THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF THE STUDENTS IN TRANSLATING SIMPLE SENTENCES OF A PARAGRAPH IN SCIENCE.

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THE COGNITIVE PROCESS OF THE STUDENTS

IN TRANSLATING SIMPLE SENTENCES OF

A PARAGRAPH IN SCIENCE

A Thesis

Submitted to the English Applied Linguistics Study Program in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of

Magister Humaniora

By:

EKA MARIA

Registration Number: 809112025

ENGLISH APPLIED LINGUISTICS STUDY PROGRAM

POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL

STATE UNIVERSITY OF MEDAN

MEDAN

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ABSTRACT

Maria, Eka. Registration Number: 809112025. The Cognitive Process of The Students In Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph In Science. Thesis. English Applied Linguistics Study Program, Post Graduate School, State University of Medan (UNIMED). 2016.

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ABSTRAK

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Great gratitude to The Almighty God, Jesus Christ, for this strength in this glorious bless which makes her able to do this research and composes this thesis. Being as His child is a miracle which leads her ways of life and goal.

Countless individuals have contributed directly and indirectly to the research and to the completion of this thesis. The writer is deeply indebted to each one, and therefore she would like to express her heartfelt gratitude.

She first wishes to thank her Board of Adviser members: Prof. Amrin Saragih, M.A, Ph.D, her first adviser and Prof. Dr. Berlin Sibarani, M.Pd, her second adviser, who had given her a lot of support in their advices to the completion of this research project and thesis. They had made her feels as their daughter in their daily love.

This thesis was strongly supported the valuable suggestions and critics from these great heroes in education, his Board of Examiner members: Prof. Dr. Busmin Gurning, M.Pd., Dr. Didik Santoso, M.Pd. and Prof. Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. who received this proposal and offered the constructive helps. Without them she would not be able to bring this thesis into a final form.

Her gratefulness also goes to the Head of English Applied Linguistics Study Program, Dr. Rahmad Husein, M.Ed and the secretary, Prof. Dr. Sri Minda Murni, M.S. for their suggestion and administrative assistance during the process of conducting the research.

Sincerest appreciation especially addressed to her beloved siblings, Mareni Kristina and Robert, whose loves and continuous prayers have always empowered her to continue her study at The State University of Medan.

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would not be able to make sense of profound meaning of education for good of humanity. Their hard work ethic exemplifies her guiding principles of life and makes her believe nothing is impossible.

She owes a special debt to her beloved, Linton Sigiro, S.PAK, who selflessly spared his insurmountable time to motivate and support her to finish this thesis.

Last but not least, she is enormously indebted to her close friends Silvana Mareta, Roma Anastasia, Erna Olofiana, Jeffry Lim, Helmida, Rabi’atul Adhawiyah and Riris Panca Putri, who kindly read, helped, shared, and provided some constructive and indispensable critics on this thesis. They had made her understand that she can do everything in God.

Medan, 30th January 2016 The writer,

Eka Maria

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CONTENTS

ABSTRACT ... i

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... iii

CONTENTS ... v

LIST OF APPENDIXES ... viii

LIST OF FIGURES ... ix

LIST OF TABLES ... x

CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION 1.1 The Background of the Study ………... 1

1.2 The Problems of the Study ………. 7

1.3 The Objectives of the Study ……….... 7

1.4 The Scopes of the Study……….. 7

1.5 The Significances of the Study ……….. 8

CHAPTER II REVIEW OF LITERATURE 2.1 Cognitive Process ………... 9

2.2 Cognitive Process in Translating ... 12

2.3 Translator’s Behaviour in Translating ...……… 15

2.4 Translation Concept ... ... 18

2.5 Translation Process ... 22

2.5.1 The Phases of Translation Process ………. 30

2.5.1.1 Analysis ……….. 30

2.5.1.1.1 Syntactic Analysis ……… 30

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4.1.2 The Cognitive Process of IS in

Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in

Science ...………... 68 4.1.3 The Cognitive Process of DKA in

Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in

Science ...………... 72 4.1.4 The Cognitive Process of MJS in

Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in

Science ...………... 78 4.1.5 The Cognitive Process of DA in

Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in

Science ...………... 83 4.1.6 The Cognitive Process of SP in

Translating Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in

Science ...………... 89 4.2 Research Findings ...………... 103 4.3 Discussion ...……...……….. 110

