THE EFFECT OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING METHOD ON STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT.

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THE EFFECT OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING

METHOD

ON STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT

A THESIS

Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the

Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan

BY:

WENY ARDIANTI

Registration Number: 2112121039

ENGLISH DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

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ABSTRACT

Ardianti, Weny. 2112121039. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and

Learning Method on Students’ Speaking Achievement. A thesis. English Department. Faculty of Language and Arts. State University of Medan. 2016

This study aims at discovering the effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on the students’ speaking achievement. It was conducted by using the quasi experimental design. The population of this study was first (X) grade students of SMAN 1 GALANG. There were sixty nine students involved as the sample of the study. This study was conducted with two randomized groups namely experimental and control group. The result was class X-IA-1 consisted of 32 students became the experimental group and class X-IA-2 consisted of 32 students became the control group. The experimental group was taught by using Contextual Teaching and Learning Method while the control group was taught by using Lecturing Method. The instrument of collecting data was speaking test where students retell a story in front of the class. The data were analyzed by using t-test formula. The finding showed that the value of tobserved is greater than ttable (8.10 > 2.00)at the level of significance (α = 0.05) with the degree of freedom (df) = 62. The findings indicate that students’ speaking achievement taught by using Contextual Teaching and Learning Method is greater than those taught by using Lecturing Method.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

First and foremost, praise and great gratitude to the almighty God, Allah

Swt for the blessing the writer in arranging this Thesis entitled “The Effect of

Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on Students’ Speaking Achievement

as one of requirements for the degree of SarjanaPendidikan (S1) at English

Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.

During the process of writing and conducting the research, the writer was

assisted and supported by many people. This thesis cannot be accomplished

without guidance, suggestion, and comment from them, for which the writer

would like to express her sincere appreciation which directed to:

1. Prof. Dr. H. Syawal Gultom, M. Pd., the Rector of State University of

Medan.

2. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M. Hum., the Dean Faculty of Languages and Arts

and Literature Department.

3. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., as the Head of English and Literature

Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan and

as her Thesis Examiner.

4. Dra. Meisuri, M.A., the Secretary of English Department, Faculty of

Language and Arts, State University of Medan and as her Thesis Supervisor.

5. Nora Ronita Dewi, S.Pd., S.S., M.Hum., as the Head of English Education

Study Program,Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan.

6. Prof. Amrin Saragih, M. A., Ph. D., her Thesis Supervisor Iand Dra. Sri

Juriaty Ownie, M. A., her Thesis Supervisor IIwho had given his valuable

suggestions, advice, motivation guidance and precious time in completing

and correcting this thesis.

7. Prof. Dr. Busmin, M. Pd., Drs. Johan Sinulingga, M. Pd., as her

Examiner who had revised and input to finish this thesis.

8. Eis Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd., M.Hum., as Academic Staff and Administrative

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9. All Lecturers of English Education and Literature Department, who have

taught and given knowledge during her study in State University of Medan.

10.Drs. Pommer Simbolon., the Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Galang, and

Elwinda, S. Pd., the English teacher who have gave her permission to

conduct the research in the school. And also for students in IA-1 and

X-IA-2 for their intention and participation during the research.

11.Drs. Sahriadi and Kusherawaty, her beloved parents who have gave her

love, prayer, moral support in completing her education.Aminul Mubarok,

S.T., her brother and also for relatives who always support in completing

this thesis.

12.Ummu Rahma Nadia., her beloved younger sister who always give moral

lesson, supports, advises, motivates me and stands with me in happy and sad

condition. Thanks for never let the writer alone on face the hard situation. A

thousand love for Ummu.

13.Nasyid group (Dea, Dela, Yuyun, Intan, Nova, Wiwin, Titin, Dinda,

Rani), as her best friend who give motivation and prayer on finish this

thesis.

14.Ajeng and Mada, as adopted sisters for their encouragement.

15.Fany A.P., Tyna, Diaz P.A., Liza I.L., Apud, Sri Lestari and Atikah

Sarayah, as closest friends during study and also all her friends from

Regular B 2011 who have gave her support and nice friendship.

