Abelson, Donald E. “Think Tanks and U.S. ForeignPolicy: An Historical Perspective”, The Role of Think Tanks in U.S. ForeignPolicy (U.S. ForeignPolicy Agenda). An Electronic Journal of the U.S. Department of State. Volume 7. Number 3. 2002. 9-12.
57. Russia is interested in enhancing cooperation with the European Union as its principal trade and economic counterpart and important foreignpolicy partner, looks forward to strengthening mutual interaction, emphasizes the importance of establishment of four common spaces in the areas of economy; freedom, security and justice; external security; and scientific research and education, including cultural aspects. Russia stands for signing a new Russia-EU framework agreement on strategic partnership based on the principles of equality and mutual benefit. Russia will contribute to successful implementation of the Russia-EU joint initiative "Partnership for Modernization" and promotion of mutually beneficial energy cooperation aimed at creating an integrated European energy system on the basis of strict adherence to existing bilateral and multilateral treaty obligations. A long-term objective in that area is to establish a common Russia-EU market.
In this case, the authors take one of 3 models of decision making by Graham T. Allison to explaining Indonesia’s decision for its foreignpolicy from his book Essence of decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, to be the instrument for describing the proses of foreign politic of Indonesia toward Israel – Palestine conflict. The authors take the paradigm of decision making third model in which the authors view of Politics – Bureaucratic, which the unit of analysis of this model is the actions of officials government in applying the authority to the State, as the model most suited to this research. This models will explains that the government of Indonesia does not stand alone in making decisions about the case of Israel - Palestine, but also social process that is foreignpolicy is the result of the interaction, bargaining games and political process between the various actors and organizations in decision making process. 15
Although Indonesia is a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in fact, Indonesia is one of the countries that have proposed a review of the Declaration on grounds that the Declaration was drafted particularly by the great (Western) powers, when many of the developing nations of today were not yet independent and therefore did not participate in drafting the document. 14 Former President Soeharto has argued, for instance, that the Western concept is individualistic in nature and overlooks the rights of the society, the nation, and the state, whereas every individual is born in a society. Human rights cannot be separated from social responsibility. 15 Therefore the political format of the New Order had emphasised the primacy of Indonesian culture to achieve economic development and political stability 16 . As a consequence, the state was stronger than society as politics changed the nature of linkages between domestic politics and foreignpolicy.
By mentioning the name of The Almighty God, with this authentification statement I swear that my thesis entitled:RUSSIAN ANTI-AMERICA FOREIGNPOLICY IN THE DMITRY MEDVEDEV’S AND VLADIMIR PUTIN’S PRESIDENCIES, is my own original writing which has not been submitted by the other researcher whether to acomplish bachlor degree, published in scientific journal or published by newspaper.
Foreignpolicy of Indonesia in articulating issues of territories should be established based on adequate documents. A case resolution of Sipadan and Ligitan through international arbitration necessitating argumentation based on objective document turned into a valuable experience that negotiation in manipulative argumentation is contra- productive. So did a diplomatic issue of climate change. Geographically, Indonesia is located in tropical and strategic area to take roles in diplomacy. Indonesia achieved carbon credit by carbon-producing countries for reforestation in Indonesia. The fund was supposed to be utilized objectively to public, rather than ended for political campaigns in media and seminar. Indonesian government honesty to allocate the reforestation fund in proper sectors would lift public trust to Indonesian diplomatic activities. Capability of Indonesia in assigning the carbon credit fund to appropriate places would elevate the name of Indonesia as a responsible country.
Dengan catatan itu, dengan harapan dan ajakan itu, Saudara-saudara, marilah kita satukan visi kita, langkah kita, upaya kita, untuk memperjuangkan kepentingan kita karena topiknya adalah foreignpolicy pada forum internasional. Mari, menandai 100 tahun Kebangkitan Nasional ini, kita bekerja dan berjuang bersama lebih keras lagi untuk meningkatkan kemandirian, meningkatkan daya saing dan peradaban bangsa, civilization, yang akhirnya menjadi sumber, menjadi landasan yang penting dengan energi yang positif. Kita ingin betul negara yang kita cintai ini di abad 21 ini, betul-betul menjadi atau menuju ke negara yang maju, yang bermartabat, dan yang sejahtera. Jangan kita merasa kecil terus, jangan merasa kita tertinggal terus, jangan kita merasa masih sangat-sangat jauh jalan menuju ke situ. Marilah kita berjiwa terang, berpikir positif, bersikap optimis.