CHAPTER V CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions...……… 112 5.2 Suggestions...………... 113

REFERENCES ………. 115

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LIST OF APPENDIXES

Appendix I Simple Sentences of A Paragraph in Science ... 119

Appendix II Guidance for the Question in the Interview Session ... 120

Appendix III The Format of Transcription in the Interview Session ... 121

Appendix IV The Format of Transcription in the Audio Recorded

Observation of Think-Aloud Protocol Session ... 122

Appendix V Students’ Translation ... 123

Appendix VI Interview Transcript ... 126

Appendix VII Audio Recorded Observation of Think-Aloud Protocols

Transcript ... 134

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 1 Language Comprehension and

Language Production ... 14

Figure 2 Holmes’ Map of Translation Studies ... 19

Figure 3 Translation Process ... 22

Figure 4 Bell’s Model of the Translation Process ... 25

Figure 5 Conceptual Framework ... 54

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 4.1 US’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 67

Table 4.2 IS’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 70

Table 4.3 DKA’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 75

Table 4.4 MJS’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 81

Table 4.5 DA’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 87

Table 4.6 SP’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

of Paragraph in Science ... 93

Table 4.7 The Students’ Behaviours ... 95

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

1.1The Background of the Study

Translation involves the rephrasing of a communication expressed

(message) in one language, the source language (SL), into another language, the

target language (TL). Three notions are involved: SL, message and TL. The

translator, therefore, should master the linguistic and non-linguistic knowledge of

both SL and TL. Linguistically, s/he should master the word (lexicon), phrasal

expression, structure of the sentence, syntactic relation between the various

elements of the sentence, and semantic relation of SL and TL. Non-linguistic

knowledge refers to the previous knowledge of the translator possesses towards

the text, whether s/he has known and read it before.

In rephrasing SL into TL, the translator should not translate SL based on

the SL language structure. It should be based on TL language structure so that

the final message will be acceptable in the communication process. It is feasible

to make adjustment such as shifts to make the translation acceptable, equivalent

and natural. As Nida (1982:12) explains that the best translation does not sound

like a translation.

During the activity of rephrasing SL into TL, the process of translation

takes place. Such translation is known as translation process (Kiraly, 1995:18).

Empirically, translation process aims to investigate what goes on in the mind of

person while he or she is translating. Psycholinguistically, it sets out to establish

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how the translator processes information in bilingual communication. In

association with the translation process, Toury spoke about the mystery of the

‘black box’ of the translation process in 1982. The translator’s mind was

considered an opaque black box that was simply beyond the scope of the

observation. To illuminate the contents of Toury’s black box, researchers such as

Krings (1986b, 1987), Lorscher (1986, 1991b), Konigs (1987), Gerloff (1986),

Dechert and Sandrock (1986), Seguinot (1989b, 1989c, 1990, 1991), Honig

(1988, 1990), Jaaskelainen (1989, 1990, 1993), Tirkkonen-Condit (1992),

Shreve, Schaffner, Danks and Griffin (1993), Kiraly (1995) and Kussmaul (1991,

1995) have turned to the cognitive science and adopted think-aloud protocol

(TAP) from experimental psychology (Danks, 1997:7).

Linguists and psychologist have come together to investigate the

translator’s mind during the performance of translating tasks. They come

together to deal with the cognitive processes of translation process on theory and

concepts from the cognitive sciences, in particular cognitive psychology,

psycholinguistics and experimental psychology. For instance, the concept of a

working memory from cognitive psychology (Baddeley and Hitch 1974,

Baddeley 1986, 2000), which is a theorised memory construct that stores and

processes information temporarily, has been used in translation process research

to explain the manipulation of information from source text (ST) to target text

(TT) (e.g. Bell 1998, Halskov Jensen 1999 and Dragsted 2004). Also, the notion

of a long-term working memory (Ericsson and Kintsch 1995) has been

introduced to illustrate the cognitive advantage that skilled translators hold over

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and research in monolingual text production have also been introduced to peer

into the ‘black box’ of translation processes. With respect to text production in

translation, Hayes and Flower’s (1986) model of monolingual writing has been

applied to model the text production processes involved in translation (Englund

Dimitrova 2005), and with respect to monolingual language comprehension,

Kintsch’s (1988) construction-integration model has been applied as a

framework for modelling comprehension in translation (Padilla et al. 2004: 23).