Finally, the writer hopes this thesis can give contribution to the English

Education students and further pedagogical research.

Medan, January 2016

The writer,

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Pages

ABSTRACT ………. i

AKNOWLEDGEMENT………... ii

TABLE OF CONTENT ….………. iv

LIST OF TABLES ...………...……... vii

LIST OF APPENDIXES………. viii

CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study ………...….... 1

B. The Problem of the Study………... 5

C. The Objective of the Study ………... 5

D. The Scope of the Study………... 5

E. The Significance of the Study………... 6

CHAPTER II: RIVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Theoretical Framework ………..……... 7

1. Speaking………... 7

a. The Nature of Speaking ……….….………... 10

b. The Purpose of Speaking……….……….. 11

2. Students’ Achievement……….... 12

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3. Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)…………..………... 13

a. The Definition of CTL ………. 13

b. The Components of CTL ………... 16

c. The Advantages and Disadvantages of CTL ……..………. 19

4. Lecturing Method ………..…... 20

a. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Lecturing Method……….. 21

5. Teaching Speaking by Using CTL……….. 23

B. Relevant Studies ………... 25

C. Conceptual Framework ………... 26

D. Hypothesis……….... 29

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD A. Research Design……… 30

B. Population and Sampling………. 30

1. The Population ……… 30

2. The Sample ………. 31

C. The Instrument of Collecting the Data ………. 32

D. The Validity and Reliability of the Test ……….. 32

1. The Validity of the Test ………. 32

2. The Reliability of the Test ………. 33

E. Scoring of the Test ………... 34

F. The Procedure for Collecting Data ……….. 37

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H. Statistical Hypothesis ………... 43

CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDING A. The Description of Data ………... 44

B. The Data Analysis ………... 48

1. Testing Reliability of the Test ………... 48

2. Analyzing the Data using t- test ……… 49

a. The Calculation of the t-table ……….. 49

b. The Calculation of t –observed ……… 50

C. Testing Hypothesis ……….. 51

D. Discussions ...……… 51

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ……… 55

B. Suggestions ……… 55

REFERENCES ……… 57

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LIST OF TABLES

Pages

Table 1.1 Students’ Speaking Score of Grade X ………. 3

Table 3.1 Research Design ……….. 30

Table 3.2 The Population and The Sample of the study ………. 31

Table 3.3 FSI (Foreign Service Institute) Weighting Table ……….... 34

Table 3.4 Teaching Procedure of Experimental Group ………... 39

Table 3.5 Teaching Procedure of Control Group ……… 41

Table 4.1 The Result of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group …….. 45

Table 4.2 The Result of Pre-test and Post-test of Control Group ……… 47

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LIST OF APPENDIXES

Pages

APPENDIX A. The Result of Pre –Post Test of Experimental Group …… 59

APPENDIX B. The Result of Pre –Post Test of Control Group …………. 61

APPENDIX C. The Reliability of the Test ………... 63

APPENDIX D. The Calculation of the Test ………. 65

APPENDIX E. Percentage of T-Distribution ……… 70

APPENDIX F. Pre Test and Post Test ……….. 71

APPENDIX G. Lesson Plan of Experimental Group ……… 73

APPENDIX H. Lesson Plan of Control Group ………. 91

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. The Background of the Study

Rapid globalization has elevated the English language as the International

language that must be mastered by people to communicate with other people.

Position of English as the International language is the key of successful either in

development of education or work areas. In Indonesia, English is taught as

foreign language because it is taught as a school subject in a society where it is

not widespread medium of communication outside the schools. Lado (1961: 239)

in Fulcher (2003: 18) state the ability to speak a foreign language is without doubt

the most highly prized language skill. It caused of a clear lack of understand of

what constitute speaking ability or oral production. English has taught from

elementary school to university. That’s why English becomes important for

students because English not only as the way to communication confidently but it

has function as a way to transferring knowledge, expressing ideas, feelings, and

thoughts orally.