Penelitian ini menelaah pergeseran prioritas regional Rusia terhadap Ukraina dalam ForeignPolicy Concept Rusia tahun 2013. Berlandaskan fakta pergeseran pada ForeignPolicy Concept Rusia tahun 2008 yang befokus pada CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) bergeser menjadikan Ukraina sebagai prioritas regionalnya dalam ForeignPolicy Concept Rusia tahun 2013 memunculkan pertanyaan mengapa Rusia menjadikan Ukraina sebagai sektor prioritas regionalnya. Permasalahan tersebut kemudian diteliti dengan berlandaskan pada kepentingan nasional, kausalitas konsep geopolitik dan teori Eurasianisme, konsep Geoekonomi dan Kerjasama Ekonomi Internasional hingga menemukan jawaban sementara yakni muncul tiga kepentingan Rusia terhadap Ukraina yakni kepentingan politik, kepentingan keamanan dan kepentingan ekonomi yang mengarah kepada pembentukan Uni Eurasia. Jawaban sementara dalam penelitian eksplanatif-kualitatis ini tidak hanya dibuktikan tetapi menjadi landasan dalam pengumpulan data untuk menjawab korelasi variabel-variabel yang ada.
Founded by Altiero Spinelli in 1965, IAI does research in the ields of foreignpolicy, political economy and international security. A non-proit organisation, IAI aims to further and disseminate knowledge through research studies, conferences and publications. To that end, it cooperates with other research institutes, universities and foundations in Italy and abroad and is a member of various international networks. More speciically, the main research sectors are: European institutions and policies; Italian foreignpolicy; trends in the global economy and internationalisation processes in Italy; the Mediterranean and the Middle East; defence economy and policy; and transatlantic relations. IAI publishes an English- language quarterly (The International Spectator), an online webzine (Afarinternazionali), two book series (Quaderni IAI and IAI Research Studies) and some papers’ series related to IAI research projects (Documenti IAI, IAI Papers, etc.).
Penelitian ini berangkat dari adanya kasus kebakaran hutan yang melanda Indonesia pada tahun 2015 dan berujung pada musibah transboundary haze pollution. Singapura sebagai salah satu negara yang mengalami dampak paling buruk mengambil beberapa langkah dalam upaya menangani kasus kebakaran hutan tersebut seperti mengirimkan bantuan langsung ke Indonesia hingga menuntut aktor yang dianggap bertanggung jawab atas kebakaran hutan tersebut melalui Undang – Undang anti polusi udara lintas batas miliknya, Transboundary Haze Pollution Act 2014. Hal tersebut menjadi pertanyaan khusus dalam penelitian ini, mengapa Singapura dibawah Transboundary Haze Pollution Act begitu gigih dalam menangani kasus kebakaran hutan tahun 2015? Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan kebijakan luar negeri yang dikeluarkan oleh Singapura melalui kacamata ForeignPolicy Theory terkait faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi Singapura dalam memformulasi kebijakan luar negerinya dalam kasus kebakaran hutan tahun 2015 ini. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kebijakan luar negeri Singapura dalam kasus transboundary haze pollution tahun 2015 didasari oleh dua faktor yaitu internal dan eksternal. Pada faktor internal, kondisi perekonomian dan geografisnya lah yang sangat berpengaruh dalam kasus ini. Hal itu dikarenakan Singapura merupakan negara dengan perekonomian yang cukup kuat tetapi memiliki luas wilayah yang relatif kecil sehingga kabut asap akan dengan mudah melumpuhkan segala macam kegiatan domestiknya. Sedangkan pada faktor eksternal, ASEAN menjadi salah satu pemicu kegigihan Singapura itu sendiri. Hal itu karena pada dasarnya ASEAN telah memiliki sistematika ketika berhadapan dengan kasus polusi udara lintas batas dalam AATHP namun tidak berjalan efektif sehingga kegigihan tersebut disalurkan melalui THPA tahun 2014 miliknya.
