THE EFFECT OF CONTEXTUAL TEACHING AND LEARNING
ON STUDENTS’ SPEAKING ACHIEVEMENT
Submitted in Partial fulfillment of the requirement for the
Degree of Sarjana Pendidikan
Registration Number: 2112121039
FACULTY OF LANGUAGES AND ARTS
STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN
Ardianti, Weny. 2112121039. The Effect of Contextual Teaching and
Learning Method on Students’ Speaking Achievement. A thesis. English Department. Faculty of Language and Arts. State University of Medan. 2016
This study aims at discovering the effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on the students’ speaking achievement. It was conducted by using the quasi experimental design. The population of this study was first (X) grade students of SMAN 1 GALANG. There were sixty nine students involved as the sample of the study. This study was conducted with two randomized groups namely experimental and control group. The result was class X-IA-1 consisted of 32 students became the experimental group and class X-IA-2 consisted of 32 students became the control group. The experimental group was taught by using Contextual Teaching and Learning Method while the control group was taught by using Lecturing Method. The instrument of collecting data was speaking test where students retell a story in front of the class. The data were analyzed by using t-test formula. The finding showed that the value of tobserved is greater than ttable (8.10 > 2.00)at the level of significance (α = 0.05) with the degree of freedom (df) = 62. The findings indicate that students’ speaking achievement taught by using Contextual Teaching and Learning Method is greater than those taught by using Lecturing Method.
First and foremost, praise and great gratitude to the almighty God, Allah
Swt for the blessing the writer in arranging this Thesis entitled “The Effect of
Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on Students’ Speaking Achievement
as one of requirements for the degree of SarjanaPendidikan (S1) at English
Department, Faculty of Languages and Arts, State University of Medan.
During the process of writing and conducting the research, the writer was
assisted and supported by many people. This thesis cannot be accomplished
without guidance, suggestion, and comment from them, for which the writer
would like to express her sincere appreciation which directed to:
1. Prof. Dr. H. Syawal Gultom, M. Pd., the Rector of State University of
2. Dr. Isda Pramuniati, M. Hum., the Dean Faculty of Languages and Arts
and Literature Department.
3. Prof. Dr. Hj. Sumarsih, M.Pd., as the Head of English and Literature
Department, Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan and
as her Thesis Examiner.
4. Dra. Meisuri, M.A., the Secretary of English Department, Faculty of
Language and Arts, State University of Medan and as her Thesis Supervisor.
5. Nora Ronita Dewi, S.Pd., S.S., M.Hum., as the Head of English Education
Study Program,Faculty of Language and Arts, State University of Medan.
6. Prof. Amrin Saragih, M. A., Ph. D., her Thesis Supervisor Iand Dra. Sri
Juriaty Ownie, M. A., her Thesis Supervisor IIwho had given his valuable
suggestions, advice, motivation guidance and precious time in completing
and correcting this thesis.
7. Prof. Dr. Busmin, M. Pd., Drs. Johan Sinulingga, M. Pd., as her
Examiner who had revised and input to finish this thesis.
8. Eis Sri Wahyuni, S.Pd., M.Hum., as Academic Staff and Administrative
9. All Lecturers of English Education and Literature Department, who have
taught and given knowledge during her study in State University of Medan.
10.Drs. Pommer Simbolon., the Headmaster of SMA Negeri 1 Galang, and
Elwinda, S. Pd., the English teacher who have gave her permission to
conduct the research in the school. And also for students in IA-1 and
X-IA-2 for their intention and participation during the research.
11.Drs. Sahriadi and Kusherawaty, her beloved parents who have gave her
love, prayer, moral support in completing her education.Aminul Mubarok,
S.T., her brother and also for relatives who always support in completing
12.Ummu Rahma Nadia., her beloved younger sister who always give moral
lesson, supports, advises, motivates me and stands with me in happy and sad
condition. Thanks for never let the writer alone on face the hard situation. A
thousand love for Ummu.
13.Nasyid group (Dea, Dela, Yuyun, Intan, Nova, Wiwin, Titin, Dinda,
Rani), as her best friend who give motivation and prayer on finish this
14.Ajeng and Mada, as adopted sisters for their encouragement.
15.Fany A.P., Tyna, Diaz P.A., Liza I.L., Apud, Sri Lestari and Atikah
Sarayah, as closest friends during study and also all her friends from
Regular B 2011 who have gave her support and nice friendship.
