Tamil Bookletnew2 3.7.2014

112 

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Teks penuh

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1

Mrpupau;fSf;fhd Nkyjpf thrpg;G E}y;

f. ngh. j (cau; juk;)

jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gk;

khfhz Mrpupau; gapw;rp epfo;r;rpj; jpl;lk;

jfty; njhopEl;gg; gpupT Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;

kfufk 2014

(2)

i Kd;Diu

Mrpupau; gapw;rpfhd khfhz epfo;r;rpj;jpl;lj;jpd; fPo; jahupf;fg;gl;l ,t; tsE}yhdJ fy;tpg; nghJj; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju tFg;gpy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlj;ijf; fw;gpf;Fk; Mrpupau;fSf;fhd xU Nkyjpf thrpg;G E}yhFk;.

,jpy; cs;slf;fg;gl;l tplaq;fs; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;g Nritf;fhy Mrpupa MNyhrfu;fSf;Fk;; kw;Wk; fy;tpg; nghJj; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju tFg;Gf;fspy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlj;ijf; fw;gpf;Fk; Mrpupau;fSf;Fk; mtu;fsJ njhopy;rhu; nrad;KiwfSf;F kpFe;j gaDilajha; miktJld;> cau; juj;jpy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlnewpiag; gapYk; khztu;fspd; Rafw;wYf;Fk; Vw;GilajhFk;.

me;j tifapy; ,e;E}ypy; juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwik njhlu;ghd tplaq;fs; ghlf;Fwpg;G tbtpy; jahupf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld;> mit ghlf;Fwpg;gpd; ngUk;ghyhd mk;rq;fisf; nfhz;like;Js;sd. MdhYk; mtw;iw xU KOikahd ghlf;Fwpg;ghff; nfhs;sKbahJ vd;gijf; Mrpupau;fs; fUj;jpy; nfhs;s Ntz;Lk;. Mrpupau;fs; jkJ ghlf;Fwpg;igj; jahupf;Fk; NghJ ghle;njhlu;ghd Vida tsq;fSf;F Nkyjpfkhf ,e;E}ypd; tplaq;fis xU tskhfTk; topfhl;bahfTk;; ghtpf;fyhk;.

fy;tpg; nghJj; juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlj;jpw;Fupa ghlj;jpl;lk; kw;Wk; Mrpupau; ife;E}y; vd;gtw;iw Njrpa fy;tp epWtf ,izaj;; jsj;jpypUe;J (www.nie.lk) gjptpwf;fk; nra;Jnfhs;syhk;.

NkYk; Mrpupau; ife;E}ypy; VyNt cs;slf;fg;gl;Ls;s tplaq;fs; ,e;E}ypy; cs;slf;fg;gltpy;iy vd;gij ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sTk;.

,r;re;ju;g;gj;jpy;> ,e;E}y; jahupg;G njhlu;gpy; ngWkjpahd mwpTiufisAk; topfhl;ly;fisAk; toq;fpaJld; Njitahd tsq;fisAk; ey;fpAjtpaikf;fhf Njrpa fy;tp epWtf gzpg;ghsu; ehafk; Nguhrpupau; mNgul;d gz;lhu> tpQ;Qhd kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gg; gPl gpujpg; gzpg;ghsu; ehafk; jpU. rpl;dp [atu;j;jd MfpNahUf;Fk;; Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpd; jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpupT gzpg;ghsu; jpU. S. N. khJtNf mtu;fSf;Fk; vdJ kdkhu;e;j ed;wpfisj; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.

mNjNtis> ,e;E}y; jahupg;gpd;NghJ ghlj;Jiwrhu; tpNrl epGzj;Jt gq;fspg;gpid toq;fpaikf;fhf nfhOk;Gg; gy;fiyf;fof fzpdp tpQ;Qhdj;Jiw rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu; fyhepjp jkpj;j D fUzhul;d> kw;Wk; fsdpg; gy;fiyf;fof rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu; fyhepjp fhkpdp tp[atu;j;jd kw;Wk; nkhwl;Lt gy;fiyf;fofj;jpd; jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; gPl rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu; fyhepjp Rgh gu;dhe;J MfpNahUf;Fk; vdJ ed;wpfisj; njuptpg;gjpy; kfpo;r;rpailfpd;Nwd;.

NkYk;> ,e;E}y; vOj;jhf;fj;jpy; gq;fspg;ig ey;fpa jpU. W. M. A. S. tpN[Nrfu> jpU. H. P. U. S. I. K. ngNuuh> jpU. A. t]Pu;, jpU. H. M. D. S. B. N`uj;, jpU. S. K. N. #upa Muhr;rp, kw;Wk; jpU. S. guRuhk; MfpNahUf;Fk; vdJ ed;wpfisj;; njuptpj;Jf; nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.

,Wjpahf ,e;E}yhf;fj;jpd;NghJ gy topfspy; xj;Jiog;G ey;fpa Njrpa fy;tp epWtfj;jpd; jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpupitr; rhu;e;j cj;jpNahfj;ju;fshd jpU. K. W. A. P. K. Fyul;d> jpU. H. P .G. R. tpkyNrd> jpUkjp. L. W. De. rpy;th, nry;tp. S. A. P. M. rkurpq;f MfpNahUf;Fk; vdJ ed;wpfs;.

jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy; El;g Nritf;fhy Mrpupa MNyhrfu;fs;> fy;tpg; nghJj;juhjug; gj;jpu cau;ju tFg;Gf;fspy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; ghlj;ijf; fw;gpf;Fk; Mrpupau;fs; kw;Wk;; cau; juj;jpy; jfty; kw;Wk; njhlu;ghly; njhopy; El;gg; ghlnewpiag; gapYk; khztu;fs; MfpNahUf;Fk; ,e;E}y; gaDilajha; mikAk; vd ek;Gfpd;Nwd;.

me;j tifapy; ,e;E}iy cupa Kiwapy; gad;gLj;jp gad;ngw vdJ tho;j;Jf;fisj; njuptpj;Jf;nfhs;fpd;Nwd;.

S. rz;Kfypq;fk;> rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu;>

jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;gg; gpupT> Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;> k`ufk.

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ii MNyhrid kw;Wk; topfhl;ly;:

jpU. M.F.S.P. [atu;j;jd> gpujpg; gzpg;ghsu; ehafk;>

tpQ;Qhd kw;Wk; njhopy;El;gg; gPlk;> Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;.

k`ufk.

jpU. Rrpy; N. khJtNf> gzpg;ghsu;>

jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpupT> Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;> k`ufk.

nraw;wpl;l ,izg;ghsu; jpU. S. rz;Kfypq;fk;> rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu;> jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gpupT> Njrpa fy;tp epWtfk;> k`ufk.

ghlj;Jiwrhu; epGzj;Jt topfhl;ly;fs;;; fyhepjp fhkpdp tp[atu;j;jd> rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu;> njhopy;Jiw Kfhikj;Jtg; gPlk;> fsdpg; gy;fiyf;fofk;. fyhepjp jkpj;j D fUzhul;d> rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu;> fzpdpf; fy;tpg; gPlk;;> nfhOk;Gg; gy;fiyf;fofk;. fyhepjp Rgh gu;dhe;J> rpNu\;l tpupTiuahsu;> jfty; njhopy;El;gg; gPlk;> nkhwl;Lt gy;fiyf;fofk;.

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iii vOj;jhf;ff;; FO

jpU. mj;Jy tpN[Nrfu - Kfhikahsu;> tyaf; fzpdp tsepiyak;> `hypvy.

jpU. S. K. N #upa Muhr;rp – Mrpupau;> fltj;j kj;jpa fy;Y}up> fltj;j. jpU. H. P. U. S. ,e;jpuFkhu ngNuuh>fzpdp tpupTiuahsu;> tyaf; fzpdp ts epiyak;> `d;Fud;nfj;j.

jpU. A. M. t]Pu; - Kfhikahsu;> tya fzpdpts epiyak;> f`nfhy;iy> jpaj;jyht.

jpU. H. M. T. S. P. N`uj;> Mrpupau;> J}a me;Njhdpau; kfspu; fy;Y}up> fl;Lf];Njhl;l.

nkhopr; nrt;tpjhf;fk;:

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iv

cs;slf;fk;

Njur;rp 5: fzpdpapd; nraw;wpwid mjpfupg;gjw;F epidtf

Kfhikj;Jtj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jthu;.

01

Nju;r;rp; 6: fzpdpapd; KO mstpyhd nraw;ghLfis Kfhikj;Jtk;

nra;tjw;F ,af;f Kiwikfis cgNahfpg;gu;.

06

Nju;r;rp 9: nraw;wpwDld;; (ntw;wpfukhf) juT Kfhikj;Jtk;

nra;tjw;fhf juTj;jsnkhd;iw tbtikj;J tpUj;jp nra;thu;.

25

Nju;r;rp 12: Nghl;b epiwe;j re;ijf;Fk; tpahghu epWtdq;fSf;Fk;

jftYk; njhlu;ghly; njhopEl;gKk; gad;gLj;jf;$ba

tpjq;fis Ma;T nra;thu;.

