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Riska Purnawati Salam,2013

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CULTURAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TWO ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

A Research Paper

Submitted to the English Education Department of Indonesia University of Education as a Partial Requirement to Achieve Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

Riska Purnawati Salam 0907219

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION INDONESIA UNIVERSITY OF EDUCATION

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Cultural Content Analysis of Two

English Textbooks for Senior High

School

Oleh

Riska Purnawati Salam

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Riska Purnawati 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

Oktober 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

CULTURAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TWO ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

Written by: Riska Purnawati Salam

0907219

Approved by:

Main Supervisor, Co-supervisor,

Pupung Purnawarman, M.S.Ed., Ph.D. Rojab Siti Rodliyah, S.Pd., M.Ed. NIP. 19681013198031001 NIP. 197308062002122001

Head of English Education Department Faculty of Language and Arts Education

Indonesia University of Education

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CULTURAL CONTENT ANALYSIS OF TWO ENGLISH TEXTBOOKS FOR SENIOR HIGH SCHOOL

ABSTRACT

Language and culture are said to become indivisible as language signifies its cultural context in which it is used. In foreign language learning, the cultural aspects of language can be conveyed through the language materials, including textbook. Therefore, this study attempts to analyze the representation of culture in two English textbooks for senior high school in Indonesia: Developing English Competencies and Interlanguage. The reading passages from the two textbooks were analyzed in order to see what types of culture are presented in the textbooks and how the cultural content is represented. The cultural content was described qualitatively by employing the framework theory of culture in four senses adapted from Adaskou, Britten, & Fahsi (1990) and the theory of types of culture proposed by Cortazzi & Jin (1999). The findings reveal that the three types of culture (source culture, target culture, and international target culture) are all presented with the target culture as the prominent type of culture in the textbooks, and its representation in four senses of culture, as well as the other two types of culture varied from literature to gesture. Nevertheless, the cultural content represented in the two textbooks is not thoroughly explored. Even so, the textbooks are relatively suitable to introduce the target culture as well as other cultures to the learner without neglecting the learner’s source culture.

Keywords: cultural content, culture analysis, English textbook evaluation

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.5. Significance of the Study ... 3

1.6. Research Methodology... 4

1.6.1. Research Design ... 4

1.6.2. Data Collection... 4

1.6.3. Data Analysis ... 4

1.7. Clarification of Terms ... 5

1.8. Organization of the Paper ... 6

CHAPTER II: LITERATURE REVIEW ...7

2.1. Definition of Culture ... 7

2.2. Types of Culture ... 9

2.3. Cultural Framework in Language Teacing: Culture in Four Senses ... 10

2.3.1. Indonesian Culture in Four Senses ... 12

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2.4. The Use of Textbook in Indonesia ... 17

2.5. Cultural Content in Textbook ... 20

2.6. The Role of Textbook in Foreign Language Teaching ... 23

2.7. English Textbook Evaluation ... 25

2.8. Cultural Presentation and Representation in Textbook ... 28

2.9. Relevant Research on Cultural Content in English Textbook ... 30

CHAPTER III: RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ...32

3.1. Research Design ... 32

3.2. Data Collection... 33

3.3. Selection of the Text ... 34

3.4. Data Analysis ... 36

3.5. Data Presentation ... 37

CHAPTER IV: FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION ...39

4.1. Types of Culture Prominently Presented in the Textbooks ... 39

4.2. How the Cultural Content Is Represented in Four Senses of Culture ... 44

4.2.1. The Representation of Source Culture ... 46

4.2.2. The Representation of Target Culture ... 47

4.2.3. The Representation of International Target Culture ... 50

CHAPTER V: CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION ...52

5.1. Conclusion ... 52

5.2. Recommendation... 53

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 Detailed Information about the Textbooks ...33

Table 3.2 The Distribution of the Reading Passages in Textbook ...35

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LIST OF FIGURES

Figure 2.1 Cultural Mirror in Textbook ...9

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A: Data Interpretation

Appendix B: The Examples of Reading Passages from the Textbooks

Appendix C: Table C1 Types of Cultural Content in Developing English Competencies Textbook