Finally, the writer hopes this thesis can give contribution to the English
Education students and further pedagogical research.
Medan, January 2016
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ABSTRACT ………. i
TABLE OF CONTENT ….………. iv
LIST OF TABLES ...………...……... vii
LIST OF APPENDIXES………. viii
CHAPTER I: INTRODUCTION A. The Background of the Study ………...….... 1
B. The Problem of the Study………... 5
C. The Objective of the Study ………... 5
D. The Scope of the Study………... 5
E. The Significance of the Study………... 6
CHAPTER II: RIVIEW OF LITERATURE A. Theoretical Framework ………..……... 7
1. Speaking………... 7
a. The Nature of Speaking ……….….………... 10
b. The Purpose of Speaking……….……….. 11
2. Students’ Achievement……….... 12
3. Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)…………..………... 13
a. The Definition of CTL ………. 13
b. The Components of CTL ………... 16
c. The Advantages and Disadvantages of CTL ……..………. 19
4. Lecturing Method ………..…... 20
a. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Lecturing Method……….. 21
5. Teaching Speaking by Using CTL……….. 23
B. Relevant Studies ………... 25
C. Conceptual Framework ………... 26
D. Hypothesis……….... 29
CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHOD A. Research Design……… 30
B. Population and Sampling………. 30
1. The Population ……… 30
2. The Sample ………. 31
C. The Instrument of Collecting the Data ………. 32
D. The Validity and Reliability of the Test ……….. 32
1. The Validity of the Test ………. 32
2. The Reliability of the Test ………. 33
E. Scoring of the Test ………... 34
F. The Procedure for Collecting Data ……….. 37
H. Statistical Hypothesis ………... 43
CHAPTER IV: DATA ANALYSIS AND RESEARCH FINDING A. The Description of Data ………... 44
B. The Data Analysis ………... 48
1. Testing Reliability of the Test ………... 48
2. Analyzing the Data using t- test ……… 49
a. The Calculation of the t-table ……….. 49
b. The Calculation of t –observed ……… 50
C. Testing Hypothesis ……….. 51
D. Discussions ...……… 51
CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions ……… 55
B. Suggestions ……… 55
REFERENCES ……… 57
LIST OF TABLES
Table 1.1 Students’ Speaking Score of Grade X ………. 3
Table 3.1 Research Design ……….. 30
Table 3.2 The Population and The Sample of the study ………. 31
Table 3.3 FSI (Foreign Service Institute) Weighting Table ……….... 34
Table 3.4 Teaching Procedure of Experimental Group ………... 39
Table 3.5 Teaching Procedure of Control Group ……… 41
Table 4.1 The Result of Pre-test and Post-test of Experimental Group …….. 45
Table 4.2 The Result of Pre-test and Post-test of Control Group ……… 47
LIST OF APPENDIXES
APPENDIX A. The Result of Pre –Post Test of Experimental Group …… 59
APPENDIX B. The Result of Pre –Post Test of Control Group …………. 61
APPENDIX C. The Reliability of the Test ………... 63
APPENDIX D. The Calculation of the Test ………. 65
APPENDIX E. Percentage of T-Distribution ……… 70
APPENDIX F. Pre Test and Post Test ……….. 71
APPENDIX G. Lesson Plan of Experimental Group ……… 73
APPENDIX H. Lesson Plan of Control Group ………. 91
A. The Background of the Study
Rapid globalization has elevated the English language as the International
language that must be mastered by people to communicate with other people.
Position of English as the International language is the key of successful either in
development of education or work areas. In Indonesia, English is taught as
foreign language because it is taught as a school subject in a society where it is
not widespread medium of communication outside the schools. Lado (1961: 239)
in Fulcher (2003: 18) state the ability to speak a foreign language is without doubt
the most highly prized language skill. It caused of a clear lack of understand of
what constitute speaking ability or oral production. English has taught from
elementary school to university. That’s why English becomes important for
students because English not only as the way to communication confidently but it
has function as a way to transferring knowledge, expressing ideas, feelings, and
In Senior High School students should be able to actively communicate in
English. Communicating skill consists of four major skills of they are namely
listening, speaking, reading, and writing. In other words the four language skills
human being to point out their ideas. Speaking is regard as the measure of
knowing a language. Speaking is one of important major that must be mastered by
the students. Because, the students are need to recognize that speaking to involve
areas of knowledge. The students often think that the ability to speak a language
is the product of language learning, but speaking is also a crucial part of the
language learning process. The teacher as facilitator should be able to help their
students develop the body of knowledge by providing authentic practice that
prepares students for real life communication situations.
