E-Business and. ATI - Antonius Rachmat C, S.Kom, M.Cs

Teks penuh

(1)

E-Business and

E-Commerce Architecture

E-Commerce Architecture

(2)

Tradisional vs Elektronik

• Sulit promosi & akses pasar

• Harus Face-to-face

• Bersifat Paperwork

• Biaya tinggi & Birokrasi

• Prosedur manual

• Akses pasar mudah

• Penilaian independent

• Negosiasi & penawaran standard

• Bersifat Paperless

• Prosedur manual

• Pasar kurang kompetitif

• Butuh pegawai banyak

• Butuh lokasi fisik

• Alur informasi transparan

• Anywhere-anytime

• Keamanan?

• Bisa bersifat “maya”

(3)
(4)

E-Business

E-Business merupakan kegiatan berbisnis di Internet yang

tidak saja meliputi pembelian, penjualan dan jasa, tapi juga meliputi pelayanan pelanggan dan kerja sama dengan rekan bisnis (baik individual maupun instansi).

E – Business meliputi E-Commerce E – Business meliputi E-Commerce

EC can also be conducted via: •Private networks,

•Local area networks (LANs)

(5)

E-Commerce

Penggunaan media elektronik untuk melakukan

perniagaan / perdagangan

– Telepon, fax, ATM, handphone, SMS

– Banking: ATM phone banking, internet banking

Secara khusus

Secara khusus

– Penggunaan Internet untuk melakukan perniagaan

– Ada transaksi yang terjadi

E-Commerce Perdagangan:

– Buy, sell, serving, transfer, exchange

E-Commerce dimulai sejak 1970-an

(6)

EC model newcomers

• Blog: blogspot.com, wordpress.com

• Chemistry: match.com

• Photo sharing: flickr.com

• Video Broadcast: Youtube.com

• Community: Facebook, Friendster, Hi5

• Radio online: Petra, Swaragama, Yogyastreamers

• Radio online: Petra, Swaragama, Yogyastreamers

• Online encyclopedia: Wikipedia.org

• E-learning: E-class, ratemyprofessor.com, collegerecruting.com, powerstudents.com

• Job market: jobsdb.com, karir.com

• Travel Service: expedia.com

• Iklan: Google AdSense & AdWord

(7)
(8)

E-Commerce Business Model

(9)

Google Universe Commerce

Google Web Search Engine

Google Mobile Apps (Android)

Google Translate

Google+, Blogger

Google Chrome & Picasa

Google Chrome & Picasa

Google Docs, QuickOffice

Google Groups

Google Scholar

Google Earth & Google Maps

Google Analytics, Adsense, Adwords

(10)

E-Commerce Software

ERP (Enterprise Resource Planning)

sistem informasi pendukung e-business, yg

menyediakan berbagai macam kebutuhan

perusahaan seperti supply chain, CRM, marketing,

warehouse, shipping, dan payment, serta mampu

melakukan otomatisasi proses bisnis

melakukan otomatisasi proses bisnis

CRM (Customer Relationship management)

sistem kustomisasi real time yang memanajemen

kustomer dan melakukan personalisasi produk dan

servis berdasarkan keinginan kustomer, dan menjaga

hubungan baik dengan kustomer

(11)

E-Business Software

EAI (Enterprise Application Integration)

merupakan konsep integrasi berbagai

proses bisnis dengan memperbolehkan

mereka saling bertukar data berbasis

mereka saling bertukar data berbasis

message.

SCM (Supply Chain Management)

manajemen rantai supply secara otomatis

dan terkomputerisasi.