92

Nju;r;rp 13: jfty; njhlu;ghly; njhopy;El;lgj;jpd; Gjpa Nghf;FfisAk;

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1

Nju;r;rp 5: fzpdpapd; nraw;wpwid mjpfupg;gjw;F epidtf

Kfhikj;Jtj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jthu;.

fw;wy; NgW:

5.2: gy;NtWgl;l epidtfq;fis tifg;gLj;Jthu;.

gy;NtW epidtfq;fis> mZfy;Kiw> mZfy;Neuk;> nfhs;ssT kw;Wk; fpuak;; vd;gtw;Wld; xg;gpLthu;.

5.3: fzpdpapd; nraw;wpwid mjpfupg;gjw;F epidtfj;ij xOq;FgLj;Jthu;.

epidtfg; gbepiyia tpsf;Fthu;.

Jiz epidtfq;fis guhkupg;gjd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

Jiz epidtfg; guhkupg;gpd; NghJ> fhe;jj; jl;Lf;fis ghtpj;jy;> jl;Lf;fis guPl;rpj;jy;> Jz;lq;fis ,izj;jy; Nghd;wtw;iw cgNahfpg;ghu;.

epidtf tiffis xg;gply; epidtf

tif ngsjPf msT mZfy; Kiw nfhs;ssT tpiy mZfy; Ntfk; gjptfq;fs; kpfr;rpwpaJ Neub/vOkhd rpwpaJ mjpfk; mjpfk; kpf gJf;F

epidtfq;fs; kpfr;rpwpaJ Neub/vOkhd rpwpaJ mjpfk;

kpf mjpfk; vOkhd

mZF epidtfk;

eLj;juk; Neub/vOkhd eLepiy rhjhuzk; mjpfk; gspr;rPl;L

epidtfk; eLj;juk; Neub/vOkhd mjpfk; FiwT ke;j fjp Jiz

epidtfq;fs; ngupJ Neub/vOkhd kpf mjpfk; FiwT ke;j fjp fhe;j

ehlhf;fs; ngupJ njhlupay; kpf mjpfk; FiwT kpf ke;j fjp fzpdp epidtf xOq;fikg;G

epidtfkhdJ fzpdpapd; kpfKf;fpa gFjpahFk;. juT> epfo;r;rp (Programs) Nghd;wd Nrkpj;J itf;fg;gLtJ epidtfj;jpyhFk;. fzpdpapy; fhzg;gLk; epidtf tiffs; rpy fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

1. gjptfq;fs; (Registers)

2. gJf;F epidtfq;fs; (Cache Memory) 3. gpujhd epidtfk; (Main Memory)

4. Jiz epidtfq;fs;(Secondary Memory) epidtfq;fsJ ,ay;Gfs;

gy;NtW epidtfq;fsJ nfhs;ssitf; fz;Lnfhs;tjw;fhf ftdj;jpy; nfhs;sg;glNtz;ba ,ay;Gfs; tUkhW:

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2 epidtf tiffs;

epidtfq;fspd; nfhs;ssitAk; juT mZfy; Neuj;ijAk; nfhz;L mtw;iw fPo; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sthW xOq;FgLj;jyhk;.

gjptfq;fs;

NkYs;s epidtf gbepiyf;Nfw;g CPU tpd; gjptfq;fs; mjpNtfkhd mZfy; nfhz;ljhf ,Ug;gJld;> juTfisAk;> mwpTWj;jy;fisAk; jw;fhypfkhf Nrkpj;J itg;gjw;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwd. ,tw;wpy; juT gjpjy; my;yJ thrpj;jy; xU fbfhur;Row;rp (clock cycle) %yk; eilngWfpwJ.

gJf;F epidtfk; (Cache Memory)

fzpdpapd; gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;Fk; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;lyfpw;Fk; ,ilapy; mike;jpUf;Fk; ,e;epidtfk; nfhs;sstpy; gpujhd epidtfj;ij tpl Fiwthdjhf ,Ug;gJld; mZfy; Ntfk; gpujhd epidtfj;ijtpl $bajhFk;. gJf;F epidtfk; kj;jpa nraw;ghl;L myfpw;Fs; my;yJ ntspapy; ,Uf;fyhk;. ,e;epidtfk; caupa nraw;wpwDila fzpdpfspd; xU Kf;fpa gFjpahFk;;. Ez;nraypf;Fs; mike;jpUf;Fk; ,t;tif epidtfj;ij cs;sf gJf;F epidtfk; vd;Wk; Ez;nraypf;F ntspNa mike;jpUg;gij ntspaf gJf;F epidtfk; vd;Wk; miog;gu;.

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3 nka;epfu; epidtfk; (Virtual Memory)

fzpdpapd; gpujhd epidtfkhd (RAM) ,d; nfhs;ssT fzpdpapy; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;s epidtf ml;ilfspd; nfhs;ssstpw;F kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ. mjpf vz;zpf;ifapyhd epfo;r;rpfis xNu Neuj;jpy; ,af;Fk; NghJ epidtfj;jpd; nfhs;ssT gw;whf;Fiwahd re;ju;g;gq;fspy; epidtfj;jpd;; gw;whf;Fiwia czu;j;Jk; nra;jp fpilg;gJld; epfo;r;rpfs; ];jk;gpj epiyia milayhk;. ,jw;Fj; jPu;thf ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpy; Fwpg;gpl;lsT ,lk; jw;fhypf epidtfkhf ghtpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thW ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpypUe;J cgNahfpf;fg;gLk; epidtfk; “nka;epfu; epidtfk;” vdg;gLk;. nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpd; %yk; fzpdpapd; epidtf mZfy; ,lk; tpupthf;fg;gl;L fzpdpapd; epidtff; nfhs;ssT mjpfupf;fg;gLk;.

vdpDk;> td;jl;bd; juT mZfy; Ntfk; gpujhd epidtf mZfy; Ntfj;ij tpl kpff; Fiwthff; fhzg;gLtjhy;> nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpYs;s juT gad;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F kPz;Lk; glkply; (Mapping) nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;Fk; ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpw;Fk; ,ilapy; eilngWk; ,j;juT gupkhw;wkhdJ> Ez;nrayp gpujhd epidtfj;jpypUe;J Neubahf juT mZfYf;F vLf;Fk; Neuj;ijtpl kpf mjpfkhFk;. MfNt> nka;epfu; epidtfk; mjpfstpy; ghtpf;fg;gLk; NghJ fzpdpapd; nraw;gL Ntfk; FiwtilAk;.

nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpd; %yk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpd; mZfy; msT mjpfupf;fg;gLk; NghJ> nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpd; ,lj;jpw;Fg; glkplg;gLk; (Mapping) Kiw fPNo fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpd; nraw;ghl;il ,yFthf tpsf;Ftjhapd;> fzpdpapd; gpujhd epidtfj;jpd; nfhs;ssit tpl mjpfkhf gy;NtW epfo;r;rpfs; xNu jlitapy; ifahsg;glNtz;ba #o;epiyapy;> fzpdp jhdhfNt gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; ePz;l Neuk; ghtpf;fg;glhky; ,Uf;Fk; juit clNd nka;epfu; epidtfj;jpw;F efu;j;jp gpujhd epidtf ,lj;ij ngw;Wf; nfhs;Sk;. ,r; nray; gf;fkhf;fy; (paging) vdg;gLk;.

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4 fhe;j tl;L nrk;ik nra;jy; (Disk Cleanup)

fzpdp ghtidapd; NghJ> mt;tg;NghJ juT jw;fhypfkhf Nrkpj;J itg;gjw;fhf jw;fhypf Nfhg;Gfs; cUthf;fg;gLk;. ,f;Nfhg;Gfs; Kiwahf Kfhik nra;ag;glhj NghJ>mit td;jl;bd; gue;j ,lg;gug;gpy; mq;Fkpq;Fk; fhzg;glyhk;. ,t;thwhd Nfhg;Gfis ghJfhg;ghd Kiwapy; ePf;fp tpLtjw;F gad;gLj;jg;gLk; xU fUtpahf Disk Cleanup nraw;;gLfpd;wJ. ,f;fUtp %yk; fzpdpapYs;s Njitaw;w Nfhg;Gfis gFg;gha;T nra;J NkYk; Njitg;glhj ntt;NtW tifahd Nfhg;Gfis njupT nra;J ghJfhg;ghf ePf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. mt;tifahd rpy Nfhg;Gfs; fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

neUf;fg;gl;l (Compressed) gioa Nfhg;Gfs;.

jw;fhypf ,izaf; Nfhg;Gfs;.