In Senior High School students should be able to actively communicate in

English. Communicating skill consists of four major skills of they are namely

listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In other words the four language skills

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human being to point out their ideas. Speaking is regard as the measure of

knowing a language. Speaking is one of important major that must be mastered by

the students. Because, the students are need to recognize that speaking to involve

areas of knowledge. The students often think that the ability to speak a language

is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of the

language learning process. The teacher as facilitator should be able to help their

students develop the body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that

prepares students for real life communication situations.

Speaking is an ability that is taken for granted, learned as it is through a

process of socialization through communicating (Hall, 1995) in Fulcher (2003:

22). Speaking is as one of four major skills of English which is needed by the

students to express their ideas and knowledge actively, fluently and accurately.

But in fact, many students are less competent in speaking. There are some factors

why students unable to speak English. When the writer was doing first

observation in SMA Negeri 1 Galang, she found that there were cases are faced

by the students in grade X when learning English subject especially for

developing speaking skill. Based on the observation and preliminary research of

Grade X and after interviewing the English teacher, from 42 students it was found

that there are 17 students who did not pass the minimum standard competence

(KKM) of speaking competence tests in the first semester and 20 students in the

second semester. The score of minimum standard competence is 75. Here are the

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Table 1.1

Students’ scores of speaking competence test in two semesters 2014-2015

Semester Score Students Percentage Mean 1st Semester

Source: Students’ accumulated score of grade X students at SMA N 1 GALANG

academic year 2014/2015

From this fact, it can be concluded that many students could not passed the

KKM. The students’ self-confidence to speak English is weak caused they worry

to make mistakes. They seldom practice English in daily life caused of feeling

shy. This condition is making students afraid to do interactions with their friends

or other people around them. They do not want to take the risk of being criticized

by their friends. So, it makes the students are unwilling to express their thought

even though they do not understand what teacher have taught during the teaching

learning process. Another Problem in speaking such as lack of vocabulary, lack of

understanding of grammar and pronunciation make students’ ideas cannot be

expressed fluently. They think that speaking is very difficult to practice. When

students are asked to use English, the students turn hesitate to speak up and tend

to be passive. The activities which are provided by teacher are not make students

interested to take apart in speaking English. The role of teacher conduct the class

only based on material in the book without relate it to the students’ environment.

The majority of students in that school are unable to make connections between

what they are learning and how that knowledge will be used. This is because the

way they process information and their motivation for learning are not touched by

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understanding academic concepts such as English subject as they are commonly

taught (that is, using a lecture method), but they desperately need to understand

the concepts as they relate to the workplace and to the larger society in which they

will live and work. In this case, those make the students lazy to take a part in

speaking and then they got low scores. That’s why the writer assumed that the

process of teaching and learning need to improvement in speaking English.

Considering those problems faced by the students in speaking, the writer

tries to find out an appropriate English teaching method to be applied in teaching

English speaking. The method should provide the students’ interests and needs.

So, the students challenged and attracted to learn speaking English. Contextual

Teaching and learning can be applied in some language skills such as speaking

and writing. The writer chooses Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) as the

most effective method in teaching English speaking achievement. According to

Berns and Erickson in Hudson, “Contextual Teaching and Learning Method helps

students connect the content they are learning to the life context in which that

content could be used”. It means that a method that involves students actively in

learning process. It changes old paradigm where the teacher as learning process

become students as learning process. Students invited to perform their speaking

skills based on materials connect to their environments.

Based on the students’ problems in speaking, the writer is very much

interested in discovering whether the effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning

method has an effect on students’ speaking achievement. It is hoped that using

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express their thought connect to the situation context, social and daily life. Based

on the explanation and problem above, the researcher wants to conduct of study

“The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on students’ speaking

achievement”.

A. The problem of the Study

Based on the background above it is necessary to formulate the problem of

the study is formulated as the following: “Is students’ achievement in speaking

taught by using CTL Method is significantly higher than that taught by using

Lecturing Method?”

B. The Objective of the Study

In line with the research problem formulated above, the objective of the

study is to find out the significance effect of Contextual Teaching Learning

Method on students’ speaking achievement for the Grade X students of SMA N 1

GALANG.