Table C2 Types of Cultural Content in Interlanguage Textbook

Appendix D: Table D1 Source Culture in Four Senses (Developing English Competencies Textbook)

Table D2 Source Culture in Four Senses (Interlanguage Textbook)

Table D3 Target Culture in Four Senses (Developing English Competencies Textbook)

Table D4 Target Culture in Four Senses (Interlanguage Textbook)

Table D5 International Target Culture in Four Senses (Developing English Competencies Textbook)

Table D6 International Target Culture in Four Senses (Interlanguage Textbook)

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CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This chapter presents an overview of this study. It consists of eight

sections which are: background of the study, research question, purpose of the

study, scope of the study, significance of the study, research methodology,

clarification of terms, and organization of the paper.

1.1 Background of the study

Culture has an important role in foreign language teaching. Linguists and

anthropologists have long recognized that cultural values of a society can be

reflected in its language (Peterson & Coltrane, 2003). This has made language and

culture to become indivisible, since language and culture cannot be separated

without losing the importance of either language or culture (Brown, 2000, p. 177).

Thus, as the language signifies the cultural context in which it is used, it is

inevitable to learn the culture underlying the language being learned (Kilickaya,

2004). The existing curriculum in Indonesia, Kurikulum Tingkat Satuan

Pendidikan 2006 (School-based curriculum), also ascertains the importance of

culture in language learning as it is stated in Content Standard of National

Education Standard that one of the objectives of learning English is for the

students to gain more understanding of the interrelation between language and

culture (Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, 2006, p. 124).

Furthermore, speaking in a foreign language without understanding its

culture could cause the appropriateness of cultural norms to be violated and it will

lead to sociopragmatic or communication failure and also stereotyping (Thomas,

1983 cited in Hinkel, 1999). Thus, cultural learning is considered as an important

element in language teaching (Hadley, 2001, p. 345). In the process of foreign

language teaching, culture can be conveyed or communicated through the

teaching material, including textbooks (McGrath, 2002). In this case, textbook

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Torres, 1994, p. 317) as it could be the resource of cultural content. The cultural

content mirrored in the textbook could cover the learner’s own culture, the culture

of the language being learned, and the variety of culture around the world

(Cortazzi & Jin, 1999, pp. 204-205). More importantly, Cortazzi & Jin (1999) also

argued that it is essential to include the variation of cultural content in the

textbook in order for the students not to see only a monolithic culture (p.204).

There are substantial amount of researches related to the analysis of

cultural content in English textbook. For instance, in China, Juan (2010) analyzed

the cultural content in a college EFL textbook of non-English major. The study

revealed that the cultural content in the selected textbook had not been given

specific attention and the textbook mostly involved the target language culture in

the text (Juan, 2010). On the other hand, unbalanced proportion of cultural content

was found in Indonesian ELT textbook in which the source culture holds the main

cultural focus of the textbooks (Noerkhasanah, 2011). In addition, Clarke and

Clarke (1990) reported that cultural content in British EFL materials are often

presented with stereotypes and bias in terms of gender, race, class, and religion

(cited in Reimann, 2009).

The foregoing studies have shown that the cultural content is provided in

ELT textbooks. However, the cultural content in textbooks is often lack of

appropriate presentation and representation. Therefore, this study attempts to see

how the source culture, in this case Indonesian culture, and the target culture, as

well as the international target culture in two selected English textbooks are

represented through the framework of culture in four senses. The textbooks are

two local English textbooks used for senior high school in Indonesia: Developing

English Competencies for Grade X and Interlanguage for Grade X. The textbooks

were claimed to comply with the requirement set by Badan Standar Nasional

Pendidikan (National Education Standardization Board). The copyright of the

books is owned by the Ministry of Education and Culture and the books have been

officially approved for nationwide usage. The digital version of the books is also

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were selected as the government recommends the textbooks to be used in

Indonesian public schools (Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan, 2006).

1.2 Research Questions

This study sought to find the answer to the following questions:

1. What type(s) of cultural content (whether it is source culture, target

culture, or international target culture) is prominently presented in the

textbooks?