,af;f Kiwikf;Fupa jw;fhypf Nfhg;Gfs;.

gjptpwf;fk; nra;ag;gl;l epfo;r;rpfs;.

ePf;fg;gl;l gpd; kPs;Row;rpj; njhl;bapy; Njq;fpAs;sit.

nefpo; Neu (off line) Nfhg;Gfs;

,af;f Kiwikapy; fhzg;gLk; ,f;fUtpia cgNahfpg;gjd; %yk; td;jl;by; Nrkpf;fg;gl;Ls;s Njitaw;w Nfhg;GfSf;fhf cgNahfg;gLj;jg;gl;bUe;j ,lf; nfhs;ssit kPz;Lk; gad;gLj;jyhk;. ,f;fl;lisAld; gy;NtW msTUf;fSk;; (Parameters) Nru;e;J nraw;gLj;Jtjd; %yk;kw;Wk; gy FiwghLfisAk; rup nra;J nfhs;syhk;.

xUq;fikj;jy; (Defragmentation)

ehk; gad;gLj;Jk; fzpdpapd; td;jl;by; (Hard Disk) mbf;fb Gjpa Nfhg;Gfis Nrkpj;jYk;> ,Uf;Fk; Nfhg;Gfis ePf;FjYk; eilngWfpwJ. gy;NtW nkd;nghUs;fis epWTjiyAk; Vw;fdNt epWtg;gl;l nkd;nghUs;fis ePf;FjiyAk; ,jw;F cjhuzkhff; fhl;lyhk;. ,r;nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ epWty; ePf;fg;gl;l my;yJ ePf;fg;gl;l Nfhg;GfSf;F xJf;fg;gl;bUe;j ,lk; Gjpjhf Nru;f;fg;gLk; Nfhg;Gfspd; mstpw;F my;yJ epWtg;gLk; nkd;nghUs;fspd; mstpw;F nghUe;jf;$ba ,lkhf ,Uf;Fk; vdf; $w KbahJ. MfNt Gjpa nkd;nghUs; epWtg;gLk; NghJ my;yJ juT Nrkpf;fg;gLk; NghJ ePf;fg;gl;l Nfhg;Gfspd; ,lj;ij epug;gy; eilngWtjpy;iy. ,t;thwhd ,ilntspfs; td;jl;L KOJk; fhzg;gLkhapd; epWTk; Gjpa Nfhg;GfSf;F mtw;iwg; gad;gLj;JtJ fbdkhfyhk;.

mjpf nfhs;ssTila Nfhg;nghd;W td;jl;by; Nrkpf;;fg;gLk; NghJ rhjhuzkhf eilngWtjhtJ> ,f;Nfhg;G gy gFjpfshf gpupf;fg;gl;L mg;gFjpfs; td;jl;by; gy;NtW ,lq;fspy; gjpag;gLjyhFk;. gpd;du;> ,f;Nfhg;Gfs; mtrpakhdNghJ ,af;fKiwikapdhy;;; mj;Jz;lq;fs; mg;gFjpfis mwpaf;$ba FwpaPLfs;; %yk; milahsk; fhzg;gl;L njhlu; Kiwapy; thrpf;fg;gLk;. ,Ug;gpDk; Nfhg;gpd;; Jz;lq;fs; td;jl;bd; mLj;jLj;j jlq;fspYk; fyd;fspYk; fhzg;glhky; gue;J fhzg;gLk; NghJ Nfhg;ig thrpg;gjw;F vLf;Fk; Neuk; mjpfkhFk;.

,f;Fiwg;ghl;il eptu;j;jp nra;tjw;F td;jl;L xUq;fikg;G nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thW gy;NtW gFjpfspy; gue;J fhzg;gLk; Nfhg;Gj; Jz;lq;fs;; gf;fj;J ,lq;fSf;F efu;j;jg;gl;L xUq;fikf;fg;gLk;. ,JNt td;jl;L xUq;fikj;jy; MFk;. ,jd; %yk; Nrkpg;gfj;jpd; nfhs;ssit rpwe;j Kiwapy; gad;gLj;jf; $bajhAs;sJld; juT mZfy; NtfKk; mjpfupf;fpd;wJ.

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5 rhjd nrYj;jpfs; (Device Drivers)

fzpdpAld; nghUj;jg;gLk; rhjdq;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F mt;tr; rhjdq;fSf;Fupa tpN\l nkd;nghUnshd;W fzpdpapy; epWtg;gl Ntz;Lk;. ,t;thW rhjdq;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;fhf jahupf;fg;gl;Ls;s nkd;nghUs;fs; rhjd nrYj;jpfs; vdg;gLk;. xt;nthU ,af;f KiwikAk; fzpdpAld; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;s rhjdq;fSld; nraw;gLtjw;F mt;tpaf;f Kiwikf;Fg; nghUj;jkhd rhjd nrYj;jpfisf; nfhz;bUf;f Ntz;Lk;. fzpdpAld; nghUj;jg;gLk; rhjdq;fis jahupf;Fk; epWtdq;fs;; Fwpj;j rhjdj;jpw;Fupa nrYj;jpia gy;NtW ,af;f KiwikfSf;Fk; nghUe;jf;$ba tifapy; jahupj;J rhjdj;Jld; nrYj;jpiaAk; toq;Ffpd;wd.

ngsjPf uPjpapy; fzpdpAld; GjpanjhU rhjdk; nghUj;jg;gl;lJk; fzpdpapypUf;Fk; ,af;f Kiwikf;F nghUj;jkhd rhjd nrYj;jp fzpdpapy; epWtg;gly; Ntz;Lk;. ,jd; %yk; ,af;f Kiwik mr;rhjdj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;J gad;gLj;jf; $bajhf mikfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf VNjDk; xU nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ mr;Rg;nghwpia gad;gLj;j Ntz;Lkhdhy;;, mr;Rg;nghwpia mZff;$ba nra;jp gupkhw;wk; ,e;j rhjd nrYj;jp nkd;nghUs; ClhfNt eilngWfpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; vkJ Njitia G+u;j;jp nra;a Kbfpd;wJ.

fzpdpfSf;F gutyhf nghUj;jg;gLk; mNefkhd rhjdq;fspd; nrYj;jpfs; ,af;f KiwikAld; ,izf;fg;gl;Ls;sik etPd ,af;f Kiwikfspd; ,ay;nghd;whFk;. etPd ,af;f KiwikAld; ,aq;Fk; fzpdpfspy; nghUj;jg;gLfpd;w rhjdj;ij ,dq;fz;L mjw;Fupa nrYj;jpia jhdhf epWtpf; nfhz;L gad;gL jahu; epiyf;F nfhz;L tUk; mk;rk; fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

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6

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6: fzpdpapd; KO mstpyhd nraw;ghLfis Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;F ,af;f Kiwikfis cgNahfpg;ghu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6.1: fzpdp ,af;f Kiwikfis tiuaiw nra;tJld; fzpdpapy; mtw;wpd; Njitfisf; fz;lha;thu;.

fw;wy; NgW:-

,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; Njitia tpsf;Fthu;.

,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; Fwpf;NfhisAk; nray;fisAk; njspTgLj;Jthu;.

,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; gupzhkj;jpid jpwk;gl tpsf;Fthu;.

,af;f Kiwikfis tifg;gLj;Jthu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk;; 6.2: fzpdpapYs;s Nfhg;GfSk; milTfSk;; ,af;f Kiwikapdhy; vt;thW Kfhik nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ vd;gijf; fz;lha;thu;.

fw;wy; NgW:-

jutpid KiwahfTk; xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l tifapYk; Nrkpj;jypd; Kf;fpaj;Jtj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

Nfhg;Gfis tifg;gLj;Jthu;.

Nfhg;Gfis Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;thu;.

milTfis (folder) Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;thu;.

Nfhg;Gfis ghJfhf;Fk; Kiwfis tpsf;Fthu;.

Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6.3: ,af;fKiwikapdhy; fzpdpapy; ,aq;Fk; epfo;r;rpnahd;wpd; nray;fis Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;Ak; tpjj;ij Muha;thu;. fw;wy; NgW:

gw;gzp> gy;epuyikg;G Kiwikfspd; gz;Gfis tpsf;Fthu;.

nray;fspd; epiyfis (Status) ngaupLthu;.

nray;epiyfisAk; mit khWgLk; tpjj;ijAk; tpsf;Fthu;.

,af;f KiwikahdJ nray;fis xOq;fikj;jy; %yk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;Ak; tpjj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

KO nrad;KiwiaAk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;F mjid rpWgFjpfshf NtWgLj;Jthu;.

cr;r nraw;wpwid ngWtjw;F Neuj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;thu;. Nju;r;rp kl;lk; 6.4: ,af;f KiwikahdJ cs;sPL> ntspaPL>epidtfk;

vd;gtw;iw Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;Ak; tpjj;ij Muha;thu;. fw;wy; NgW:

fzpdp epidtfj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;Fupa mbg;gil mk;rq;fis ngaupLthu;.

fzpdp epidtfk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLk; tpjj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;L fUtpfspdJ Kfhikj;Jtj;ij> td;nghUs; nkd;nghUs; vd;gtw;wpw;fpilNaahd ,ilj;njhlu;ig mbg;gilahff;nfhz;L tpsf;Fthu;.

VjhtnjhU nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ mjd; Ntfj;ij mjpfupg;gjw;F gy;NtW cghaq;fisf; ifahs;thu;.

KOr; nraw;ghl;ilAk; njhlu;r;rpahf Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F mjDld; njhlu;Gila Jizr; nraw;ghLfs; rfytw;iwAk; ,aq;F epiyapy; itj;Jf;nfhs;thu;.