192 problematize in order to keep mutual security interest. In the meantime, to acknowledge that the raise of border issues followed by tensions between the two countries is highly impacted by the dinamics of internal political structure. The increasing role of internal structure is substantially caused by the dynamics international environment which perceived more open and flexible. In this case, the low pressure of international structure provide a flexibility to the domestic variables to influence foreignpolicy making process. In the case of border dispute portrayes that political elite and the media influence in the foreignpolicy decision making process. For instance, the first Ambalat issue outbreak simultaneously with the Indonesian government's decision to increase fuel prices while the Indonesian President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono (SBY) political power was also weak in the parliament. The SBY policy on Ambalat case in order to gain political support from the people after raising the oil prices is considered as a treason against the people. While the second Ambalat issue occur concurrently with the national event, the 2009 Indonesian general elections. In the first and second Ambalat issues media have played important role especially in terms of provocation and psychological war which extremely impact to the rise of nationalism sentiment of the people of Indonesia. However, the increase of domestic variables was definitely influenced by the decline of international pressure in the post-Cold War era. Thus, the hypothesis of this study is proved that the international structure plays a critical role.
The Global Maritime is a mechanism for a win-win solution towards achieving common stability, security, and prosperity while recognizing the economic diversity of Asia and countries from beyond the region in facing global challenges. This research is attempted to answer the question on how the cooperation between Indonesia and Tiongkok under Jokowi's foreignpolicy towards global maritime axis in strengthening public diplomacy in the Indo-Pacific region. The researcher took the specific interest on interdependence liberalism theory and Tiongkok new security concept to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this paper is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website and supporting the explanation of this paper. The results of this paper explained that Jokowi's maritime axis recognizes Indonesia's geopolitical position as an archipelagic state and puts emphasis on the maritime domain as a medium for Indonesia's foreign. Jokowi's foreignpolicy outlook emphasizes on Indonesia becoming a strong regional maritime power not only in strength but also in diplomacy.
Moreover, from the previous studies above, it hasn’t been found a researcher who is interested in observing the politeness in a debate. One interesting aspect in debate situation is that, during the debates, participants try to display and enact their intellectual identities. In attending intellectual meetings, one prominent concern of the participants is to put an impression of being intellectually competent without being apparent as making efforts to be called bright. Because of this reason, this study is conducted to uncover the pattern of politeness in a debate especially in third presidential debate on foreignpolicy between Barack Obama vs. Mitt Romney.
Soekarno was caught between the contending forces of the army and the Communists (Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI). Soekarno saw foreignpolicy as a way of diverting attention from pressing domestic issues in the interests of promoting national unity. During the early 1960s, Indonesia’s foreignpolicy became increasingly radical, perhaps suggesting that the political balance was shifting toward the left. Soekarno proclaimed Indonesia to be a leader of the New Emerging Forces (NEFOS) in opposition to the Old Established Forces (OLDEFOS), and Indonesia was linked to other radical Asian states in a Jakarta – Phnom Penh – Hanoi – Beijing – Pyongyang axis. This was also the time that Soekarno launched konfrontasi against Malaysia. Soekarno’s foreignpolicy had taken Indonesia on a left-ward course with his Jakarta- Phnom Penh-Hanoi-Pyongyang-Pekong Axis which had put Indonesia at odd with the whole Western world, culminating in Indonesia’s exit from the United Nations. Meanwhile in the New Order era foreignpolicy was no longer permitted to be used as a political weapon.
