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DIPLOMATIC GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES ON FORMULATING AND ARTICULATING INDONESIAN FOREIGN POLICY

DIPLOMATIC GOVERNANCE INITIATIVES ON FORMULATING AND ARTICULATING INDONESIAN FOREIGN POLICY

To sum up, there are three main conclusions. First, Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia has possessed political will to be a well-managed organization. It has proven by the achievement of ISO 2008. Second, diplomacy of Indonesia has displayed fluctuating phenomena these recent 10 years. It shows an achievement, yet also addresses recession and corruption. It could be resolved if Ministry of Foreign Affairs embarks adopting the notion of diplomatic governance, a process of diplomatic management upholding values of accountability, transparency, and fairness. Third, Formulation and Implementation of Indonesian foreign policy employing a paradigm of diplomatic governance would elevate capacity and productivity of Indonesia foreign policy based on Free and Active Principles.
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Change And Continuity In Indonesian Foreign Policy.

Change And Continuity In Indonesian Foreign Policy.

Soekarno was caught between the contending forces of the army and the Communists (Partai Komunis Indonesia, PKI). Soekarno saw foreign policy as a way of diverting attention from pressing domestic issues in the interests of promoting national unity. During the early 1960s, Indonesia’s foreign policy became increasingly radical, perhaps suggesting that the political balance was shifting toward the left. Soekarno proclaimed Indonesia to be a leader of the New Emerging Forces (NEFOS) in opposition to the Old Established Forces (OLDEFOS), and Indonesia was linked to other radical Asian states in a Jakarta – Phnom Penh – Hanoi – Beijing – Pyongyang axis. This was also the time that Soekarno launched konfrontasi against Malaysia. Soekarno’s foreign policy had taken Indonesia on a left-ward course with his Jakarta- Phnom Penh-Hanoi-Pyongyang-Pekong Axis which had put Indonesia at odd with the whole Western world, culminating in Indonesia’s exit from the United Nations. Meanwhile in the New Order era foreign policy was no longer permitted to be used as a political weapon.
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FOREIGN POLICY BREAKFAST, DI GEDUNG PANCASILA, DEPLU, JAKARTA, 19 AGUSTUS 2008

FOREIGN POLICY BREAKFAST, DI GEDUNG PANCASILA, DEPLU, JAKARTA, 19 AGUSTUS 2008

Dengan catatan itu, dengan harapan dan ajakan itu, Saudara-saudara, marilah kita satukan visi kita, langkah kita, upaya kita, untuk memperjuangkan kepentingan kita karena topiknya adalah foreign policy pada forum internasional. Mari, menandai 100 tahun Kebangkitan Nasional ini, kita bekerja dan berjuang bersama lebih keras lagi untuk meningkatkan kemandirian, meningkatkan daya saing dan peradaban bangsa, civilization, yang akhirnya menjadi sumber, menjadi landasan yang penting dengan energi yang positif. Kita ingin betul negara yang kita cintai ini di abad 21 ini, betul-betul menjadi atau menuju ke negara yang maju, yang bermartabat, dan yang sejahtera. Jangan kita merasa kecil terus, jangan merasa kita tertinggal terus, jangan kita merasa masih sangat-sangat jauh jalan menuju ke situ. Marilah kita berjiwa terang, berpikir positif, bersikap optimis.
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PERGESERAN PRIORITAS REGIONAL RUSIA TERHADAP UKRAINA DALAM FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT RUSIA TAHUN 2013

PERGESERAN PRIORITAS REGIONAL RUSIA TERHADAP UKRAINA DALAM FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT RUSIA TAHUN 2013