2. How is the cultural content in the textbooks represented in four senses of

culture?

1.3 Purpose of the Study

The purpose of this study is to investigate the cultural content represented

in two selected English textbooks provided by the Ministry of Education and

Culture in terms of the type of cultural content presented and how it is represented

in four senses of culture. Further recommendation based on the study in regard to

cultural content in textbook is given.

1.4 Scope of the Study

This study is included into the subject of textbook evaluation. In order to

make the discussion more specific, the scope of the study is limited to the analysis

of cultural content described in the reading passages provided in the textbooks.

The analysis of culture in this study is based on the types of culture in language

materials by Cortazzi & Jin (1999) and four senses of culture suggested by

Adaskou, Britten, and Fahsi (1990).

1.5 Significance of the Study

The result of this study is expected to make a useful contribution to the

field of English Language Teaching in terms of how to provide the appropriate

representation of culture in textbooks for EFL. The finding is expected to provide

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cultural content integrated into the learning material in English textbooks.

Moreover, the result of this study hopefully could offer suggestions for English

language teachers in selecting the textbook to be used in classroom.

1.6 Research Methodology 1.6.1 Research Design

Qualitative research is employed as the approach to this study. Qualitative

research is defined as the type of research study that “investigates the quality of

relationships, activities, situations, or materials” (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun,

2012, p. 426). In addition, this study is descriptive in nature as it is thoroughly

describing a specific matter (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2012, p. 15). The data are

analyzed by using the concept of four senses of culture adapted from Adaskou,

Britten, and Fahsi (1990), and the types of culture in language materials proposed

by Cortazzi & Jin (1999).

reading passages in each textbook. The textbooks were selected as the source of

the data because the textbooks were claimed to comply with the requirement set

by Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan (National Standardization Board) and the

source of the data is not difficult to find since the digital version of the books can

be downloaded for free on the Ministry's website.

1.6.3 Data Analysis

The data analysis consists of three stages. First, to establish the presence of

the cultural content, the data from the textbooks were divided into source culture,

target culture, and international target culture. Second, the representation of

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the concept of four senses of culture proposed by Adaskou, Britten, and Fahsi

(1990). Third, interpretations were built to measure how the cultural content is

represented in the reading passages of the two textbooks.

1.7 Clarification of Terms

In order to avoid misinterpretation related to the basic concept in this

study, in the following is the explanation of the specific terms used.

Cultural Content

Cultural content refers to the cultural information represented in the

teaching material, including the textbook.

Textbook

Textbook is an organized and pre-packaged set of teaching/learning

materials (Hutchinson & Torres, 1994).

Textbook Analysis

According to McGrath, the analysis of textbook is a process to examine a

textbook that involves a description process in order to understand what

assumptions and beliefs lie beneath the surface (McGrath, 2002).

Textbook Evaluation

Textbook evaluation is a process to discover particular aspects provided in

textbook and to put value on it (McGrath, 2002).

Source Culture

Source culture in this sense is the learners' native culture (Cortazzi & Jin,

1999). It means that the source culture here refers to Indonesian culture.

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The target language here is English language, thus the target culture is the

culture of the country where English is spoken as the first language (Cortazzi &

Jin, 1999). The target country refers to the countries that belong to Kachru’s inner

circle which are Australia, Canada, New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United

States of America (Kachru, 1985 cited in Kachru & Smith, 2008, p.4).

International Target Culture

International target culture is the variety of culture in the world, where the

target language is spoken as the second language or as an international language

(Cortazzi & Jin, 1999). It means that the international target culture refers to the

culture that does not belong to the source culture or target culture.

Four Senses of Culture

Four sense of culture in this study refers to the theory of culture suggested

by Adaskou, Britten, & Fahsi who said that the concept of culture can be divided

into four 'meaning' of culture: the aesthetic sense, sociological sense, semantic

sense, and pragmatic (sociolinguistic) sense (Adaskou, Britten, & Fahsi, 1990).