(12)
(13)
(14)

Customer service steps

Requirement: mengetahui kebutuhan customer, bs

didapat dari catalog / CD

Acquisition: membantu customer memilih produk,

termasuk order online, nego, dan delivery

termasuk order online, nego, dan delivery

Ownership: support kepemilikan produk dari

customer, dgn forum, FAQ, renewal, mailing list

Retirement: support ttg layanan purna jual, online

(15)

EAI system

integrating application

(contains the composition logic)

message broker, ex: CORBA, RMI

SmartQuotation DBMS

applications SmartForecasting XYZ

SmartQuotation adapter database adapter SmartForecasting adapter e-mail adapter XYZ adapter

(16)
(17)
(18)

Components of EC

People: Sellers, buyers, intermediaries, information systems

specialists and other employees, and any other participants

Public policy: Legal and other policy and regulating issues, such as

privacy protection and taxation

Marketing and advertising: Like any other business, EC usually Marketing and advertising: Like any other business, EC usually

requires the support of marketing and advertising

Support services: Many services are needed to support EC. They

range from payments to order delivery and after sales services

Business partnerships: Joint ventures, e-marketplaces, and

partnerships are some frequently occurring relationships in e-business

(19)

A framework for E-commerce

(20)

Kemampuan E-Commerce

OTOMATISASI, proses otomatisasi yang menggantikan proses

manual.(“enerprise resource planning” concept)

INTEGRASI, proses yang terintegrasi yang akan meningkatkan

efisiensi dan efektivitas proses. (“just in time” concept)

PUBLIKASI, memberikan jasa promosi dan komunikasi atas produk

dan jasa yang dipasarkan secara elektronik. (“electronic cataloging” concept)

concept)

INTERAKSI, pertukaran data atau informasi antar berbagai pihak

yang akan meminimalkan “human error” (“electronic data interchange/EDI” concept)

TRANSAKSI, kesepakatan antara 2 pihak untuk melakukan transaksi

yang melibatkan institusi lainnya (pihak ketiga) sebagai pihak yang menangani pembayaran (“electronic payment” concept)

(21)

Jenis E-Commerce

• Business-to-Consumer (B2C) – Electronic storefronts/mall • Business-to-Business (B2B) – Google/Amazon • Consumer-to-Consumer (C2C) – Eceran / Lelang – Eceran / Lelang • Business-to-Employee (B2E)

– Employee juga sebagai customer/supplier • E-Government

– Layanan online pemerintah • M-Commerce

(22)

Auctions and Bartering

The major mechanism for buying and selling on the Internet is the electronic catalog.

There are two common mechanisms used in its implementation: electronic auctions and bartering online

• Electronic Auctions (e-Auctions): A market mechanism by which sellers place offers and buyers make sequential bids

• Forward auctions are auctions where sellers place items at sites for auction and buyers bid continuously for the items.

• Reverse auctions, have one buyer, usually an organization, that wants to buy a product or a service. Suppliers are

(23)

Manfaat E-Commerce

Jenis bisnis baru

Bisa menjual tanpa modal besar

Market exposure, melebarkan jangkauan

Memperpendek waktu product cycle

Memperpendek waktu product cycle

Tidak perlu banyak tangan

Meningkatkan customer loyality

Mengurangi biaya produksi dan promosi

(24)

Manfaat E-Commerce

Mengurangi biaya komunikasi

Hampir tidak terlihat perbedaan antara perusahaan

besar dan kecil

Memudahkan konsumen memilih barang, 24 jam

nonstop

nonstop

Mempercepat dan mempermudah transaksi,

anywhere

(25)

Layanan E-Commerce Khas Indonesia

Contoh layanan khas Indonesia

– Wartel & Warnet

– SMS

– Berganti-ganti handphone (lifestyle?)

– Games, kuis

– Games, kuis

Peluang bisnis baru yang khas Indonesia

– SMS/Mobile-based applications

– nonton TV dengan chatting

– Games, kuis

– Sport (World Cup)

– Jual Buku online (bukabuku.com, bukukita.com)

(26)

Hambatan / Tantangan

• Infrastruktur telekomunikasi yang masih terbatas dan mahal

• Delivery channel

– Pengiriman barang masih ditakutkan hilang di jalan.

– Ketepatan waktu dalam pengiriman barang

– Jangkauan daerah pengiriman barang • Kultur dan Kepercayaan (trust)

• Security

• Security

• Munculnya jenis kejahatan baru

– Penggunaan kartu kredit curian / palsu

– Penipuan melalui SMS, kuis • Ketidakjelasan hukum

– Digital signature

– Uang digital / cybermoney

(27)

Faktor-Faktor Penyebab Kegagalan

E-Business

• Tidak ada komitmen yang utuh dari manajemen.