The use of theories and concepts from cognitive psychology in the investigation

of the translation process provides a strong basis for interpreting the cognitive

processes of translation.

However, it cannot be simply assumed that it is an extension of normal

language processing. It cannot be assumed that the cognitive processes of

translation process are identical to speaking, listening, reading and writing. For

instance, Danks and Griffin (Hvelplund, 2011:14) stress that comprehension in

translation is different from normal comprehension. It is a goal-oriented

intention-driven process which is guided by the concerns about the writer’s

intent, the translator’s intent and user’s intent which dictate the level of

comprehension. Of course, the well-known patterns of the mentioned four skills

are part of the processes but, they are transformed when they occur in context of

translation. The basic problems, then, are how they are transformed, how the

processes take place and what knowledge and skills the translator must possess in

order to carry it out.

The process of translation between two different written languages

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original verbal language (the source language or SL) into a written text (the

target text or TT) in a different verbal language (the target language or TL) by

the translator (Munday, 2001:5). As its simplest, the process of translation

involves the transferring of meaning from a text in one language into a text in

another. This transferring constitutes mental processes which rely on

sophisticated information processing skills. The mental processes are understood

by investigating the cognitive activities in a translator’s mind during the

performance of translating. In investigating the mental processes, the translator is

asked to verbalize something about his/her cognitive activities during the

performance of translation tasks using the think-aloud protocol (TAP) technique

through observation and to do in retrospect what they have done through

interview.

Theoretically, according to Bell (2001:187-8) there are two essential

stages specific to the processes of translating, and a further stage available only

to the translator working with the written text. Those are: analysis, synthesis, and

revision. During the analysis stage, the translator reads to the source text, drawing on background, encyclopaedic knowledge - including specialist domain

knowledge and knowledge of text conventions - to comprehend features

contained in the text. This requires processing at the syntactic, semantic and

pragmatic levels, as well as in terms of micro- and macro- analysis of the actual

text: monitoring for cohesion and coherence, and checking for coherence

between the actual text and the potential text type of which it is a token

realization, respectively. During synthesis, the target text is produced, i.e.

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intention (as interpreted by the translator), the translator’s intention in translating

the text, and the user’s needs (as interpreted by the translator). On the basis of

these evaluations the draft translation is revised or edited during the final stage of

revision, and such things as clause linkage and the text’s congruence with its

text-type are adjusted.

According to Seleskovitch and Lederer (Munday, 2001:80), there is

three-stage process of translation: reading and understanding, deverbalization,

and re-expression. In reading and understanding, the translator uses his/her

linguistic competence and ‘world knowledge’ to grasp the sense of the source

text. The linguistic component needs to be understood by reference not only to

explicit but also to implicit meaning in an attempt to recover the authorial

intention. The world knowledge is de-verbalized, theoretical, general,

encyclopaedic and cultural, and activated differently by different translators and

in different texts. Deverbalization is an essential intermediate phase if the

translator is to avoid transcoding and calques. Transcoding is the replacement of

SL linguistic structures of various types (words, phrases, clauses) by

corresponding TL. Calque is a special kind of borrowing where the SL

expression or structure is transferred in a literal translation. Re-expression takes

place where the target text is constituted and given form based on the

deverbalized understanding of sense. A fourth stage, verification, where the

translator revisits and evaluates the target text, is added by Delisle (Lederer,

2003:38).

In attempt to analyse the cognitive processes in translation, Dancette

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conceptualizations built on linguistic statements in a coherent and explicit way. It

is based on the common observation which showed the translators’ awareness of

their cognitive steps while reading, writing, précis-writing and translating. This is

particularly evident when they face problem which forces them to depart from

routine operations.

In reality, Dancette (1997:85) finds out that, when the translators face

with a difficulty, they can recall their questions, hypotheses, and some of the

steps of their reasoning. Therefore, they are able to talk about the process.

However, processes are not visible, only clues to such processes are visible.

These processes are able to observe through the observation of the translators’

behaviours. Behaviours are an indication of a process which helps the observer to

make reasonable hypotheses on what process is involved and validate intuitions

about the nature of processes.