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7 ,af;f Kiwik vd;gJ ahJ?

fzpdp ,af;f Kiwik vd;gJ Kiwik nkd;nghUnshd;whFk;. ,J epuyhf;fg;gl;l gy;NtW Nfhitfspd; xd;wpizg;ghtJld; ,jd; %yk; fzpdpnahd;wpd; tsg;gad;ghl;bw;Fj; Njitahd mbg;gilf; fl;lisfisAk; mtw;iw epiwNtw;wj; Njitahd #oiyAk; cUthf;Ffpd;wJ. ,jd; %yk; fzpdpapd; cl;fl;likg;igAk; mjd; njhopy;ghLfisAk;; gw;wpa mwpT ,y;yhj gadUf;Fk; fzdpapy; fhzg;gLk; tsq;fis jkJ Njitfspd; mbg;gilapy; gad;gLj;jpf;nfhs;s Kbfpd;wJ. ,af;f Kiwik %yk; fzpdpapd; rfy tsq;fSk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLfpd;wJ.

,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; mtrpak;

fzpdp gad;ghl;bd; NghJ mjDld; njhlu;Gila gy;NtW tsq;fisAk; gadupd; Njitf;Nfw;wthW gadupdhy; ifahsf;$bajhfTs;sJ. Mdhy; ,t;tsq;fspdhy; toq;fg;gLfpd;w fl;lisfs; rpf;fyhdjhf ,Ug;gJld;> ,t;tsq;fis Neubahf topelj;Jtjw;F ,t;tsq;fisg; gw;wpAk; mtw;wpf;F toq;fg;gLk; fl;lisfs; gw;wpAk; ed;F mwpe;jpUj;jy; Ntz;Lk;. vdpDk; xU gadUf;F ,J rpukkhd fhupakhFk;. Mdhy;> fzpdp ,af;f KiwikahdJ gadu; ,t;tsq;fisg; gad;gLj;JtjpYs;s rpukq;fis ePf;fp mtw;iw ,yFthfg; gad;gLj;jf;$ba #oy; cUthf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

fzpdp Kiwiknahd;wpd; rfy ngsjPf ghfq;fisAk;> mtw;wpdhy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nray;fisAk; topelj;Jtjw;F cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s nkd;nghUNs “,af;f Kiwik” vdg;gLfpwJ. ,af;f KiwikahdJ Kiwik nkd;nghUs; tiff;Fs; mlq;Fk; gpujhd xU $whFk;.

fzpdpnahd;wpy; td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs; vd;gdtw;wpw;fpilapyhd njhlu;G NkOs;s glj;jpd; %yk; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

,af;f Kiwik %yk; fzpdpnahd;wpDs; gpd;tUk; tplaq;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.

gadiuAk;; fzpdpiaAk; njhlu;GgLj;Jk; ,ilKfk; xd;iw cUthf;fy; fzpdp jahu; epiyf;F te;jJk; ,af;f Kiwik %yk; toq;Fk;; ,ilKfj;jpD}lhf gadu; fzpdpapYs;s td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs; vd;gtw;wpd; rpf;fyhd nraw;ghLfisg; gw;wpa mwpT ,y;yhj NghJk; $l> mtw;iw mZff;$ba nghUj;jkhd ,ilKfq;fs; fpilf;fpd;wd.

Operating System Mouse Printer Monitor Applications Hard Disk Keyboard

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8 epfo;r;rp epuyhf;fy;

epuyhsUf;F epfo;r;rpia epuyhf;fk; nra;tjw;Fk;> Njitahd njhFg;Gf;fis (Editing) Nkw;nfhs;tjw;Fk; kw;Wk; jtW ePf;fy; (debugging) nra;jy; Nghd;w gy;NtW nray;fis nra;J nfhs;tjw;Fj; Njitahd #oiyAk; trjpiaAk; nra;J nfhLf;fpd;wJ.

epfo;r;rpfis ,af;fy;

nkd;nghUs;fis ,af;Fk;NghJ fzpdpAs; gy;NtW nraw;ghLfs; eilngw Ntz;Lk;. cjhuzkhf> juTfisAk; mwpTWj;jy;fisAk; gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F Vw;wy;> cs;sPl;L> ntspaPl;Lf; fUtpfisAk; mtw;wpw;Fupa NfhitfisAk; Njitf;Nfw;g epfo;r;rpAld; njhlu;GgLj;jy;> Vida tsq;fis jahu;gLj;jy; Nghd;wtw;iwf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,t;thwhd nraw;ghLfs; ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

cs;sPl;L ntspaPl;Lf; fUtpfis mZfy;

gy;NtW cs;sPl;L/ntspaPl;L rhjdq;fspdJk; fl;Lg;ghl;bw;Fupa rpf;fyhd mwpTWj;jy;fs; gadUf;F kiwf;fg;gl;L vOjy;> thrpj;jy; Nghd;w vspa mwpTWj;jy;fs; %yk; mr;rhjdq;fs; gad;gLj;jf;$ba re;ju;g;gj;ij gadUf;F toq;fy; ,af;fKiwik %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

Nfhg;G Kfhikj;Jtk;

juT Kfhikj;Jtk; mtw;wpd; fl;likg;G vd;gtw;iwf; fz;lwptjpYk;> gy;gadu; Kiwik njhlu;ghd Nfhg;Gfspd; ghJfhg;igAk; Nkw;nfhs;tJ Nfhg;G Kfhikj;JtkhFk;.

Kiwikg; gpuNtrk;

nghJthf $l;L my;yJ nghJKiwikfisAk;; mtw;wpd; tsq;fisAk; mZFtij ,af;f Kiwik fl;Lg;gLj;JfpwJ. ,jd; %yk; Kiwaw;w mZfy;fspypUe;J tsq;fisAk; NfhitfisAk; ghJfhg;gJld; tsq;fis gq;fpl;Lf; nfhs;tjpy; Vw;gLk; rpf;fy;fSk; jtpu;f;fg;gLfpd;wd.

jtWfisf; fz;Lgpbj;jYk; gjpyspj;jYk;

fzpdpia nraw;gLj;Jk; NghJ gy;NtW tifahd gpur;rpidfs;; Njhd;wf;$Lk;. mjhtJ> epidtf my;yJ rhjdq;fspy; gpur;rpidfs;> cs; kw;Wk; ntspapy; nghUj;jg;gl;Ls;s rhjdq;fspy; gpur;rpidfs;> mZfiyj; jtpu;j;jy;> mj;JkPwpa epidtfg;gpuNtrk;> vz;fzpj kpiftopjy; (Arithmetic Overflow) kw;Wk; gy;NtW nkd;nghUs; rpf;fy;fs; Nghd;wtw;iwf; Fwpg;gplyhk;. ,t;thwhd gpur;rpidfis ,dq;fz;L mtw;iw eptu;j;jp nra;Ak; nray;fisAk; ,af;f Kiwik Nkw;nfhs;fpwJ.

fzpj;jy;

gupG+uz ,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; %yk; mjhtJ> gy;NtW tsq;fspd; gad;ghL njhlu;ghd gjpTfis itj;jy;> gjpyspg;Gf; fhy (Response Time) nray;fhl;bfspd; Nkw;ghu;it Nghd;w nray;fs; %yk; fzpdpia Nkk;gLj;jp mjd; nraw;wpwid cr;repiyapy; itj;Jf;nfhs;Sk;.

gadupd; Njitf;Nfw;g ts Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;jy;

fzpdp vd;gJ juTfis Nrkpj;jy;;> Kiwtopg;gLj;jy;> kw;Wk; mr;nray;fSf;Fj; Njitahd Vida nray;fisf; fl;lg;gLj;Jtjw;Fj; Njitg;gLk; tsj;njhFjpnahd;whFk;. (Set of resource). ,af;f KiwikahdJ Nkw;Fwpj;j ,t;tidj;J nraw;ghLfisAk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;fpd;wJ. ,af;f KiwikahdJ fzpdpapd; td;nghUs;fSf;F kpff; fpl;baJk; mt;td;nghUs;fSf;F fl;lis toq;Ftjw;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s xU epfo;r;rp epuyhFk;. vdpDk;> Vida nkd;nghUs;fisg; Nghyd;wp ,af;f KiwikahdJ> Vida tsg; gad;ghl;Lf;fhd #oiy toq;FtJld;> Vida nkd;nghUs;fis ,af;Ftjw;F Ed;nraypapw;Fj; Njitahd fl;lisfisAk; toq;Ffpd;wJ.

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9

!

cU: ,af;f Kiwikapd; mLf;Ffs;. ,af;f Kiwikapd; gupzhkk;.

njhlu;Kiw Kiwtopg;gLj;jy; (Serial Processing)

Kjyhk; jiyKiwf; fzpdpfSf;F ,af;f Kiwikapd; mtrpak; ,Uf;ftpy;iy. Vnddpy; fzpdpapd; rfy nraw;ghLfSk; ,ae;jpu nkhop %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;lJld; Vuhskhd Mspfisf; nfhz;bUe;jikahy; Mspfis Njitf;Nfw;g xOq;F nra;J fl;lisfs; toq;fg;gl;ld.

!

cU: Kjyhk; jiyKiwf; fzpdpnahd;wpw;F mwpTWj;jy; toq;Fjy; gpd;du; Jisml;il thrpg;ghd; %yk; fl;lisfis cUthf;ff; $bathwhd fzpdpfs; cUthf;fg;gl;ld. mj;Jld; juT Kiwtopg;gLj;jypd; gpd; ngWNgwhdJ mr;Rg;nghwp %yk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;sf; $bajhapUe;jJ.