Speaking is an ability that is taken for granted, learned as it is through a
process of socialization through communicating (Hall, 1995) in Fulcher (2003:
22). Speaking is as one of four major skills of English which is needed by the
students to express their ideas and knowledge actively, fluently and accurately.
But in fact, many students are less competent in speaking. There are some factors
why students unable to speak English. When the writer was doing first
observation in SMA Negeri 1 Galang, she found that there were cases are faced
by the students in grade X when learning English subject especially for
developing speaking skill. Based on the observation and preliminary research of
Grade X and after interviewing the English teacher, from 42 students it was found
that there are 17 students who did not pass the minimum standard competence
(KKM) of speaking competence tests in the first semester and 20 students in the
second semester. The score of minimum standard competence is 75. Here are the
Students’ scores of speaking competence test in two semesters 2014-2015
Semester Score Students Percentage Mean 1st Semester
Source: Students’ accumulated score of grade X students at SMA N 1 GALANG
academic year 2014/2015
From this fact, it can be concluded that many students could not passed the
KKM. The students’ self-confidence to speak English is weak caused they worry
to make mistakes. They seldom practice English in daily life caused of feeling
shy. This condition is making students afraid to do interactions with their friends
or other people around them. They do not want to take the risk of being criticized
by their friends. So, it makes the students are unwilling to express their thought
even though they do not understand what teacher have taught during the teaching
learning process. Another Problem in speaking such as lack of vocabulary, lack of
understanding of grammar and pronunciation make students’ ideas cannot be
expressed fluently. They think that speaking is very difficult to practice. When
students are asked to use English, the students turn hesitate to speak up and tend
to be passive. The activities which are provided by teacher are not make students
interested to take apart in speaking English. The role of teacher conduct the class
only based on material in the book without relate it to the students’ environment.
The majority of students in that school are unable to make connections between
what they are learning and how that knowledge will be used. This is because the
way they process information and their motivation for learning are not touched by
understanding academic concepts such as English subject as they are commonly
taught (that is, using a lecture method), but they desperately need to understand
the concepts as they relate to the workplace and to the larger society in which they
will live and work. In this case, those make the students lazy to take a part in
speaking and then they got low scores. That’s why the writer assumed that the
process of teaching and learning need to improvement in speaking English.
Considering those problems faced by the students in speaking, the writer
tries to find out an appropriate English teaching method to be applied in teaching
English speaking. The method should provide the students’ interests and needs.
So, the students challenged and attracted to learn speaking English. Contextual
Teaching and learning can be applied in some language skills such as speaking
and writing. The writer chooses Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) as the
most effective method in teaching English speaking achievement. According to
Berns and Erickson in Hudson, “Contextual Teaching and Learning Method helps
students connect the content they are learning to the life context in which that
content could be used”. It means that a method that involves students actively in
learning process. It changes old paradigm where the teacher as learning process
become students as learning process. Students invited to perform their speaking
skills based on materials connect to their environments.
Based on the students’ problems in speaking, the writer is very much
interested in discovering whether the effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning
method has an effect on students’ speaking achievement. It is hoped that using
express their thought connect to the situation context, social and daily life. Based
on the explanation and problem above, the researcher wants to conduct of study
“The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning Method on students’ speaking
A. The problem of the Study
Based on the background above it is necessary to formulate the problem of
the study is formulated as the following: “Is students’ achievement in speaking
taught by using CTL Method is significantly higher than that taught by using
B. The Objective of the Study
In line with the research problem formulated above, the objective of the
study is to find out the significance effect of Contextual Teaching Learning
Method on students’ speaking achievement for the Grade X students of SMA N 1
C. The Scope of the Study
There are many teaching methods used in teaching speaking achievement
successful; however, this study is limited to find out the effect of using
Contextual Teaching Learning Method in teaching speaking. The study is
D. The Significance of the Study
Findings of the study are expected to be theoretically and practically
Theoretically, the findings are expected to add up more horizons in
theories of language learning. In addition, the finding can be reference for further
Practically the finding can be relevant for
a. English Teachers as an alternative teaching to improve students’
speaking achievement by applying CTL Method, and
b. Students of English for applying CTL Method in their own experiences
CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS
Based on the research finding, the research concludes that there is a
significant effect of using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) on students’
speaking achievement. This can be seen from the result of the data, it can be seen
that the highest score of experimental group was 90 and the lowest score was 65
in post-test. Meanwhile, the highest score of control group was 75 and the lowest
score was 44 in post-test.