1.8 Organization of the Paper

The organization of the paper consists of five chapters as in the following.

Chapter 1: Introduction. This chapter points out the background of the

study, research question, aims of the study, scope of the study, significance of the

study, research methodology, clarification of terms , and organization of the paper.

Chapter 2: Literature Review. This chapter provides the theories related the

topic of this study. It covers: the definition of culture; types of culture; cultural

framework in language teaching: culture in four senses; the use of textbook in

Indonesia; cultural content in textbook; the role of textbook in foreign language

teaching; English textbook evaluation; cultural presentation and representation in

English textbook; and relevant research on cultural content in English textbook.

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methodology will be elucidated.

Chapter 4: Findings and Discussion. This chapter presents the result of the

study and the analysis of the findings.

Chapter 5: Conclusion and Recommendation. This chapter presents the

conclusion based on the study conducted and points out some suggestions or

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the procedure in conducting this study. It

encompasses the detailed explanation of the research methodology which is

organized into five sections: (i) research design (ii) data collection (iii) selection

of the text (iv) data analysis (v) data presentation. Section one presents the

elaboration of the general concept related to the design of the research. Section

two which is data collection, covers the steps taken in order to collect the data

needed for this study. Since the data are in the form of reading passages, thus

section three covers the selection of the text. The elaboration of how the data is

analyzed to result in the findings is covered in section four which is data analysis.

Lastly, the presentation of the data is covered in section five of data presentation.

3.1 Research Design

Qualitative research is employed as the approach to this study. Qualitative

research is defined as the type of research study that “investigates the quality of

relationships, activities, situations, or materials” (Fraenkel, Wallen, & Hyun, 2012, p. 426). Furthermore, according to Creswell (2008) qualitative research is

defined as in the following definition:

… the type of educational research in which the researcher relies on the views of participants; asks broad, general questions; collects data consisting largely of words (or text) from participants; describes and analyzes these words for themes; and conducts the inquiry in a subjective, biased manner. (p. 46)

As this study employs systematic technique to analyze and describe how the

cultural content is represented in the selected textbooks and the data collected are

in the form of reading passages, thus qualitative approach is seen as the most

suitable approach for this study. In addition, this study is descriptive in nature as it

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15). The data were analyzed by using the types of culture in language materials of

Cortazzi & Jin (1999) and the concept of four senses of culture adapted from

Adaskou, Britten, and Fahsi (1990).

3.2 Data Collection

The data were collected from two English textbooks for Senior High

School. The first one is Developing English Competencies and the second one is

Interlanguage. Both were published by Pusat Perbukuan Departemen Pendidikan

Nasional. The textbooks were selected as the source of the data as the textbooks

were claimed to comply with the requirements set by Badan Standar Nasional

Pendidikan and the textbooks are recommended by the government to be used in

Indonesian public schools (Pusat Kurikulum dan Perbukuan, 2006). In addition,

the source of the data was not difficult to find since the digital version of the

books can be obtained on the Ministry's website and it can be downloaded for

free.

The data collected are in the form of the reading passages in each

textbook. The illustrations that accompany the text were analyzed if it assists the

interpretation of the meaning. The reading passages were examined carefully to

see how the culture is represented in the text. The following table presents the

detailed information about the textbooks.

Table 3.1 Detailed Information about the Textbooks

Books Author Publisher/Year Pages ISBN

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The texts were selected from two textbooks: Developing English

Competencies and Interlanguage. From the two textbooks, the analysis was

specified into the reading passages presented in each unit. The illustrations

juxtaposed with the reading passages were analyzed only when it constitutes the

meaning of the reading passages.

Developing English Competencies comprises six units and two reviews.

Each unit consists six sections: section one to four are related to four language

skills (listening, speaking, reading, and writing), and each section is focused on

one skill; section five is Chapter Summary: this section sum up the core material

that have been learned in the unit; and last section is Learning Reflection which is

provided for the students so that they can reflect on what have been learned and

what they are expected to be able to do after learning the unit. The reading

passages are presented mostly in „Reading‟ section, but in a certain unit they are also presented in „Writing‟ and „Speaking‟ section. Therefore, the reading passages were taken from those sections.