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10 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

,t;thW mikf;fg;gl;l fzpdpapy;>xU jlitapy; xU nraiy khj;jpuNk Nkw;nfhs;sf; $bajhapUe;jJld;> gy nray;fis nra;a Ntz;ba re;ju;g;gq;fspy; mtw;iw Njitapd; mbg;gilapy; tupirg;gLj;jp xd;wd;gpd; xd;whf Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;bapUe;jJ. ,t;thW xOq;fikf;fg;gl;l nraw;ghLfs; “njhlu;epiy Kiwtopahf;fk;” vdg;gl;lJ.

Nkw;$wg;gl;l Kiwapy; ,uz;L gpujp$yq;fs; fhzg;gl;ld.

1. fhy ml;ltiz Njit. (Scheduling)

gadu; jkJ Ntiyia nra;Jnfhs;tjw;Fj; Njitahd fzpdp Neuj;ij Kd;$l;bNa xJf;f Ntz;bapUe;jJ. xJf;fpf; nfhs;sg;gl;l Neuj;jpw;F Kd;Ng Fwpg;gpl;l nraw;ghL epiwNtw;wg;gl;lhy;> vQ;rpa Neuk; tpuakhf;fg;gLfpwJ. mNjNghd;W> nraw;ghL Kbtila Kd;Ng Neuk; Kbe;Jtpl;lhy;> mr;nraw;ghl;il Kw;whf epWj;jptpl;L (Kill) kPz;Lk; Muk;gpf;f Neupl;lJ.

2. mjpf epWT Neuk;

xU nraiy fzpdpf;F toq;Fk;NghJ mjw;fhd epuy;fis (Program) epidtfj;jpw;F Vw;wYk;> mjid epiwNtw;wj; Njitahd #oiy jahu;gLj;jy; Nghd;w nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;s Ntz;bAs;sJ. ,jw;F mjpf Neuk; nrytplg;gLfpd;wJ.

vspa njhFjp Kiwik ( Simple Batch System) !

,uz;lhk; jiyKiwf; fzpdpfs; Njhd;w Muk;gpj;jJk;> nray;fis njhFjp; njhFjpahd nray;epuy;fshf Ntwhf;fp fzpdpf;F toq;ff;$ba tifapyhd ,af;f Kiwikfs; cUthfpd. ,ijj; njhlu;e;J fzpdpapd; gad;ghLk; mjpfupf;fj; Muk;gkhfpaJ. Jisml;il my;yJ fhe;j ehlhf;fspd; %yk; fzpdpf;F juT toq;ff; $ba tifapy; njhopEl;gKk; Kd;Ndw;wkile;jJ. fzpdp td;nghUs; njhlu;ghd tpsf;fk; ,y;yhkYk;$l fzpdpia ifahStjw;F ,jd; %yk; toptFf;fg;gl;lJ.

Jisml;il thrpg;ghd;

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11

gy;epuyhf;fg;gl;l njhFjp Kiwik ( Multiprogrammed Batch System)!

,iznthj;j jd;ikAila fzpdpfs; Njhd;wpajd; tpisthf gy;NtW tifahd fzpdpfSf;Fk; xNu tifahd ,af;f Kiwik ghtpf;ff; $ba epiy Vw;gl;lJ. mNjNghd;W> fzpj;jy; nray;fSf;fhf xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;l Rw;Wfs<!(ICs) gad;gLj;jg;gl;ld. xUq;fpizf;fg;gl;l Rw;Wfs; gad;gLj;jg;gl;l KjyhtJ fzpdp IBM360 MFk;. ,jw;F OS/360 vDk; xUq;FNru;g;G (Assembly) nkhopahy; cUthd kpfTk; rpf;fyhd ,af;f Kiwiknahd;W gad;gLj;jg;gl;lJ.

njhFjpthupahf epuyhsu; %yk; fzpdpf;F mwpTWj;jy;fis toq;Ftjw;F gjpyhf ,af;f Kiwikapd; %yk; jd;dpaf;f Kiwapy; Njitahd epuy;fs; fzpdpf;F toq;fg;gl;lJ. ,jd; %yk;>njhFjpj; njhFjpahf nray;fs; toq;fg;gLtjw;F gjpyhf gy nray;fis njhFjpfshfg; gpupj;J xNu jlitapy; nraw;gLj;Jk; jpwd; fzpdpf;F fpilj;jJ. ,jid gy;epuyhf;fy; vd miof;fg;gLfpwJ.

Neug;gfpu;T Kiwikfs;!(Time Sharing Systems)

Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l gy;epuyhf;fypy; Ez;nraypapd; Neuk; gy nray;fSf;Fk; xJf;fpf;nfhs;sf;$ba jpwikkpf;f ,af;f Kiwikapd; %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. ,t;thw;wy; nfhz;l ,af;f Kiwikfs; “Neug;gfpu;T ,af;f Kiwikfs;” vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wd.

juT Nrkpg;gfk;

Nrkpg;gfnkhd;wpy; juT Nrkpg;gpid nrk;ikahfr; nra;jy; ,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; Kf;fpa nrayhFk;. Nrkpg;ghdJ Nrkpg;gfj;jpd; fl;likg;gpw;Fg; nghUj;jkhd tifapy; ,yf;fKiw juTj; Jz;lq;fshf Nrkpf;fg;gLfpd;wd. ,jd; NghJ caupa nrayhw;Wj;jpwDld; juT Nrkpg;ig Nkw;nfhs;sy; ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf> fzpdpapy; nkd;nghUnshd;W epWtg;gLk; NghJ mjDld; njhlu;Gila rfy Nfhg;Gfs;> milTfs;> cgmilTfs; Mfpa midj;Jk; rupahd xOq;fpy; Nrkpf;fg;gLtJ ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;ag;gLfpwJ.

!

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12

,af;f Kiwikfis tifg;gLj;jy;

,af;f Kiwikfis gy;NtW jd;ikfspd; mbg;gilapy; tifg;gLj;jyhk;. gutyhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w mbg;gilfs; mlq;fpa tifgLj;jy; fPNo fhzg;gLfpd;wJ.

epfo;Neu ,af;f Kiwik (Real Time OS)!

jdp gadu; jdp gzp ,af;f Kiwik (Single User Single Task OS)!jdp gadu; gw;gzp ,af;f Kiwik (Single User Multi Task OS)!gw;gadu; gw;gzp ,af;f Kiwik (Multi User Multi Task OS)!

!

epfo;Neu ,af;f Kiwik

,t;tpaf;f Kiwik %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;w rfy nray;fSk; Fwpj;j fhy tiuaiuf;Fs; G+u;j;jp nra;ag;gly; Ntz;Lk;. mNefkhf> ,t;tifahd ,af;f Kiwikfs; cl;nghjpe;j (Embedded) KiwikfshFk;. mjhtJ> ,t;tifahd ,af;f Kiwikfs; td;jl;Lfspy; epWtg;glkhl;lhJ. ,it xUq;fpize;j Rw;Wfspy; gjpT nra;ag;gl;bUf;Fk;. ,t;tifahd ,af;f Kiwikfs; epfo;Neu nray;fSf;F gad;gLj;jg;gLtJld;> ,it jdpgzp my;yJ gw;gzpfSf;F gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. tq;fpfspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;w jd;dpaf;f nrhy;yp ,ae;jpuk; ATM ,jw;nfhU cjhuzkhFk;.

jdp gadu; jdp gzp ,af;f Kiwik

,t;tpaf;f Kiwik xNu re;ju;g;gj;jpy; xU gadUf;F xUgzp khj;jpuk; Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F ,lkspf;fpd;wJ. cjhuzkhf> VjhtJ xU nraiy khj;jpuk; xU Neuj;jpy; Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;.

cjhuzk;;!MS-DOS, Palm OS

!

jdp gadu; gw;gzp ,af;f Kiwik

,t;tpaf;f Kiwik xNu re;ju;g;gj;jpy; gadnuhUtUf;F xd;W my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l nray;fis Nkw;nfhs;tjw;F ,aYkhd tifapy; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. etPd jdpegu; fzpdpfs; ,t;tif ,paf;f Kiwikfisf; nfhz;litahFk;. vdNt> ,t;tif ,af;f Kiwikfs; %yk; mjp$ba mstpyhd nray;fis FWfpa Neuj;jpw;Fs; nra;J nfhs;sf; $bajhAs;sJ. ,jdhy; jdpegu; fzpdpfs; md;whl tho;tpy; nraw;wpwDs;s tifapy; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd.

cjhuzk;;!Windows, Mac OS, Ubuntu, Fedora gw;gadu; gw;gzp ,af;f Kiwik

,t;tpaf;f Kiwik epWtg;gl;l fzpdpnahd;wpw;F Kizaq;fs; (Terminals) gytw;iw njhlu;GgLj;j KbAk;. ,q;F Vf fhyj;jpy; gadu;fSf;F gy nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;s KbAk;.

cjhuzk;: kj;jpa fzpdp> Nritaff; fzpdp> tpUe;Njhk;gy; fzpdp.

(18)

13

Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ,af;f Kiwikfspy; rhuhk;rk; tUkhW.

