: Openwave

• Messaging:

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