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INTRODUCTION The Language Learning Principles Reflected In EF’s English Threshold 2 Textbook.




Academic year: 2017

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A. Background of the Study

Textbook is a part of t eaching-learning process. It is very im port ant

as t he fact t hat t ext book has been used by t he t eachers since long t im e ago. It cont ains many various t asks w ith m any feat ures. The cont ent comm only based on the dem and of the curriculum or the st udent s’ needs.

The t ext book also provides t he st udent s needs. It is a m ean of educat ion w hich has a cont ent st andard. The st andard may change all t he t im e. This is one of the reason why t he cont ent of the t ext book needed t o be


The function of the book m ay be different based on the view of t he st udent s and t eacher but in general t he t ext book is a m ean of learning. For

t he t eachers, t he funct ions of the t ext book are as a m edia of t eaching, a pole of t eaching, and mat erials collect ion of t eaching. The t ext book contains of t ask or inst ruct ions w hich lead the t eacher t o follow them . He



lesson. M eans, w hen st udents forget about the subject s given by t he

t eachers, he could direct ly open the book and brow se it .

In t eaching English, t ext book is an essent ial part. It could lead the learning process bet t er w hen the m at erials in it in packed in the good qualit y. There is no rigid m easurem ent about book but the import ance of it can be seen from t he view of t eacher and st udent . Som e t eachers rely t oo

much on the t ext book. In some cases t hey cannot t each without t ext book. For short , the t ext books are very im port ant for t hem . Som e t eachers may not need t he t ext books t oo much because of t heir t eaching-st yle.

Com monly, t his kind of t eacher sees t he t ext books as t he supplement of t eaching. W hile Haycroft in Liz (2003) suggest s t hat one of t he primary advant ages of using t ext book is that t hey are psychologically essent ial for

t he st udent s since t heir progress and achievement can be measured concret ely w hen t hey use the t ext books.

The t ext book should be developed t im e by time. The developm ent

may be in the form of the developm ent of reading t ext s t o becom e m ore know ledgeable, the t ask should be developed to becom e more int erest ing, and the inst ructions must be student cent ered.



contained in m at erials. (2) view s on the nat ure and acquisit ion of

know ledge. (3) view of t he nat ure of language learning. (4) Role implicit mat erials. (5) opport unit ies for the developm ent of cognitive abilities, and (6) The values and at t itudes inherent in t he mat erials. How t o develop mat erials? The perspect ive can be used as a st andard. The perspect ives could lead the book t o becom e more int erest ing, moreover t he book could

offer w hat the st udent s need

Using t he perspect ives conduct ed by Litt lejohn and winddeat t t he researcher concluded the purposes of m at erials developm ent s as

following: to generalize t he subject cont ained, to m ake t he acquisition of t he know ledge clearer, t o learn t he language m ore nat urally, t o arrange t he mat erials based on the role, to give a place for t he developm ent of the

cognitive abilit y, and to facilit at e the values and att itudes.

Language learning principles could be t he opt ions t o develop the mat erials in the t ext book because principles observed t he st udents when

t hey w ere researched. Nunan (1991) concludes “ He (Curran) cam e t o the conclusion t hat success or failure in language t eaching depends not so much on whet her one engages in m eaningful pract ice rat her t han a pat t ern



signal that they are t he cent er of t he mat erials developm ent in language


Why “ English Threshold 2” ? This book is aut hored by a five members t eam (Joe Chapple, Adam Golub, Susan Hills, Li w hybrow , and Ingrid Wisnieska) nam ed English Threshold 2. These t ext books are arranged in a syst em at ic ways t hat makes t he st udent s pract ice English st ep by st ep

or w e can choose one of t he books t hat proper t o our st udent s abilities. The book w as first published in 1999 for EF learners only. It gives t hree of t he language skills (w rit ing, speaking and reading)

The research er is a t eacher of a senior high school in Kediri. He is also an English inst ructor in a nursery academy in Kediri. As a boy w ho w as brought up by ent repreneur parent s he est ablished an English course in