Penelitian ini menelaah pergeseran prioritas regional Rusia terhadap Ukraina dalam Foreign Policy Concept Rusia tahun 2013. Berlandaskan fakta pergeseran pada Foreign Policy Concept Rusia tahun 2008 yang befokus pada CIS (Commonwealth of Independent States) bergeser menjadikan Ukraina sebagai prioritas regionalnya dalam Foreign Policy Concept Rusia tahun 2013 memunculkan pertanyaan mengapa Rusia menjadikan Ukraina sebagai sektor prioritas regionalnya. Permasalahan tersebut kemudian diteliti dengan berlandaskan pada kepentingan nasional, kausalitas konsep geopolitik dan teori Eurasianisme, konsep Geoekonomi dan Kerjasama Ekonomi Internasional hingga menemukan jawaban sementara yakni muncul tiga kepentingan Rusia terhadap Ukraina yakni kepentingan politik, kepentingan keamanan dan kepentingan ekonomi yang mengarah kepada pembentukan Uni Eurasia. Jawaban sementara dalam penelitian eksplanatif-kualitatis ini tidak hanya dibuktikan tetapi menjadi landasan dalam pengumpulan data untuk menjawab korelasi variabel-variabel yang ada.
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Challenges For Indonesias Foreign Policy Making In The Reformation Era.

Challenges For Indonesias Foreign Policy Making In The Reformation Era.

Although Indonesia is a signatory to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, in fact, Indonesia is one of the countries that have proposed a review of the Declaration on grounds that the Declaration was drafted particularly by the great (Western) powers, when many of the developing nations of today were not yet independent and therefore did not participate in drafting the document. 14 Former President Soeharto has argued, for instance, that the Western concept is individualistic in nature and overlooks the rights of the society, the nation, and the state, whereas every individual is born in a society. Human rights cannot be separated from social responsibility. 15 Therefore the political format of the New Order had emphasised the primacy of Indonesian culture to achieve economic development and political stability 16 . As a consequence, the state was stronger than society as politics changed the nature of linkages between domestic politics and foreign policy.
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PERGESERAN PRIORITAS REGIONAL RUSIA TERHADAP UKRAINA DALAM FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT RUSIA TAHUN 2013.

PERGESERAN PRIORITAS REGIONAL RUSIA TERHADAP UKRAINA DALAM FOREIGN POLICY CONCEPT RUSIA TAHUN 2013.

57. Russia is interested in enhancing cooperation with the European Union as its principal trade and economic counterpart and important foreign policy partner, looks forward to strengthening mutual interaction, emphasizes the importance of establishment of four common spaces in the areas of economy; freedom, security and justice; external security; and scientific research and education, including cultural aspects. Russia stands for signing a new Russia-EU framework agreement on strategic partnership based on the principles of equality and mutual benefit. Russia will contribute to successful implementation of the Russia-EU joint initiative "Partnership for Modernization" and promotion of mutually beneficial energy cooperation aimed at creating an integrated European energy system on the basis of strict adherence to existing bilateral and multilateral treaty obligations. A long-term objective in that area is to establish a common Russia-EU market.
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Italian Foreign Policy A Message in the

Italian Foreign Policy A Message in the

Founded by Altiero Spinelli in 1965, IAI does research in the ields of foreign policy, political economy and international security. A non-proit organisation, IAI aims to further and disseminate knowledge through research studies, conferences and publications. To that end, it cooperates with other research institutes, universities and foundations in Italy and abroad and is a member of various international networks. More speciically, the main research sectors are: European institutions and policies; Italian foreign policy; trends in the global economy and internationalisation processes in Italy; the Mediterranean and the Middle East; defence economy and policy; and transatlantic relations. IAI publishes an English- language quarterly (The International Spectator), an online webzine (Afarinternazionali), two book series (Quaderni IAI and IAI Research Studies) and some papers’ series related to IAI research projects (Documenti IAI, IAI Papers, etc.).
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How will religion shape foreign policy i

How will religion shape foreign policy i

1. There are a broad range of foreign policy issues within which religion is a variable, providing challenge and contributing to solutions. This is apparent not only within the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) but across government agencies. The Department for International Development (DfID) encounters religion within its work on economic development, women’s rights, health, contraception and community building This is applicable not only to the Middle East and North Africa, but across a range of countries including Nigeria, Sri Lanka, and Burma.