Having analyzed the data, calculation of t-test at the level significance µ =
0.05, t-observed value (8.108) is higher than t-table (2000) with the degree of
freedom (df) = 62. Thus, the null hypothesis (Ho) is rejected and consequently the
alternative hypothesis (Ha) is accepted. This means that Contextual Teaching and
Learning Method significantly affect students’ achievement in speaking than
using Lecturing Method. Therefore, the alternative hypothesis that formulated as
“there is a significant effect of using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)
Method on students’ speaking achievement” is accepted.
The result of this study shows that the use of Contextual Teaching and
Learning (CTL) Method could increase students’ speaking achievement. The
(1) The English teachers are suggested to apply Contextual Teaching and
Learning (CTL) Method to increase students’ speaking achievement in
teaching speaking process by choosing interesting topics and helping
students to construct their speaking.
(2) Students are suggested to use this strategy in speaking test. The
strategy in CTL is able to improve the speaking achievement, work
together, solve their problems, providing ways for discuss with their
friends to summarize the lesson and students have more skills to
explain the text fluently and meaningful.
(3) Researchers who want to develop all information and knowledge for
those who have interest in doing research areadvised to conduct further
Ampa, A. T., D, M. B., Andriani, A. A. (2013). The Development of Contextual Learning Materials for the English Speaking Skills.International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. 1, No. 9.
Amertei, A. M. (2014). Students’ perception about the lecture as a method of teaching in tertiary institutions. Views of students from college of technology eduction, kumasi (coltek). International Journal of Education and Research, Vol. 2, No. 6.
Arikunto, Suharsimi. (2002). ProsedurPenelitian :SuatuPendekatanPraktik (edisirevisi VI). Jakarta: RienekaCipta.
Ary, Donald et al. (2002).Introduction to Research in Education. (6thed.). New York: Wordsworth Group.
Bashir, M., Azeem, M., &Dogar, A. H. (2011).Factor Effecting Students’ English
Speaking Skills.British Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, Vol. 2,No. 1, 2046 – 9578. Retrieved from
David, N. (1999). Second Language Teaching & Learning.Hongkong: Longman.
Efrizal, D. (2012). Improving Students’ Speaking through Communicative
Language Teaching Method at MtsJa-alhaq, Sentot Ali Basa Islamic Boarding School of Bengkulu, Indonesia.International Journal of Humanities and Social Science, Vol. 2, No.20.
Fulcher, G. (2003). Testing Second Language Speaking.London: Longman.
Harmer, J. (1998).How to Teach English: an Introduction to the Practice of English Language Teaching. New York: Longman.
Harmer, J. (2003).The Practice of English Language Teaching (3th edition). Cambridge: Longman.
Kunandar. (2009). Guru Profesional: ImplementasiKurikulum Tingkat SatuanPendidikan (KTSP) danSuksesdalamSertifikasi Guru. Jakarta: Rajawali Pers.
Lubis, P. M. (2010). The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL)
Method on Students’ Achievement in Writing Recount Text. Medan,
Renofa, J. (2011). Improving Students’ Speaking Achievement for the Second Year Students in SMP NEGERI 14 MEDAN by Using Contextual Teaching and Learning (CTL) Method. Medan, UNIMED Press.
Suparman, L et al. (2013). The Effect of Contextual Teaching and Learning
Approach and Achievement Motivation Upon Students’ Writing
Competency for The Tenth Grade Students of SMAN 1 KERUAK in The Academic Year 2012-2013. e-Journal Program PascasarjanaUniversitasPendidikanGanesha, Vol 1.
Thornbury, S. ( 2005). How to teach speaking.London:Longman.
Ur, P. (1996). Course in Language Teaching. London: Cambridge University Press.