C. The Scope of the Study

There are many teaching methods used in teaching speaking achievement

successful; however, this study is limited to find out the effect of using

Contextual Teaching Learning Method in teaching speaking. The study is

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D. The Significance of the Study

Findings of the study are expected to be theoretically and practically

significant.

Theoretically, the findings are expected to add up more horizons in

theories of language learning. In addition, the finding can be reference for further

studies.

Practically the finding can be relevant for

a. English Teachers as an alternative teaching to improve students’

speaking achievement by applying CTL Method, and

b. Students of English for applying CTL Method in their own experiences

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

A. Conclusions

Based on the research finding, the research concludes that there is a

significant effect of using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) on students’

speaking achievement. This can be seen from the result of the data, it can be seen

that the highest score of experimental group was 90 and the lowest score was 65

in post-test. Meanwhile, the highest score of control group was 75 and the lowest

score was 44 in post-test.

Having analyzed the data, calculation of t-test at the level significance µ =

0.05, t-observed value (8.108) is higher than t-table (2000) with the degree of

freedom (df) = 62. Thus, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and consequently the

alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. This means that Contextual Teaching and

Learning Method significantly affect students’ achievement in speaking than

using Lecturing Method. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis that formulated as

“there is a significant effect of using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)

Method on students’ speaking achievement” is accepted.

B. Suggestions

The result of this study shows that the use of Contextual Teaching and

Learning (CTL) Method could increase students’ speaking achievement. The

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(1) The English teachers are suggested to apply Contextual Teaching and

Learning (CTL) Method to increase students’ speaking achievement in

teaching speaking process by choosing interesting topics and helping

students to construct their speaking.

(2) Students are suggested to use this strategy in speaking test. The

strategy in CTL is able to improve the speaking achievement, work

together, solve their problems, providing ways for discuss with their

friends to summarize the lesson and students have more skills to

explain the text fluently and meaningful.

(3) Researchers who want to develop all information and knowledge for

those who have interest in doing research areadvised to conduct further

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REFERENCES

Ampa, A. T., D, M. B., Andriani, A. A. (2013). The Development of Contextual Learning Materials for the English Speaking Skills.International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. 1, No. 9.

Amertei, A. M. (2014). Students’ perception about the lecture as a method of teaching in tertiary institutions. Views of students from college of technology eduction, kumasi (coltek). International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.

Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2002). ProsedurPenelitian :SuatuPendekatanPraktik (edisirevisi VI). Jakarta: RienekaCipta.

Ary, Donald et al. (2002).Introduction to Research in Education. (6thed.). New York: Wordsworth Group.

Bashir, M., Azeem, M., &Dogar, A. H. (2011).Factor Effecting Students’ English

Speaking Skills.British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, Vol. 2,No. 1, 2046 – 9578. Retrieved from

David, N. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning.Hongkong: Longman.

Efrizal, D. (2012). Improving Students’ Speaking through Communicative

Language Teaching Method at MtsJa-alhaq, Sentot Ali Basa Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2, No.20.

Fulcher, G. (2003). Testing Second Language Speaking.London: Longman.

Harmer, J. (1998).How to Teach English: an Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman.

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Kunandar. (2009). Guru Profesional: ImplementasiKurikulum Tingkat SatuanPendidikan (KTSP) danSuksesdalamSertifikasi Guru. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.

Lubis, P. M. (2010). The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)

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Renofa, J. (2011). Improving Students’ Speaking Achievement for the Second Year Students in SMP NEGERI 14 MEDAN by Using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) Method. Medan, UNIMED Press.

Suparman, L et al. (2013). The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning

Approach and Achievement Motivation Upon Students’ Writing

Competency for The Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 1 KERUAK in The Academic Year 2012-2013. e-Journal Program PascasarjanaUniversitasPendidikanGanesha, Vol 1.

Thornbury, S. ( 2005). How to teach speaking.London:Longman.

Ur, P. (1996). Course in Language Teaching. London: Cambridge University Press.

Figur

Table 1.1 Students’ Speaking Score of Grade X …………………………….       3

Table 1.1

Students’ Speaking Score of Grade X ……………………………. 3 p.12

Referensi

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