,af;f Kiwik gpujhd ,ay;Gfs; gpuNahfk; epfo;Neu Ntfk; kpff; $baJ mstpy; rpwpaJ epfo;Neu nraw;ghLfSf;F NjitahdJ Neha; mwpFwpfisf; fhz;gjw;F • ATM • tpQ;Qhd cgfuzq;fs; tpkhdr; rPl;L xJf;fy;! jdp gadu; jdp

gzp xU gadu; xU Neuj;jpy; xU nray; kl;Lg;gLj;jg;gl;l Nrkpg;gfk; mjp$ba tpiykjpg;Gs;s fzpdpfs; Njitapy;iy • MS-DOS • Palm OS jdp gadu; gw;gzp xU gadu; gy nray;fis Vffhyj;jpy; nra;jy; gadupd; cr;r gaid mjpfupj;jy; fzpdpapd; cr;r gaid mjpfupj;jy; • MS- Windows • Ubuntu • Hanthana gw;gadu; gw;gzp gw; gadu; Vffhyj;jpy; gy nray;fis nra;jy; gadupd; cr;r gaid mjpfupj;jy • Unix • VMS • Mainframe OS Such as MVS gy; nray;epuy; Kiwikfs;

xNu Neuj;jpy; gy epfo;r;rpfis gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; itj;Jf;nfhz;L Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;ij ,e;epfo;r;rpfSf;fpilNa gfpu;e;J nfhs;sf;$ba tifapy; epuy;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;nfd cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s ,af;f Kiwikfs; gy; nray;epuy; Kiwikfs; vdg;gLk;.

fPNo fhl;lg;gl;Ls;s tiuglj;jpd; %yk; ,jid tpsf;fyhk;.

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

(19)

14

gy;nray;epuy;fSf;fika fPo; fhzg;gLfpd;w nraw;ghLfs; ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wJ.

XNu Neuj;jpy;; gy nray;fis epidtfj;jpy; itj;Jf; nfhs;Sk;.

epidtfj;jpYs;s nray;fis VjhtnjhU jpl;lj;jpw;fika xt;nthd;whf nraw;gLj;jy;.

gy;nray;epuy; ,af;f Kiwikfs; %yk; nraw;ghl;bYs;s midj;J nray;fs;> Kiwik tsq;fs; vd;gd mtjhdpf;fg;gLtJld;> “myF Kfhikj;Jt epfo;r;rp” (“Unit Management Program”) %yk; epidtfj;jpYs;s midj;J nray;fSk; epiwNtWk;tiu mtw;iwg; ghJfhf;Fk; nghWg;igf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;.!

!

ed;ikfs;!

cau; nraw;wpwDld; Ez;nrayp ghtpf;fg;gly;.

xNu Neuj;jpy;; mjpf vz;zpf;ifahd epfo;r;rpfs; nraw;gLtjhf gadu; czu;tu;.

jPikfs;

Ez;nrayp fhy ml;ltizg;gLj;jg;gl Ntz;bAs;sik.

mjpf vz;zpf;ifapyhd nray;fSf;F epidtfj;jpy; ,ltrjp nra;J nfhLg;gjw;F epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk; Njitg;gLfpwJ.

Neug;gfpu;T Kiwikfs; !(Time Sharing Systems)

Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;ij gy epfo;r;rpfSf;F gfpu;T nra;J ghtpf;ff;$ba tifapy; cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s njhopy;El;gkhFk;. ,jid epunyhd;wpd; ju;f;f ePbg;ghf fhl;l KbAk;. Ez;nraypapd; Neuj;ij gy;gadu;fSf;fpilapy; gfpu;e;Jnfhs;sf; $baik “Neug; gfpu;T”(Time Sharing) vdg;gLfpwJ.

!

Nfhg;Gfis tifg;gLj;jy;!

juTf;Nfhg;G vd;gJ> ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfnkhd;wpy; juT Nrkpg;gjw;Fk;> Nrkpf;fg;gl;l juTfis kPz;Lk; ngw;Wf; nfhs;tjw;Fk; cUthf;fg;gl;l fUj;Jepiy nghwpKiw (Abstract Mechanism) MFk;. xt;nthU NfhitiaAk; jdpj;Jtkhf milahsq;fhz;gjw;Nfw;wthW ngauplg;gl Ntz;Lk;. mNjNghd;W> xt;nthU Nfhg;gpw;Fk; ,Ug;gplk;> tif> cUthf;fg;gl;l jpfjp> Neuk; Nghd;w gz;Gfs; cs;sd. mNefkhd ,af;f Kiwikfspy; Nfhg;Gg;ngau; ,U gFjpfisf; nfhz;bUf;Fk;. Nfhg;Gg;ngaupd; Kjw;gFjp gadupdhy; toq;fg;gLtJld; Kw;Wg; Gs;spiaj; njhlu;e;J tUk; ePbg;G fzpdp nkd;nghUs; %yk; toq;fg;gLfpwJ. ,e;ePbg;gpd; %yk; Nfhg;gpd; tifia mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

cjhuzk;: Myfile.doc vd;gjpy; Myfile vd;gij Nfhg;gpid cUthf;fpatupdhy; toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; doc vDk; ePbg;G ,f;Nfhg;G cUthf;fg;gl;l nkd;nghUs; gw;wpa jftiyf; fhl;Lfpd;wJ.

Nfhg;G tiffs;

Nfhg;nghd;wpy; juT Nrkpf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; tpjj;ij mbg;gilahff; nfhz;L mtw;iw fPOs;sthW tifg;gLj;jyhk;.

a) ASCII Nfhg;G

ASCII Nfhg;Gj; juTfis rhjhuz ghlg; gjpg;gpnahd;wpd; (Text Editors) %yk; thrpj;jwpaf; $ba tifapy; FwpaPbly; nra;ag;gl;Ls;sJ.

!

b) Jtpj (Binary) Nfhg;G!

ASCII Nfhg;Gfisg; Nghy; Jtpj Nfhg;Gfisj; jpwe;J mtw;wpYs;s FwpaPLfis mNj tbtpy; ghu;j;J tpsq;fpf;nfhs;s KbahJ. tpsq;fpf; nfhs;s Kbahj FwpaPLfs; rpytw;iw mjDs; fhzyhk;.

(20)

15 Nfhg;G milTfs;!(File Directories)!

fzpdpapy; ,Uf;Fk; Nfhg;Gfs; ju;f;f uPjpahf “Nfhg;Gr; Nru;g;G” Kiwapy; xOq;FgLj;Jtjw;fhf milTfs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. milnthd;wpd; %yk; nka;epfu; nfhs;fyd; xd;W cUthf;fg;gLfpwJ. ,f;nfhs;fyndhd;wpypUf;Fk; midj;J Nfhg;Gfs; gw;wpa tpguq;fisAk; Nrkpj;J itj;Jf; nfhs;tjw;F ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Nfhg;nghd;W guhkupf;fg;gLfpd;wJ.

Nfhg;G Kfhikj;Jtk;

Nfhg;G njhFjpnahd;wpdhYk; milT fl;likg;gpdhYk; cUthdNj Nfhg;G KiwikahFk;. ,J ,af;f Kiwikapy; fhzg;gLk; Nfhg;G Kfhikj;Jt nraw;ghl;bd; %yk; fl;Lg;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ.

milT fl;likg;G %yk; ,uz;lhe;ju Nrkpg;gfj;jpy; Nfhg;Gfs; Nrkpj;J itf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk; Kiw tpgupf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;;. milTnthd;wpy; fhzg;gLk; rfy Nfhg;Gfspd; tpguq;fSk; mjDs; cs;slf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;.

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

Linux!,af;f Kiwikapy; milTk; Nfhg;G Kiwik ml;ltizAk;.

Nfhg;G ghJfhg;G

gaduJ juTfs; Nrjkiljy;> njhiye;J Nghjy; vd;gd gadUf;Fs;s gpur;rpidfshFk;. ,jid jtpu;g;gjw;F> mj;juTfs; mlq;fpa Nfhg;Gfis ghJfhf;f eltbf;if Nkw;nfhs;s NtzLk;.

juT ghjpg;gpw;Fs;shff; $ba re;ju;g;gq;fs;

FWk;gu;fSk; ituRfSk;. ( Hackers and Viruses)

,aw;iffhuzpfs; - jP> ePu; kw;Wk; capupdq;fspdhy; Vw;gLk; ghjpg;Gfs;.

td;nghUs;> nkd;nghUs;> tiyaikg;G> njhlu;ghly; vd;gtw;wpy; Vw;gLk;gpur;rpidfs;;.

khdpl FiwghLfs;- gpioahd juT cs;sPL> gpioahd juT cs;sPl;Lf; fUtpfspd; gad;ghL kw;Wk; fUtpfs; fhzhky; Nghjy;.

juT ghJfhg;G Kiwfs;

Nfhg;Gfis jpwg;gjw;Fk; jpUj;jq;fisr; nra;tjw;Fk; ,ayhjthW cupikfis khw;Wjy;. (File previllages)!

gadUf;fhd mq;fPfhukypj;jy;!( User authentication)!flTr; nrhy; ghJfhg;G ( Password Protection)!

