# Karakterisasi Propagasi Indoor dan Outdoor pada Jaringan Sensor Nirkabel

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## Metodologi (2)

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### Diagram Alir Penelitian

Karakteristik Propagasi Wireless Sensor Network (WSN)

Indoor Satu Ruang Outdoor Dua Ruang RSSI indoor RSSI outdoor Jarak Tx - Rx jumlah node Tx Power Jarak Tx - Rx Jumlah node Tx Power

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### Variasi daya, ketinggian semua node = 0 cm

Ptx = 31 ( 0 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 3.5970 1.5604 0.3971 0.4238 0.8643 Mean -83.1004 -89.1536 -90.9313 -91.5333 -90.5457 Median -82.7500 -89.1000 -90.9000 -91.7500 -90.6000 Ptx = 19 ( -5 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 8.0487 2.4289 1.0428 0.7465 0 Mean -87.7880 -89.2397 -93.8637 -93.1185 -93.6667 Median -87.4500 -89.0500 -94.0500 -93.1500 -93.6667 Ptx = 11 ( -10 dBm ) Node 1 2 4 Varians 2.6221 1.7279 0.4437 Mean -90.3000 -92.3333 -93.4444 Median -90.4883 -92.1810 -93.4195 Ptx = 7 ( -15 dBm ) Node 1 2 4 Varians 1.6194 0.2000 0 Mean -92.1706 -93.5000 -94.0000 Median -92.1000 -93.8000 -94.0000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -94 -92 -90 -88 -86 -84 -82

Perbandingan Mean RSSI pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm

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### Variasi daya, ketinggian semua node = 45 cm

Ptx = 31 ( 0 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 2.0394 1.7743 3.0243 7.3066 3.8172 Mean -76.1696 -80.9478 -78.7928 -81.2564 -87.4645 Median -76.0000 -80.3500 -78.7000 -81.7000 -87.5500 Ptx = 19 ( -5 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.6047 8.2419 0.6281 2.6791 5.0303 Mean -69.1181 -82.5529 -83.1587 -86.7023 -85.9727 Median -69.1000 -81.9500 -83.4000 -86.5000 -85.5000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -88 -86 -84 -82 -80 -78 -76 -74 -72 -70 -68

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 45 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 45 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm

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### Variasi daya, ketinggian semua node = 75 cm

Ptx = 31 ( 0 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.2973 0.7958 2.2042 1.5198 4.4191 Mean -63.5548 -71.0918 -71.7000 -77.1519 -83.8721 Median -63.6500 -71.0000 -71.6500 -77.3500 -83.6500 Ptx = 19 ( -5 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.4387 0.3967 1.3028 1.0429 3.2154 Mean -69.6365 -75.8520 -82.5120 -80.5420 -89.5720 Median -69.5500 -75.8500 -82.5500 -80.4000 -89.5000 Ptx = 11 ( -10 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.4379 0.3935 2.3903 1.7827 1.3399 Mean -76.5000 -77.6000 -91.0000 -86.8500 -87.0000 Median -76.7704 -77.4690 -91.2122 -86.7735 -87.0081 Ptx = 7 ( -15 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.4504 0.2926 0.3563 0.4548 0.1429 Mean -81.1000 -83.7705 -93.8071 -84.3190 -94.7619 Median -81.2000 -83.9500 -93.7500 -84.2000 -94.7500 Ptx = 3 ( -25 dBm ) Node 1 2 Varians 0.2968 0.2902 Mean -92.3151 -93.5086 Median -92.2000 -93.6000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -100 -80 -60 -40 -20 0 20 40 60 80

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 75 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm daya 3 => -25 dBm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 75 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm daya 3 => -25 dBm

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### daya transmit semua node = 0 dBm

Node 1 2 3 4 5 varians 3.5970 1.5604 0.3971 0.4238 0.8643 mean -83.1004 -89.1536 -90.9313 -91.5333 -90.5457 median -82.7500 -89.1000 -90.9000 -91.7500 -90.6000 Tinggi node 45 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 2.0394 1.7743 3.0243 7.3066 3.8172 Mean -76.1696 -80.9478 -78.7928 -81.2564 -87.4645 Median -76.0000 -80.3500 -78.7000 -81.7000 -87.5500 Tinggi node 75 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.2973 0.7958 2.2042 1.5198 4.4191 Mean -63.6500 -71.0000 -71.6500 -77.3500 -83.6500 Median -63.5548 -71.0918 -71.7000 -77.1519 -83.8721 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65 -60

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm

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### daya transmit semua node = -5 dBm