Interlanguage textbook comprises ten units and two unit reviews. Each

unit is divided into six sections: (a) Let's Get Ready: this is the pre-activity that

will lead into the learning materials; (b) Let's Act: this section is divided into two

cycles: oral cycle and written cycle. This section also consists of the explanation

of language structure; (c) Let's Do More: this section provides exercises related to

the materials; (d) Let's Check Your Competence: this section provides additional

exercises; (e) Let's Make a Reflection: this section is provided with the table for

their progress after learning the unit; and (f) Let's Make a Summary: this section

consists of the review of the material that have been learned in the unit. The

reading passages are mostly presented in the Let's Act section of written cycle and

Let‟s Do More. The data from Interlanguage textbook were collected from these two sections of the textbook.

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number of the reading passages presented in each unit in the textbooks can be

seen in table 3.2.

Table 3.2 The Distribution of the Reading Passages in Textbook

Unit I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X Total

Developing English Competencies

5 6 7 8 10 10 46

Interlanguage 2 1 5 3 2 2 1 7 3 3 29

From table 3.2 it can be seen that the number of the reading passages increasing

gradually from one unit to the next unit. Developing English Competencies

provides the students with a few reading passages in one unit, but plenty of it can

be found in another unit. Unlike Developing English Competencies textbook,

distribution of the reading passages in Interlanguage textbook is erratic. In one

unit, the reading passages could be plentiful, but in the other unit there is only one

reading passage. This is seemingly related to the length of the reading passages. It

is found that in unit 8 in which there are seven reading passages, the most of all

units, all of the reading passages are composed of one short paragraph only. In

terms of length, the textbooks consist of various reading passages with different

length from a reading passage with only one short paragraph to a very long one

with more than ten paragraphs.

The reading passages in each unit written in different form such as

narrative, announcement, invitation, etc., yet the variation of the reading passages

form is not that different in the two textbooks. The textbooks comprises mainly of

recount text, procedural text, narrative text, descriptive text, news item, and

announcement. It is because the textbooks followed the guidelines of the standard

competence given by the government which requires those types of text to be

included in the materials (Badan Standar Nasional Pendidikan, 2006). Apart from

those texts, there is also another type of additional text in the textbooks, such as

invitation text in Interlanguage textbook and brochure in Developing English

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Moreover, the arrangement of the topic in each unit are generally alike, for

instance unit 1 in both textbooks focused on recount text telling about experience,

stories/narrative texts were found in two units in the textbooks (unit 2 and 4 in

Developing English Competencies textbook, unit 4 and 6 in Interlanguage

textbook), and the news items were found in the last unit in the two textbooks.

Apparently, narrative text is given more attention than the other types of text. The

detailed information related to the topic in the textbooks can be found in the

appendix.

3.4 Data Analysis

The data analysis consists of three stages. First, to establish the presence of

the cultural items, the reading passages from each textbook are first divided into

three types of culture: source culture, target culture, and international target

culture (Cortazzi & Jin, 1999) in order to see which culture is prominently

presented in the textbooks. The source culture here refers to Indonesian culture;

target culture refers to the culture where English is the first language or according

to Kachru „the inner circle country‟ which are UK, USA, Canada, Australia, and

New Zealand; and international target culture refers to the culture of the country

that does not belong to the source culture or target culture.

Second, in order to reveal how the cultural content is represented in the

reading passages, the source culture, target culture, and international target culture

are analyzed by using the concept of culture in four senses adapted from Adaskou,

Britten, and Fahsi (1990), which are: (i) the aesthetic sense; (ii) the sociological

sense; (iii) the semantic sense; and (iv) the pragmatic (sociolingusitic) sense. The

aesthetic sense refers to culture in a capital C; the sociological sense comprises the

vast area that often seen as culture in a small c, which is culture as „the way of

life‟; the semantic sense is the conceptual system embodied in the language, such as food, clothes, institutions, time and space relations, emotional states, colours,

lexical hyponymy, and so forth; and the pragmatic (sociolinguistic) sense covers

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ability to use appropriate exponents of the various communicative functions and

appropriate intonation patterns, to conform to norms of politeness, where different

from the learners‟ culture, including taboo avoidance; awareness of conventions

governing interpersonal relation-questions of status, obligation, licence, where

different form learners‟ culture; and familiarity with the main rhetorical

conventions in different written genres.