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Foreign Policy Challenges Facing the Nex

Foreign Policy Challenges Facing the Nex

American power and to manage a retrenchment and reallocation of resources. That spirit resonates with the policies of the two major presidential candidates. Hillary Clinton may be more conventionally hawkish than her former boss, but has also emphasized the need for “smart power” that recognizes limits. Meanwhile, Donald Trump speaks a language of force and promises to put “America First,” but also appears to embrace a retreat from traditional alliance commitments to reduce the cost of American actions abroad. Thus, both of them in their own way signal a continued retrenchment, a position increasingly popular with scholarly analysts of American foreign policy as well.
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FAKTOR DETERMINAN FOREIGN POLICY SINGAPURA DALAM KASUS KEBAKARAN HUTAN IDONESIA TAHUN 2015 Repository - UNAIR REPOSITORY

FAKTOR DETERMINAN FOREIGN POLICY SINGAPURA DALAM KASUS KEBAKARAN HUTAN IDONESIA TAHUN 2015 Repository - UNAIR REPOSITORY

Penelitian ini berangkat dari adanya kasus kebakaran hutan yang melanda Indonesia pada tahun 2015 dan berujung pada musibah transboundary haze pollution. Singapura sebagai salah satu negara yang mengalami dampak paling buruk mengambil beberapa langkah dalam upaya menangani kasus kebakaran hutan tersebut seperti mengirimkan bantuan langsung ke Indonesia hingga menuntut aktor yang dianggap bertanggung jawab atas kebakaran hutan tersebut melalui Undang – Undang anti polusi udara lintas batas miliknya, Transboundary Haze Pollution Act 2014. Hal tersebut menjadi pertanyaan khusus dalam penelitian ini, mengapa Singapura dibawah Transboundary Haze Pollution Act begitu gigih dalam menangani kasus kebakaran hutan tahun 2015? Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menjelaskan kebijakan luar negeri yang dikeluarkan oleh Singapura melalui kacamata Foreign Policy Theory terkait faktor apa saja yang mempengaruhi Singapura dalam memformulasi kebijakan luar negerinya dalam kasus kebakaran hutan tahun 2015 ini. Penelitian ini menemukan bahwa kebijakan luar negeri Singapura dalam kasus transboundary haze pollution tahun 2015 didasari oleh dua faktor yaitu internal dan eksternal. Pada faktor internal, kondisi perekonomian dan geografisnya lah yang sangat berpengaruh dalam kasus ini. Hal itu dikarenakan Singapura merupakan negara dengan perekonomian yang cukup kuat tetapi memiliki luas wilayah yang relatif kecil sehingga kabut asap akan dengan mudah melumpuhkan segala macam kegiatan domestiknya. Sedangkan pada faktor eksternal, ASEAN menjadi salah satu pemicu kegigihan Singapura itu sendiri. Hal itu karena pada dasarnya ASEAN telah memiliki sistematika ketika berhadapan dengan kasus polusi udara lintas batas dalam AATHP namun tidak berjalan efektif sehingga kegigihan tersebut disalurkan melalui THPA tahun 2014 miliknya.
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Foreign Policy dalam Ilmu Hubungan Inter

Foreign Policy dalam Ilmu Hubungan Inter

Foreign Policy dalam ilmu Hubungan Internasional memiliki berbagai pengertian. Salah satunya adalah yang terdapat dalam Foreign Policy in Transformed World karya Mark Webber dan Michael Smith, foreign policy merupakan keseluruhan komponen yang terdiri atas usaha pencapaian tujuan, seperangkat nilai-nilai, dan keputusan-keputusan yang dibuat serta tindakan yang dilakukan oleh negara, yang mana pemerintah nasional bertindak mewakilinya dalam konteks hubungan eksternal dengan masyarakat antar bangsa. Upaya merancang, mengendalikan dan mengatur hubungan itu juga termasuk ke dalam tindakan pemerintah nasional tersebut. Sedangkan, menurut Kautiliya, foreign policy adalah tindakan setiap bangsa dalam bidang politik, ekonomi dan militer sesuai dengan kepentingannya untuk memaksimalkan power dan kepentingannya itu yang seringkali mengabaikan kewajiban atau prinsip moral dalam hubungannya dengan bangsa lain. 1
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The Strategic Cooperation between Indonesia and Tiongkok under Jokowi's Foreign Policy towards Global Maritime Diplomacy

The Strategic Cooperation between Indonesia and Tiongkok under Jokowi's Foreign Policy towards Global Maritime Diplomacy