Tinggi node 0 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 8.0487 2.4289 1.0428 0.7465 0 Mean -87.7880 -89.2397 -93.8637 -93.1185 -93.6667 Median -87.4500 -89.0500 -94.0500 -93.1500 -93.6667 Tinggi node 45 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.6047 8.2419 0.6281 2.6791 5.0303 Mean -69.1181 -82.5529 -83.1587 -86.7023 -85.9727 Median -69.1000 -81.9500 -83.4000 -86.5000 -85.5000 Tinggi node 75 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.4387 0.3967 1.3028 1.0429 3.2154 Mean -69.5500 -75.8500 -82.5500 -80.4000 -89.5000 Median -69.6365 -75.8520 -82.5120 -80.5420 -89.5720 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya -5 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Outdoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya -5 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm

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### ketinggian semua node = 0 cm

Ptx = 31 ( 0 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 9.9834 37.2240 1.7394 7.5872 2.4096 Mean -71.2557 -82.0236 -88.1192 -86.8348 -82.5055 Median -71.1111 -80.9444 -88.2778 -86.6667 -82.3889 Ptx = 19 ( -5 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 28.8163 5.7595 0.3156 0 0.1578 Mean -83.3876 -90.4229 -93.4541 -95.0000 -91.8423 Median -81.0000 -89.1111 -93.5000 -95.0000 -92.0000 Ptx = 11 ( -10 dBm ) Node 1 4 5 Varians 3.7627 16.3727 0.1169 Mean -90.2222 -92.0000 -93.0000 Median -90.7969 -91.9926 -92.9508 Ptx = 7 ( -15 dBm ) Node 1 2 5 Varians 0.7074 3.7505 0.3641 Mean -91.1157 -93.1123 -94.0433 Median -90.9444 -93.5000 -94.0000 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70

Perbandingan Mean RSSI pada Indoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm

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### ketinggian semua node = 45 cm

Ptx = 31 ( 0 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 1.4577 1.6897 0.9509 0.7505 1.0693 Mean -62.7501 -61.1671 -65.1362 -66.5781 -68.6728 Median -62.6667 -61.3333 -65.3889 -66.2778 -68.8889 Ptx = 19 ( -5 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 2.0339 12.5554 1.2519 6.9764 0.8814 Mean -74.3100 -75.5219 -82.3523 -80.9144 -77.6542 Median -73.9444 -75.6111 -82.3889 -81.5000 -77.9444 Ptx = 11 ( -10 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 1.6741 0.2634 0.1860 26.9957 5.8629 Mean -87.7322 -79.6602 -84.6333 -86.3015 -83.7411 Median -87.6667 -79.8333 -84.6667 -84.0556 -83.3333 Ptx = 7 ( -15 dBm ) Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 1.2873 12.7976 0.2772 3.1101 3.3467 Mean -88.6640 -84.8656 -90.5250 -84.7677 -91.3526 Median -88.5000 -82.4444 -90.7222 -84.9444 -90.7222 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65 -60

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 45 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11=> -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 45 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm daya 19=> -5 dBm daya 11=> -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm

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### daya transmit semua node = 0 dBm

Tinggi node 0 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 9.9834 37.2240 1.7394 7.5872 2.4096 Mean -71.2557 -82.0236 -88.1192 -86.8348 -82.5055 Median -71.1111 -80.9444 -88.2778 -86.6667 -82.3889 Tinggi node 45 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 1.4577 1.6897 0.9509 0.7505 1.0693 Mean -62.7501 -61.1671 -65.1362 -66.5781 -68.6728 Median -62.6667 -61.3333 -65.3889 -66.2778 -68.8889 Tinggi node 75 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.8145 1.0369 20.2841 5.0953 4.2177 Mean -60.4444 -63.4444 -77.8333 -71.8889 -72.7222 Median -60.2309 -63.5534 -78.2329 -72.0677 -72.5440 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65 -60

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm

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### daya transmit semua node = -5 dBm

Tinggi node 0 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 28.8163 5.7595 0.3156 0 0.1578 Mean -83.3876 -90.4229 -93.4541 -95.0000 -91.8423 Median -81.0000 -89.1111 -93.5000 -95.0000 -92.0000 Tinggi node 45 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 2.0339 12.5554 1.2519 6.9764 0.8814 Mean -74.3100 -75.5219 -82.3523 -80.9144 -77.6542 Median -73.9444 -75.6111 -82.3889 -81.5000 -77.9444 Tinggi node 75 cm Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 1.6500 1.2565 4.9063 1.3575 2.3400 Mean -67.9444 -76.2778 -84.1111 -85.5556 -83.3333 Median -68.0701 -75.9655 -84.5241 -85.4577 -83.1867 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya -5 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 0 5 10 15 20 25 30

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Indoor dengan Variasi Tinggi Node, Daya -5 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I tinggi node 0 cm tinggi node 45 cm tinggi node 75 cm

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### Variasi daya, ketinggian semua node = 0 cm