Third, interpretations are built to measure how the cultural content is

represented in the reading passages of the two textbooks.

3.5 Data Presentation

The collected data are interpreted based on the framework theory of

culture in four senses proposed by Adaskou, Britten, & Fahsi (1990), and the types

of culture proposed by Cortazzi & Jin (1999). In the following is an instance of

data interpretation.

Data interpretation:

The text is related to the activities during holiday. Someone talks about his holiday

experience when he was a boy. The setting was on the beach, but no specific

beach mentioned. However, the text seemingly refers to the target culture as it

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length/distance which is commonly used in the target countries, not in Indonesia.

This item constitutes the presence of target culture associated with the semantic

sense, in relation to the space.

The data is also presented in the following tables in order to see the cultural

representation more clearly and to see the prominent culture represented in the

textbooks.

Types of Cultural Content in Textbook

Unit Topic of reading passage SC TC ITC

SC: Source Culture TC: Target Culture ITC: International Target Culture

Source Culture in Four Senses

International Target Culture in Four Senses

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSION & RECOMMENDATION

This chapter is divided into two sections: (i) conclusion and (ii)

recommendation. The first part presents the conclusion of the conducted study and

the second part points out some suggestions for further research.

5.1 Conclusion

The aim of this study is to analyze the cultural content in two English

textbooks for senior high school in Indonesia. The result reveals that the type of

culture prominently presented in the textbooks is the target culture. The dominant

aspects of the target culture presented in the textbooks could help the learners in

understanding the linguistic and cultural aspects of the target language. However,

this does not mean that the other cultures are plainly neglected as the textbooks

still provide some information related to the source culture and international target

culture. In this case, the source culture in the textbook could help the learners to

appreciate their own culture, and the presence of the international target culture

would make the learners to be aware of the existence of other cultures.

Furthermore, the cultural content in the textbooks are represented through

all four senses of culture which are the aesthetic sense, the sociological sense, the

semantic sense, and the pragmatic (sociolingustic) sense. This result proves that

the textbooks attempt to perceive culture from several different aspects.

Considering the cultural content represented in the reading passages, the

two textbooks are relatively suitable for the first grade of high school students in

order to introduce the target culture as well as other cultures without neglecting

the students’ source culture. Nevertheless, the cultural content in the two

textbooks is not thoroughly explored as the discussion of culture is not really

given specific attention. The representation of culture in the textbooks is still at

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53

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Cultural Content Analysis Of Two English Textbooks For Senior High School Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

textbooks is needed so that the learners are able not only to understand the source

or target culture but also to raise their cultural awareness.

5.2 Recommendation

There are several points of recommendation that this study could suggest.

First, for English material developers and textbook authors that it is necessary to

consider the proper representation of cultural content integrated in English

language materials. It is also important to provide the variation of culture in order

for the learners to raise their cultural awareness.

Second, it is hoped that foreign language teachers would consider

conducting the process of textbook evaluation especially cultural content analysis

before selecting the textbook to be used in their classroom.

Third and lastly, this study could hopefully add more insight especially for

those who intend to conduct the research with the same focus. Since this study is a

small scale study involving only two English textbooks with only the reading

passages to be analyzed, hence it is possible to conduct further investigation

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54 Riska Purnawati Salam,2013

Cultural Content Analysis Of Two English Textbooks For Senior High School Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia | repository.upi.edu | perpustakaan.upi.edu

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Gambar

Table 4.1 Foreign Countries Integrated in the Reading Passages ..........................42
Figure 2.2 Four Senses of Culture .........................................................................12
Table C2 Types of Cultural Content in Interlanguage Textbook
Table 3.1 Detailed Information about the Textbooks

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