The Global Maritime is a mechanism for a win-win solution towards achieving common stability, security, and prosperity while recognizing the economic diversity of Asia and countries from beyond the region in facing global challenges. This research is attempted to answer the question on how the cooperation between Indonesia and Tiongkok under Jokowi's foreign policy towards global maritime axis in strengthening public diplomacy in the Indo-Pacific region. The researcher took the specific interest on interdependence liberalism theory and Tiongkok new security concept to analyze the phenomena. Furthermore, this paper is using the descriptive method with a qualitative approach. The data collection technique is literature study consisting of books, journals, and including data from the reliable website and supporting the explanation of this paper. The results of this paper explained that Jokowi's maritime axis recognizes Indonesia's geopolitical position as an archipelagic state and puts emphasis on the maritime domain as a medium for Indonesia's foreign. Jokowi's foreign policy outlook emphasizes on Indonesia becoming a strong regional maritime power not only in strength but also in diplomacy.
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AMERICA’S UNILATERALISM: The Case of American Attack Toward Iraq in 2003

AMERICA’S UNILATERALISM: The Case of American Attack Toward Iraq in 2003

As we know that post cold war era, the political constellation has undergone a significant change. The political and security relationship is no longer in the frame of endorsement to either east (Uni Soviet) or west (United States). The whole world knows that America, using its mask of Manifest Destiny, tends to act as the police of the world. It considered itself as the “world’s peace maker”. This fact has made America tends to be more brave in applying its Unilateralism in its foreign policy. American Unilateralism has been explicitly conducted at the era of Bill Clinton. (Nahak, 2002:2).
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Diplomatic Governance Innitiatives on Formulating and ariculating Indonesian Foreign Policy

Diplomatic Governance Innitiatives on Formulating and ariculating Indonesian Foreign Policy

One of the consequences of the sideward force of globalization is the emergence of the paradiplomacy idea. Michael Keating (1999: 1) argued that the reasons lie both in the changes at the level of the state and the international system, and in political and economic developments within regions themselves. The forces of globalization have created transnational regimes and regional trading areas. At the same time, the advent of multinational corporations, with their strong influences, are making states even more difficult to be the sole dominant actor in the international realm. Daniel Bell (1989: 55), conceptualized that currently, the state has been too big for societal and individual problems; but is also too small to manage global problems. Other contemporary scholars like Keohane and Nye had also argued on 1970’s that transnational relations will possibly erode the traditional conception of nation-states. This causes eroding of the distinction between local and national authorities in conducting foreign affairs. As the result, states are obliged to redefine their distribution of authority with their respective local units, such as cities.
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Review Konsep PIHI Decision Making Sebua

Review Konsep PIHI Decision Making Sebua

Setelah menjelaskan mengenai tahap-tahap yang dapat ditempuh dalam decision-making, selanjutnya adalah penjabaran mengenai tipe-tipe decision-making dan tipe kepemimpinan yang mempengaruhi suatu kebijakan. Decision atau keputusan merupakan tahap final dalam suatu pengambilan kebijakan sehingga sangat penting untuk mempertimbangkan bentuk keputusan yang dipakai sesuai dengan situasi kondisi. Pertama adalah single decision, yaitu keputusan sepihak tanpa adanya interaksi dari pihak lainnya dan ini jarang terjadi. 14 Contoh yang memperlihatkan decision ini adalah keputusan Amerika Serikat untuk tidak membantu pihak Perancis di Dien Bien Phu pada tahun 1954. Selanjutnya, adalah strategic-interactive decision, yaitu melibatkan dua negara atau lebih yang masing-masing decision saling mempengaruhi. 15 Keputusan Yasser Arafat selaku Presiden PLO untuk menyetujui bertemu dengan PM Israel yang berk aitan dengan Prisoner’s Dilemma merupakan contoh konkret dari tipe decision tersebut. Lalu, ada sequential decision, yaitu bentuk lebih realistis dari single decision yang menjelaskan bahwa suatu keputusan berasal dari sejumlah events yang berkaitan. 16 Contoh dari sequential decision adalah foreign policy Amerika Serikat di Iraq yang merupakan sequent events : keputusan untuk menyerang Iraq atau tidak, menduduki Iraq, menambahkan
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BOOK REVIEW: MAJAPAHIT IN TWO PERSPETIVES | Sektiadi | Humaniora 11509 22125 1 PB