The theories proposed by Bell (2001), Seleskovitch and Lederer (2001)

and Dancette (1997) which involve mental process in translation process, from

the translator’s perspective and looking toward the mental processes going on in

the individual translator’s mind during the process of translation, led the writer’s

interest to conduct this scientific study. The writer tried to verify whether the

theories are applicable to the English students at Medan or there is any

difference. This study analysed the cognitive process of students in translating

simple sentences of paragraph in science by using the think-aloud protocol

(TAP) technique and introspective interview. Science is chosen as the SL text

because it broadens our understanding of the world around us. It may allow us to

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1.2The Problems of the Study

The problems of this study are stated in the following questions.

(1) What cognitive processes are there in translating simple sentences of

paragraph in science?

(2) How do the cognitive processes occur in translating simple sentences of

paragraph in science?

(3) Why do the cognitive processes occur the way they do?

1.3 The Objectives of the Study

This study is aimed at studying the new phenomenon on the cognitive

process of the students in translating task. It specifically attempts to explain

objectively the cognitive process of the students in translating as well as the

reasons of doing such way. Thus, the objectives of this study are

(1) to investigate kinds of cognitive processes occuring in translating simple

sentences of paragraph in science,

(2) to investigate the manner of cognitive processes occurring in translating

simple sentences of paragraph in science, and

(3) to elaborate reasons of the way the cognitive processes occur in

translating simple sentences of paragraph in science.

1.4 The Scopes of the Study

The scopes of this study are cognitive process, translation and translation

process, cognitive process in translating, texts and sentences. The theory of

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(1) analysis and (2) synthesis will be collaborated with the theory proposed by

Dancette of types of translator’s behaviours to investigate the cognitive process

of translator during the performance of translating texts. The text is simple

sentences of paragraph in science.

1.5 The Significances of the Study

Findings of this study are strongly expected to have the theoretically and

practically indispensable significances. Theoretically, on one hand, the research

findings are expected to be valuable contributions for other researchers who will

conduct the studies in the field of translation studies, particularly about the

cognitive process in translation task. Practically, on the other hand, the research

findings are beneficial for the translators in general and the Indonesian

translators in particular as a consideration for doing translation from the source

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

5.1 Conclusions

From the analysis of the data and the findings, it is concluded that

1. There are seven types of behaviours occur during the performance of the

translation done by the students. They are

(1) reading the text,

(2) alternating between the SL and the TL,

(3) monitoring the proposed translation,

(4) intralinguistic repetition,

(5) consulting the dictionary, either monolingual or bilingual dictionary,

(6) paraphrasing, and

(7) translation.

2. The cognitive processes occur when the subjects

(1) read the text, either they read the whole SL text or segment by segment,

(2) keep repeating the term (the lexical) which indicates hesitation or

questioning,

(3) are not able to make decision for an equivalent,

(4) question the adequacy of a word or an expression,

(5) do not understand the meaning of a word and consult the dictionary,

(6) try to clarify a concept and reformulate a proposed translation by

paraphrase, and

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3. The reasons which make such cognitive processes occur during the act of

translating are the inability to produce the spontaneous translation and

lacking of knowledge of the text itself. The inability of word-recognition

processing, syntactic processing, and semantic processing will also affect the

behaviours of the translators in the process of translating. Meanwhile, for the

excellent subjects, the reasons which make such cognitive processes occur

during the act of translating are the ability to produce the spontaneous

translation and having the knowledge of the text itself (prior knowledge). On

one hand, the more knowledge and skills (communicative competences) the

translators have, the less behaviours (cognitive processes) they face. On the

other hand, the less knowledge and skills the translators have, the more

behaviours (cognitive processes) they face.

5.2 Suggestions

There are some suggestions in this research. The suggestions are

addressed to the translators in common. Here are the following suggestions

1. It is suggested that the satisfying and developing translators should improve

their four areas of communicative competence in the act of translating;

grammatical competence, sociolinguistic competence, discourse competence,

and strategic competence. Having the mentioned competences will lessen the

problems of word-recognition processing (lexical problem), syntactic

processing, and semantic processing in the act of translation process.

2. It is suggested that the translators should broaden their horizons of any kinds

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3. It is suggested that the further researcher should explore the cognitive

processes of the students in translating the SL text into the TL text with

different educational background.

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Figur

Figure 1  Language Comprehension and

Figure 1

Language Comprehension and p.13
Table 4.1 US’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences

Table 4.1

US’s Cognitive Process in Translating Simple Sentences p.14

Referensi

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