Kediri. This course is locat ed in a village in Kediri w here people think that English is not import ant . This reason m akes his st udent s are limit ed. M ost st udent s are t he son or daught er of t eachers. The course is fully-cont rolled

by t he researcher so t hat he can choose t he num bers of t he st udent s in every class, t he t ime, and t he m at erial. The Threshold English has t aught him t o arrange t he mat erials for his st udent s in t he course, so he t hinks



The researcher underlines t hat m at erials is very import ant for the

learning process. He has chosen “ t he English Threshold 2” for the advance level st udent s for t he following reasons: The t asks are challenging, it also cont ent s a speaking pract ice. For short , by using t his book t he st udent s could learn at least t hree aspect s of language skills (w rit ing reading and speaking) and tw o language feat ures (vocabulary and gram mar)

Using t he persp ect ives conduct ed by Lit tlejohn and Winddeat t above t he researcher concludes t he purposes of m at erials developm ent as following: to generalize t he subject cont ained, to m ake t he acquisition of

t he know ledge clearer, t o learn t he language m ore nat urally, t o arrange t he mat erials based on the role, to give a place for t he developm ent of the cognitive abilit y, and to facilit at e the values and att itudes.

Based on the considerat ion above, the researcher is int erest ed to comprehend the learning principles reflect ed “ English Threshold 2” , w hat is t he dominant language learning principles in it, and what the implicat ion of

t he language learning principles in t he book. Besides, learning principles have possibilit y t o answ er w hy t his book effect ive for learning English is and how the book could help t he t eachers t o t each English easily. Finally,


6 B. Problem Statement

The language learning Principles should be known by t he English t eachers. M oreover, t hey could underst and how t o apply them and what principles are applied in t he English t ext books. These principles w ere em erged by t he linguist s w ho are w ell-known for t heir dedication in languages learning. So, to find how these principles are applied in the

English t ext books w ould be an int erest ing st udy.

The English t ext s book like “ English Threshold 2” is arranged not by following t he curriculum of a count ry but it is arranged as a choice for t he

st udent s. They have t o pass a few levels t o be able t o st udy w it h this book. The researcher t hinks t hat the process of learning English is bet t er t his w ay, not by giving st udent s learning t arget each year t hat seem s force

t hem to learn English.

C. Research Question

Considering t he principles and the books, t he researcher form ulat es t he research problems as follow s:

1. What language learning principles are reflect ed in English Threshold 2?



3. What dominant language learning principle is in English Threshold 2?

4. What t he implicat ion of language t eaching in English Threshold 2?

D. Objective of the Study

In line with the formulat ion of the problem above t his st udy have t w o

object ives t o obt ain. They are:

1. t o find what language learning principles reflect ed in “ English Threshold 2”

2. t o find what is t he dominant language learning principles in “ English Threshold 2”

3. t o find what is t he dominant language learning principles used in

“ English Threshold 2”

4. t o find the frequency of t he language learning principles in “ English Threshold 2”

5. t o find the implicat ion of language t eaching in “ English Threshold 2 ”

E. Benefit of the Study



The result of t he research can be used as perspect ive in developing

mat erial. It is also an alt ernative choice t han syllabus or t o be elaborat ed w ith t he syllabus t o creat ed an int egrat ed m at erial

The m at erials development shouldn’t stop but it has t o be developed. The four principles are good references t o develop the mat erials. These principles will not be old fashioned in Indonesia at least

because English is st ill a foreign language. M eans here t he developm ent of t he m at erials can be based on the local feature.

Pract ically t he result of the research w ould help t he author of the

English st udent book (especially him self) t o develop the t eaching m at erials based on the language learning principles. The development may be in t he t ask, t he variet y of the tasks, or the arrangem ent of the chapt er.

For t he English t eacher, t hey could apply t he language learning principles in the learning process so t hey are able t o m ake t heir t eaching to become more int erest ing. They could choose one lesson in the “ English


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