BOOK REVIEW: MAJAPAHIT IN TWO PERSPETIVES | Sektiadi | Humaniora 11509 22125 1 PB

Meanwhile, the second book, Majapahit Inspiration for the World, consists of several parts that can be identiied as the writings of the past. These consist of the piece written by John N. Miksic about the foreign policy of Majapahit and the perception of the kingdom’s international relations (“Majapahit’s foreign Policy and Perceptions of

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LAPORAN AKHIR 1512 Submit CLEAN

LAPORAN AKHIR 1512 Submit CLEAN

Bagian ketiga ini mengelaborasi opsi-opsi apa saja yang dapat dipilih untuk dikembangkan sebagai instrumen pengukuran pencapaian diplomasi/kebijakan luar negeri Indonesia. Berdasarkan informasi dan pandangan yang tergali melalui literatur, FGD, serta wawancara mendalam mengenai konsep, aktor, unit analisis, serta metode yang dapat digunakan dalam penyusunan indeks, tim kemudian mengolahnya menjadi enam model. 12 Keenam opsi model ini kemudian juga didiskusikan di dalam FGD dan wawancara mendalam dengan para narasumber. Keenam opsi yang ditawarkan dan dikembangkan berdasarkan masukan dari berbagai sumber tersebut adalah sebagai berikut: (1) Indeks Diplomasi Indonesia, (2) Indeks Hubungan Luar Negeri Indonesia; (3) Indeks Kebijakan Luar Negeri Indonesia (Versi Tujuan Nasional), (4) Indeks Kebijakan Luar Negeri Indonesia (Versi Modified Belarus Foreign Policy Index), (5) Indeks Persepsi Diplomasi Indonesia, dan (6) Indonesia Diplomacy Scorecard.
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KEBIJAKAN POLITIK KEAMANAN PRESIDEN OBAM

KEBIJAKAN POLITIK KEAMANAN PRESIDEN OBAM

Dalam paparan di atas, Amerika Serikat merupakan pemain kunci yang mengatur arah keberlangsungan konstelasi politik internasional dan keamanan di kawasan ini. Hal ini terlihat, melalui kebijakan luar negeri yang dikeluarkan oleh Presiden Obama pada masa pemerintahannya, sangat memberikan perhatian yang besar terhadap Amerika Latin. Sebagaimana dikutip dari sebuah jurnal bertajuk “President Obama’s Foreign Policy Vision: Defining the Obama Doctrine” menyatakan bahwa kebijakan luar negeri Amerika Serikat di masa Obama lebih menjangkau negara-negara lain di luar kawasan sebagai “mitra setara” dari pada dianggap sebagai “luar biasa”. 53 Hal ini dengan sangat jelas memperlihatkan betapa
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INDONESIA’S FOREIGN POLICY: ON ISRAEL – PALESTINE CONFLICT ISSUES

INDONESIA’S FOREIGN POLICY: ON ISRAEL – PALESTINE CONFLICT ISSUES

In this case, the authors take one of 3 models of decision making by Graham T. Allison to explaining Indonesia’s decision for its foreign policy from his book Essence of decision: Explaining the Cuban Missile Crisis, to be the instrument for describing the proses of foreign politic of Indonesia toward Israel – Palestine conflict. The authors take the paradigm of decision making third model in which the authors view of Politics – Bureaucratic, which the unit of analysis of this model is the actions of officials government in applying the authority to the State, as the model most suited to this research. This models will explains that the government of Indonesia does not stand alone in making decisions about the case of Israel - Palestine, but also social process that is foreign policy is the result of the interaction, bargaining games and political process between the various actors and organizations in decision making process. 15
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RUSSIAN ANTI-US FOREIGN POLICY IN THE POST SOVIET ERA.

RUSSIAN ANTI-US FOREIGN POLICY IN THE POST SOVIET ERA.

By mentioning the name of The Almighty God, with this authentification statement I swear that my thesis entitled:RUSSIAN ANTI-AMERICA FOREIGN POLICY IN THE DMITRY MEDVEDEV’S AND VLADIMIR PUTIN’S PRESIDENCIES, is my own original writing which has not been submitted by the other researcher whether to acomplish bachlor degree, published in scientific journal or published by newspaper.

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