Ptx = 0 dBm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 6.0872 52.3635 5.2068 0.2180 -Mean -73.3459 -82.8488 -86.2862 -88.3779 -Median -73.0000 -79.5500 -85.4000 -88.2000 -Ptx = -5 dBm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.4711 0.7872 0.5114 0.2091 -Mean -79.3071 -86.6468 -88.7555 -92.7432 -Median -79.2000 -86.2000 -88.6500 -92.8000 -Ptx = -10 dBm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.3675 0.5193 0.2448 - -Mean -94.1667 -90.9000 -94.2500 - -Median -94.1857 -90.6798 -94.4150 - -1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Dua Ruang dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) daya 31=> 0 dBm (Ruang 1) daya 31=> 0 dBm (Ruang 2) daya 19=> -5 dBm (Ruang 1) daya 19=> -5 dBm (Ruang 2) daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Dua Ruang dengan Variasi Daya, Tinggi Node 0 cm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I daya 31=> 0 dBm (Ruang 1) daya 31=> 0 dBm (Ruang 2) daya 19=> -5 dBm (Ruang 1) daya 19=> -5 dBm (Ruang 2) daya 11 => -10 dBm daya 7 => -15 dBm

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### Variasi ketinggian, daya semua node = 0 dBm

Tinggi 0 cm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 6.0872 52.3635 5.2068 0.2180 -Mean -73.3459 -82.8488 -86.2862 -88.3779 -Median -73.0000 -79.5500 -85.4000 -88.2000 -Tinggi 45 cm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 31.7305 44.2283 36.7248 2.0758 0.3947 Mean -63.8507 -73.0817 -78.3879 -87.2812 -85.7912 Median -61.1111 -75.3889 -76.2222 -87.1667 -5.8333 Ptx = -15 dBm Ruang 1 2 Node 1 2 3 4 5 Varians 0.6743 1.0204 28.7378 0.2739 0.2242 Mean -62.4444 -63.5000 -83.3333 -90.9444 -.7778 Median -62.4016 -63.0893 -83.8806 -91.0206 -.7948 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 -95 -90 -85 -80 -75 -70 -65 -60

Perbandingan Mean RSSI Micaz pada Dua Ruang dengan Variasi Tinggi, Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i M e a n R S S I (d B m ) tinggi 0 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 0 cm (Ruang 2) tinggi 45 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 45 cm (Ruang 2) tinggi 75 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 75 cm (Ruang 2) 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 4.5 0 10 20 30 40 50 60

Perbandingan Varians RSSI Micaz pada Dua Ruang dengan Variasi Tinggi,Daya 0 dBm

Jarak (m) N ila i V a ri a n s R S S I tinggi 0 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 0 cm (Ruang 2) tinggi 45 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 45 cm (Ruang 2) tinggi 75 cm (Ruang 1) tinggi 75 cm (Ruang 2)

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### Analisa Konsumsi Arus

jam ke node 1 node 2 node 3 2 35 34.3 34.5 4 32.9 32.8 33.6 6 32.1 30.2 32.5 8 30.1 28.9 31.6 10 29.1 26.9 29.5 12 27.7 25.6 28.3 14 25.9 24.8 26.8 16 24 23.3 24.9 18 22 21.9 23.5 20 19.1 19.5 20.8 22 18.3 16 19.2 24 16.1 14.3 17 26 14.9 13.7 15.6 28 12.4 12.5 14.2 30 11.6 12 13.1 32 8.8 8.3 11.2 34 7.2 7.5 10 36 4 6.6 8.1 38 3.8 4.8 6.5 40 3 3.4 4.1 42 2.6 3 3.3 42 jam 20 menit 1.7 2.8 2.1 42 jam 40 menit - 1.9 1.8 42 jam 50 menit - - 1.5

Pengamatan konsumsi arus dimaksudkan agar dapat mengetahui karakteristik konsumsi arus pada baterai yang digunakan node dalam pengukuran RSSI yang telah dirancang pada jaringan sensor

nirkabel.

Setiap node dipasang baterai AA 1.5 Volt dengan brand ABC Dry Cell.

Pengukuran divariasikan berdasarkan periode pengiriman paketnya, yaitu 100 ms (node1), 500 ms (node 2), dan 1000 ms (node 3).

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40

waktu (jam ke-)

a ru s ( m A )

hasil pengukuran konsumsi arus

node1 node2 node3

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## Daftar Pustaka

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Koutroullos, Marios. “Biological Nature and Inspirated Mecanisms for Adaptive and Robust Self-Organization in Wireless Sensor Networks”. University of

Cyprus.

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## Daftar Pustaka

Mahalik, Nitaigour P., (2007),” Sensor Networks and Configuration Fundamentals, Standards, Platforms, and Applications.”,Springer.

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Cooperative MIMO Operation in Sensor Networks”. Technical Report TR-UA-ECE-2008-2

Sklar, B. “Rayleigh fading channels in mobile digital communication systems part I : characterization,” IEEE Communications Magazine,September 1997.

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