• Penerapan e-business tidak diikuti proses change management.

• Tidak profesionalnya vendor teknologi informasi yang menjadi mitra bisnis

• Buruknya infrastruktur komunikasi

• Buruknya infrastruktur komunikasi

• Tidak selarasnya strategi TI dengan strategi perusahaan.

• Adanya masalah keamanan dalam bertransaksi

• Kurangnya dukungan finansial

• Belum adanya peraturan yang mendukung dan melindungi pihak-pihak yang bertransaksi (cyberlaw),

• Menggunakan target jangka pendek sebagai pijakan investasi e-business.

(28)

Web Commerce Technologies

Server hardware

Database Server

Server side programming language

Web Commerce Framework:

Web Commerce Framework:

Openchart

Zenchart

OsCommerce

Magneto

(29)
(30)
(31)
(32)

E-Commerce Framework Features

• Unlimited Categories • Unlimited Products • Unlimited Manufacturers • Multi Currency • Multi Language • Product Reviews • Product Reviews • Product Ratings • Open Source • Free Documentation • Templatable

• Automatic Image Resize

• 20+ Payment Gateways

(33)

Jenis E-Payment

(34)
(35)

Mobile Commerce: Overview

Mobile commerce (m-Commerce,

m-Business)—any e-Commerce done in a

wireless environment, especially via the

Internet

Internet

Can be done via the Internet, private

communication lines, smart cards, etc.

Creates opportunity to deliver new services to

existing customers and to attract new ones

(36)

Contoh M-commerce

Pengenalan suara melalui mobile phones untuk

pembelian musik

Pembelian tiket melalui mobile phones

SMS informasi dan iklan

SMS informasi dan iklan

Ringtone, Games, dan aplikasi

Pembayaran uang melalui bank

Transfer dana melalui bank

Informasi kurs dan saham

(37)

m-Commerce Terminology

Generations

1G: 1979-1992 wireless technology

2G: current wireless technology; mainly

accommodates text

2.5G: interim technology accommodates graphics

3G: 3

rd

generation technology (2001-2005) supports

rich media (video clips)

(38)

Terminology and Standards

GPS: Satellite-based Global Positioning System

PDA: Personal Digital Assistant—handheld wireless

computer

SMS: Short Message Service

SMS: Short Message Service

EMS: Enhanced Messaging Service

MMS: Multimedia Messaging Service

WAP: Wireless Application Protocol

Smartphones—Internet-enabled cell phones with

attached applications

(39)

Tantangan m-commerce

Security, protocol, standards

Usability user interface

Heterogeneous Technologies

Platform, programming language, databases, etc

Platform, programming language, databases, etc

(40)

Limitations of m-Commerce

Usability Problem

small size of mobile devices (screens,

keyboards, etc)

limited storage capacity of devices

limited storage capacity of devices

hard to browse sites

Technical Limitations

lack of a standardized security protocol

(41)

Limiting technological factors

Networks •Bandwidth •Interoperability •Cell Range Localisation •Upgrade of Network •Upgrade of Mobile Devices Mobile Middleware •Standards •Distribution Mobile Devices •Battery •Memory •CPU •Display Size •Roaming •Precision Security •Mobile Device •Network •Gateway

(42)

Di belakang Layar EC & MC

Teknologi Client Server

Three tier layer (+ web)

Teknologi Web Database (Database Layer)

Oracle, MySQL, SQL server, Postgres

Oracle, MySQL, SQL server, Postgres

Teknologi Middleware

(43)

Application Layer Technologies

Micro-browser based:

WAP/WML, XHTML, HTML5: W3C

Voice-browser based:

VoiceXML: W3C, VOIP

Client-side:

Client-side:

J2ME: Java 2 Micro Edition (Sun)

WMLScript: Openwave

Flash: Adobe

Messaging:

(44)

NEXT

Figur

Memperbarui...

Referensi

Memperbarui...

Related subjects :