Ketujuh faktor itu adalah :  Konsistensi kognitif. Konsistensi kognitif berarti pembuat keputusan meremehkan informasi tertentu yang dianggap tidak konsisten dengan pandangan dan kepercayaan sebelumnya, dengan kata lain terlalu berpegang teguh pada konsistensi informasi dari pandangan dan kepercayaan yang mereka miliki;  Evoked set. Evoked set merujuk pada ketanggapan perhatian yang diberikan terhadap informasi yang baru diterima oleh pembuat keputusan;  Emosi. Emosi mampu mengubah relevansi informasi yang diterima oleh pembuat keputusan;  Pandangan. Pandangan disini bermakna stereotip yang digunakan untuk mengkategorikan sebuah kejadian atau sekelompok orang.  Kepercayaan. Kepercayaan seorang pembuat keputusan mampu menghalangi atau menentang informasi yang diterimanya.  Analogi. Analogi bermakna mengibaratkan suatu kejadian yang telah berlalu dengan suatu kejadian sekarang. Seringkali pembuat keputusan mengabaikan ciri khas dari kedua kejadian sehingga memungkinkan terjadinya kesalahan pengambilan keputusan.  Personalitas Individu. Personalitas individu menjadi penting karena menggambarkan bagaimana ia bertindak terhadap tanda dan simbol yang ada. Dalam perumusan foreignpolicy tanda dan simbol menentukan langkah berikutnya yang harus diambil oleh pembuat keputusan.
Europe, which had for so long been the centerpiece of American foreignpolicy, had fallen down the list of American concerns when Obama took office. Sympathetic analysts supposed the Continent to be so stable that the United States could easily reduce its commitment there, while more critical voices, tired of European reluctance to support the American military action in Iraq, dismissed Europe as an irrelevant irritant. Indeed, although President Obama’s popularity with the Europeans was considered a major plus in his campaign, the administration has not embarked on many successful initiatives in Europe. There had been high hopes for the Transatlantic Trade and Investment Partnership (TTIP), a massive free trade deal between the US and EU. But it had been pushed behind the TPP on Washington’s agenda and now appears as endangered as its unloved Asian counterpart. Europe itself has been beset by economic crises, marked both by the ongoing agony of the Euro in places such as Greece and by the British decision to “Brexit” the EU altogether. Furthermore, a previously neglected Russia, with whom Obama had hoped to “reset” relations, has challenged the European status quo by pushing back against both the EU and NATO. By annexing Crimea and encouraging separatists in eastern Ukraine, Vladimir Putin’s government in Moscow has thrown down a gauntlet to the West, leaving open the question of how the United States and its allies should respond.
Abstract This article discusses the President Joko Widodo‟s poros maritim dunia or global maritime axis and the Indonesian foreignpolicy. This policy optimistically to strengthen Indonesia‟s maritime capability and also to reviving the country as maritime super power as in the early history. Once Joko Widodo seizes the mandate after his dramatic victory in the last presidential election 2014, political polarization becomes a serious challenge to his administration. Yet, at the same time he obtained a huge international attention. Thus, this article attempt to understand Joko Widod o‟s maritime policy from foreignpolicy perspective. Basically, foreignpolicy is determined by two factors namely international and domestic. To be more systematic, this article divided into five sections i.e.; introduction, maritime axis and Jokowi‟s foreignpolicy, maritime axis and domestic politics, maritime axis and neighboring countries, and conclusion.
4. Recent events in Egypt and Turkey bring issues of religion and foreignpolicy to the fore. What does the presence of religion in the world mean for the UK? There are numerous examples of how religion is under-played, over-exaggerated, or simply misunderstood within western thinking. In Egypt, what has largely been perceived as a secular military coup, in fact required the support of the Salafist al-Nour party and the al-Azhar mosque. Alternatively, the co-existence of the Sunni Muslim group, Hamas, and the Christian minority in Gaza, emphasises how a broader Palestinian identity encompasses religious differences.
One of the consequences of the sideward force of globalization is the emergence of the paradiplomacy idea. Michael Keating (1999: 1) argued that the reasons lie both in the changes at the level of the state and the international system, and in political and economic developments within regions themselves. The forces of globalization have created transnational regimes and regional trading areas. At the same time, the advent of multinational corporations, with their strong influences, are making states even more difficult to be the sole dominant actor in the international realm. Daniel Bell (1989: 55), conceptualized that currently, the state has been too big for societal and individual problems; but is also too small to manage global problems. Other contemporary scholars like Keohane and Nye had also argued on 1970’s that transnational relations will possibly erode the traditional conception of nation-states. This causes eroding of the distinction between local and national authorities in conducting foreign affairs. As the result, states are obliged to redefine their distribution of authority with their respective local units, such as cities.