(21)

16 nray; xOq;fikg;G (Process Scheduling)!

nray; Kfhikj;Jtj;jpd; mbg;gil tplakhf nray; xOq;fikg;G jpfo;fpwJ. ,jd; %yk; jahu; epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; nray;fis Ez;nraypapw;F mDg;Gk; tpjKk; nraypapy; nraw;gl;Lf; nfhz;bUf;Fk; nray;fis mg;Gwg;gLj;Jk; tpjKk; jPu;khdpf;fg;gLfpd;wJ. nray; xOq;fikg;G eltbf;ifahdJ> gw;gzp ,af;f Kiwiknahd;wpd; kpf Kf;fpa mk;rkhFk;. ,J gw;wpa tpguk; 13Mk; ju Mrpupau; topfhl;bapy; 11 njhlf;fk; 17 tiuahd gf;fq;fspy; cs;sJ. vdNt> nray; newpKiwg;gLj;jy; (Algorithm) gw;wp khj;jpuk; ,q;F njspTg;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

nray; xOq;fikg;G newpKiw (Process Scheduling Algorithm)

nray;ghl;Lf;fhd nray;fis nraypf;F mDg;Gk; xOq;fikg;ig fl;Lg;gLj;Jtjw;fhf cUthf;fg;gl;Ls;s newpKiwfs; rpy fPNo jug;gl;Ls;sd.

Kjypy; tUgtUf;F Kjypy; Nrit toq;fy;!(First Come First Served- FCFS)!

FWfpa Ntiy Kjypy;!(Shortest Job First-SJF)!Kd;Dupik mbg;gil (Priority Base)!

• Round Robin newpKiw

gy;kl;l (multi level) tupirg;gLj;jy; xOq;fikg;G

Nky; Fwpg;gpl;l rfy topKiwfisAk; ,U gpujhd KiwfSf;fika gad;gLj;j KbAk;.

• Pre- emptive Process Schedule – nraypf;F VjhtnjhU nraiy mDg;gpajd; gpd;> mr;nray; Kbtila Kd;Ng> mjid nraypapypUe;J mg;Gwg;gLj;j KbAk;.

• Non Pre- emptive Process Schedule – nraypf;F VjhtnjhU nray; mDg;gg;gl;lJk;> mr;nray; epiwT ngWk;tiu nraypapypUe;J mg;Gwg;gLj;jg;glkhl;lhJ.

,t;thwhd newpKiwfis xg;gpLtjw;fhf fPNo fhl;lg;gl;Ls;s mbg;gilfis cgNahfpf;fyhk;.

te;J NrUk; Neuk; (Arrival Time*;!nray; jahu; epiyf;Fl;gLk; Neuk;.!nraw;gL Neuk; (Burst Time*;! nraiy epiwNtw;w nraypf;F vLf;Fk;

Neuk;.!

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; (Waiting Time*;!nraypapd; Neuj;ij ngw;Wf;nfhs;s vjpu;ghu;j;J jahu; epiyapy; ,Uf;Fk; KO Neuk;.!

kPs;tU Neuk; (Turnaround Time*;!nranyhd;W jahu; epiyf;Fl;gLk; Neuk; Kjy; nray; KbtilAk; tiuahd Neuk;.

,q;F midj;J nray;fSk; nraypapd; Njitabg;gilapy; khj;jpuk; mike;jit vd;w vLNfhSf;fikthdJ vd fUjg;gLfpd;wJ.

(22)

17

Kjy; tUgtu; Kjypy; Nritngwy; (First Come First Served - FCFS) tUk; xOq;fpw;Nfw;gNt nray;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLjy;.

tpsq;fpf; nfhs;tJk; nray;gLj;JtJk; ,yFthFk;.

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; mjpfkhifahy; nraw;wpwd; FiwthFk;.

! nray; te;J NrUk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray; G+u;j;jp Neuk; kPs;tU Neuk; P0 P1 P2 P3 0 1 2 3 5 3 8 6 0 4 6 13 5 8 16 22 5 7 14 19 ! ! ! ! !

rfy nray;fspdJk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; fPOs;sthW mikAk;. nray; kPs;tU Neuk; - nray;gL Neuk; = fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;

P0 5 - 5 = 0 P1 7 - 3 = 4 P2 14 - 8 = 6 P3 19 - 6 = 13

ruhrup fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;!= (0+4+6+13) / 4 = 5.75

P0 P1 P2 P3 P0! nray;gL Neuk; P1 fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! nray;gL Neuk;! P2! fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! nray;gL Neuk; P3!

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; 0 1 2 3 5 8 16 22 0 5 8 16 22

(23)

18 FWfpa Ntiy Kjypy;!(Shortest Job First-SJF) fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuj;ij Mff; Fiwe;jjhf;fyhk;.

nraw;gLj;j KbahJ.

nray; ngwg;gLk; Neuj;ij nrayp Kd;$l;bNa mwpe;J nfhs;Sk;.

nray; te;J NrUk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; kPs;tU Neuk; P0 P1 P2 P3 0 1 2 3 5 3 8 6 0 4 6 13 5 7 20 11 ! ! ! ! !

rfy nray;fspdJk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; fPOs;sthW mikAk;. nray; kPs;tU Neuk; - nray;gL Neuk; = fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;

P0 5 - 5 = 0 P1 7 - 3 = 4 P2 20 - 8 = 12 P3 11 - 6 = 5

ruhrup fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;!= (0+4+12+5) / 4 = 5.25

Q1! ! ! ! !!!!! Q2! Q4! Q3! P0! nray;gL Neuk;! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! P1 fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; ! ! ! P3! fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; ! ! P2!

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk;

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

0 1 2 3 5 8 14 22

(24)

19

Kd;Dupik mbg;gil newpKiw!(Priority Base)!

xt;nthU nraYf;Fk; Vw;fdNt jPu;khdpf;fg;gl;l Kd;Dupikfs; cs;sd. caupa Kd;Dupik njhlf;fk; Fiwe;j Kd;Dupik tiu vDk; mbg;gilapy; nraw;gLj;jg;gLk;.

rk Kd;Dupik nfhz;l nray;fs; (FCFS) mbg;gilapy; nray;gLj;jg;gLk;.

Kd;Dupik toq;fg;gLtJ epidtfj; Njit my;yJ Neu mtrpak; my;yJ NtW tsq;fspd; Njitapd; mbg;gilapyhFk;.

!

nray; te;J NrUk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; Kd;Dupik kPs;tU Neuk; P0 P1 P2 P3 0 1 2 3 5 3 8 6 1 2 1 3 5 15 11 19 ! ! ! ! ! !

rfy nray;fspdJk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; fPOs;sthW mikAk;. nray; kPs;tU Neuk; - nray;gL Neuk; = fhj;jpUf;Fk;

Neuk; P0 5 - 5 = 0 P1 15 - 3 = 12 P2 11 - 8 = 3 P3 19 - 6 = 13

ruhrup fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;!=(0+12+3+13) / 4 = 7.00

P0 P2 P1 P3 P0!!!!! nray;gL Neuk; P1 fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! ! nray;gL Neuk; P2! fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! nray;gL Neuk; P3! fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! nray;gL Neuk; 0 1 2 3 5 13 16 22 0 5 13 16 22

(25)

20 Round Robin xOq;fikg;G

xt;nthU nraYf;Fk; nraw;gLj;jg;gLtjw;Fupa Neutiuaiwnahd;W toq;fg;gLfpwJ. mJ msT (Quantum) vd miof;fg;gLfpd;wJ. (Pre-emptive scheduling).

nraYf;F xJf;fg;gl;l Neuk; Kbtile;jJk; mjid ,ilepWj;jp tpl;L mLj;Js;s nraiy nraw;gLj;Jk;. ,t;thW rfy nray;fisAk; xJf;fg;gl;l Neuj;jpw;Fs; khj;jpuk; nraw;gLj;Jk;. ,r;nray;fs; Row;rp mbg;gilap;y; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk;. ,ilepWj;jg;gl;l vQ;rpa gFjpfs; mLj;jLj;j Rw;Wfspy; nraw;gLj;jg;gLk;.

mikg;G Mspia (Context Switch) nraw;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; xt;nthU nraypdJk; epiyfs; (Status) gjpT nra;J nfhs;sg;gLk;.

! ! Neu msT(Quantum)= 4! ! P0 P1 P2 P3 P0 P2 P3 P2 ! ! P0! nray;gL Neuk;

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; ! ! ! P1 fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;! nray;gL Neuk; ! ! ! ! P2! fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; ! nray;gL Neuk;

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk;

fhj;jpUf;Fk;

Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; P3!

fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;! nray;gL Neuk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk;

!

! !

rfy nray;fspdJk; fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk; fPOs;sthW mikAk;. nray; kPs;tU Neuk; - nray;gL Neuk; = fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;

P0 14 - 5 = 9 P1 5 - 3 = 2 P2 20 - 8 = 12 P3 17 - 6 = 11

ruhrup fhj;jpUf;Fk; Neuk;!=(9+2+12+11) / 4 = 8.25

nray; te;J NrUk; Neuk; nray;gL Neuk; kPs;tU Neuk; P0 P1 P2 P3 0 1 2 3 5 3 8 6 14 5 20 17 0 3 6 9 12 14 17 20 22 0 1 2 3 6 9 12 14 17 20 22

(26)

21 gy;kl;l tupirg;gLj;jy; xOq;fikg;G

nray;fSf;F gy;NtW tupirg;gLj;jy;fs; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLfpd;wd.

xt;nthU tupirf;Fk; jdf;NfAupa xOq;FgLj;jy; newpKiwnahd;W cs;sJ.

xt;nthU tupirf;Fk; Kd;Dupiknahd;W toq;fg;gl;Ls;sJ.

! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk;

fzpdpapYs;s Kf;fpakhd epidtfk; gpujhd epidtfkhFk;. epidtfj;ij Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhf ,af;f Kiwikapy; “epidtf Kfhikahsu;” (Memory Manager) vDk; gFjp nraw;gLfpwJ. nray;fspd; nraw;ghl;Lf;F Njitahd epidtfj;ijg; ngw;Wf; nfhLg;gJk; (Allocate)> mr;nray;fs; G+u;j;jpahdJk; mtw;wpw;F xJf;fg;gl;l epidtfj;ij tpLtpg;gJk; (De-allocate) ,jd; gzpahFk;. ,q;F ghtidapYs;s kw;Wk; ghtidapypy;yhj epidtfg; gFjpfs; gw;wpa Fwpg;Gfs; ,af;f Kiwik %yk; Ngzg;gLfpwJ.

epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk; gpujhdkhf ,U tifg;gLk;. 1. epidtf khw;wYk; gf;fkplYk; (Swapping and Paging)

gy;epuy; ,af;f Kiwikfs; %yk; ,uz;L my;yJ mjw;F Nkw;gl;l nray;fis Vf fhyj;jpy; nraw;gLj;jg;gLk; NghJ> xU jlitapy; xU nraw;ghl;Lf;;Fupa nray;fs; epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. mJ G+u;j;jpahdJk; mLj;j nraw;ghl;Lf;Fupa nray;fs; epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. ,t;thW rfy nraw;ghLfSk;; epiwT ngWk;tiu rfy nray;fSk; mt;tg;NghJ epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. G+u;j;jpahd nray;fis kPz;Lk; mit ,Ue;j Jiz epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. mNjNtis mLj;j nrayhdJ Jiz epidtfj;jpypUe;J gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wg;gLk;. ,Wjp nray; KbAk; tiu eilngWk; ,f;nraw;ghL “epidtf khw;wk;” vdg;gLk;.

nka;epfu; epidtfj;ijg; gad;gLj;Jk; ,af;f Kiwikfspy; epidtfj;ij nraw;wpwDs;sthW gad;gLj;jpf;nfhs;tjw;F gf;fkply; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpwJ. ,q;F Jiz epidtfj;jpYs;s jutpw;F epfuhd msTila gFjpfs;> gf;f (Page) tbtpy; gpujhd epidtfj;jpd; nka;epfu; epidtf miwf;F (Virtual Memory Space) gpujpaplg;gLfpwJ. ,g;gf;fq;fs; ngsjPf epidtfj;jpy; (Physical Memory) cs;s rkdhd msTilajhf fhzg;gLk; rl;lfq;fSld; (Frames)

,ilnjhlu;ghLila nray;fs; Kiwik nray;fs; ,ilnjhlu;ghLila njhFg;Gr; nray;fs; njhFjpr; nray;fs;! gadu;; nray;fs; Fiwe;j $ba

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22

gpujpepjpj;Jtg;gLj;jg;gLtJld; (Map) mjpYs;s juit kpf tpiuthf gpujhd epidtfj;jpw;F ngw;Wf;nfhs;s KbfpwJ.

2. epidtf khw;wy;> gf;fkply; vd;gd ,y;yhj epidtf Kfhikj;Jtk;

xU jlitf;F xU nraiy khj;jpuk; epidtfj;jpw;F khw;wp mr;nraYf;F khj;jpuk; epidtfj;ij gad;gLj;jf;$ba vspa epidtf Kfhikj;Jt Kiwnahd;whFk;. ,q;F epidtfkhdJ> xU jlitapy; ,af;f Kiwikf;Fk;> gadu; epfo;r;rpnahd;wpw;Fkpilapy; (User Program) gfpu;e;J nfhs;sg;gLfpwJ.

!

cU: gf;fkply;

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23

Jz;lhf;fYk; (Fragmentation) fopT Nrfupj;jYk; (Garbage Collection)

nray;fis nraw;gLj;Jtjw;F gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; Nghjpa ,lk; Njitg;gLk;NghJ> mjidg; ngw;Wf; nfhLj;jy; ,af;f Kiwikapd; nghWg;ghFk;. nraypf;F mDg;gg;gLk; nray;fSf;F> epidtfj;jpy; ghtpf;fhJ fhzg;gLk; epidtf gFjpia ngw;Wf; nfhLf;Fk; nraw;ghl;bd; NghJ> gpujhd epidtfj;jpy; ghtpf;fg;glhJs;s ,lq;fs; Fiwtile;J> ghtpf;fg;gl;l gFjpfs; ntw;W ,lq;fshf (Holes) mq;Fkpq;Fk;; xOq;fpd;wp fhzg;glyhk;. ,e;epiy epidtfk; Jz;lhlg;gl;l epiy vdg;gLk;. gpujhd epidtfj;jpd; %yk; nray;fs; G+u;j;jp nra;ag;gl;lJk; mr;nray;fSf;Fupa epidtfg; gf;fq;fs; njhlu;e;Jk; mtrpag;glhky; fhzg;gLk; NghJ> mj;Njitaw;w epidtfg; gFjpfs; mr;nray;fSldpUe;j njhlu;gpypUe;J tpLtpf;fg;gLtJ “fopT Nrfupj;jy;” vdg;gLk;. ,af;f KiwikahdJ> ,t;thW fopT Nrfupj;jy; %yk; cupa epidtfr; rl;lfq;fis NtW nray;fSf;F ghtpf;ff; $ba tifapy; trjp nra;J nfhLf;fg;gLfpwJ/!

,jd; %yk; epidtfg; gad;ghL nraw;wpwdilfpd;wJ. ,J “gpujhd epidtf neUf;fyhf;fy;” (Memory Compaction) vdg;gLk;.

cU: epidtf Jz;lhf;fg;gly;

! ! ! ! ! !

(29)

24 ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !

cU: epidtf Jz;lhf;fg;gly; %yk; nray;fSf;F ,lg;gw;whf;Fiw Vw;gly;

! ! ! ! ! ! ! cU: neUf;fkhf;fy; ! ! ! !

(30)

25

Nju;r;rp 9: nraw;wpwDld;; (ntw;wpfukhf) juT Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;fhf juTj;jsnkhd;iw tbtikj;J tpUj;jp nra;thu;.

fw;wy; NgW:

9.2: njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;js khjpupfspd; gpujhd ghfq;fis tpsf;Fthu;.

njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;jsk; vd;gij tpgupg;ghu;.

njhlu;G epiyj; juTj;jsk; xd;wpd; $Wfis tpsf;Fthu;.

,t;ntz;zf;fUf;fis md;whl tho;tpd; NjitfSf;Fg; gad;gLj;Jthu;.

9.3: juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwiknahd;wp;d; $Wfis gFg;gha;T nra;thu;.

juT vd;gij tpsf;Fthu;.

juTj;js Kiwiknahd;iw tpsf;Fthu;.

juTj;js Kiwiknahd;wpd; gpujhd $Wfis ,dq;fhz;ghu;.

njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;js Kiwiknahd;wp;d; Kf;fpa $Wfis tpsf;Fthu;.

,t;ntz;zf;fUf;fis md;whl tho;tpd; NjitfSf;F cgNahfpg;ghu;.

9.4: juTj;js Kfhikj;Jt Kiwiknahd;wp;d; Kf;fpa $Wfis gFg;gha;T nra;thu;.

cUnghUs; (Entity) njhlu;Gepiy tiuG (ER Diagram) vd;gtw;iw tpsf;Fthu;.

cUnghUs; njhlu;Gepiy tiuGfspy; (ER Diagram) cs;s $Wfisg; ngaupLthu;.

cUnghUs;fs; (Entities) ,ay;Gfs; (Properties/Attributes) njhlu;Gepiy (relationship), kw;Wk; vz;msit (Cardinality) vd;gtw;iw njspTgLj;Jthu;.

cUnghUs; njhlu;Gepiyia tiuG (ER Diagram) %yk; fhl;Lthu;.

9.5: juTj;jsnkhd;wpd; ju;f;f mikg;G Kiwf; Fwpg;ig tbtikg;ghu;.

juTj;js mikg;G Kiwf;Fwpg;ig tbtikg;ghu;.

njhlu;Gepiy mikg;GKiw (Relational Schema) njhlu;Gepiy vLj;Jf;fhl;L (Relational Instance) vd;gtw;iw njspTgLj;Jthu;.

njupTepiy rhtp (Candidate Key), Kjd;ikr;rhtp (Primary Key), md;dpar;rhtp (Foreign Key), fyitr;rhtp (composite Key)> khw;Wr;rhtp (Alternative Key) vd;gtw;iw tpsf;Fthu;.

njhlu;Gepiyj; juT xUq;fpizg;G (relational Data Integrity) vd;gij Ma;T nra;af;$ba topfisf; fz;lwpthu;.

Ms;fsg; ngau; (Domain Name)> Nkw;Nfhs; xUq;fpizg;G (referential Integrity), cUnghUs; xUq;fpizg;G (Entity Integrity) vDk; vz;zf;fUf;fis njspTgLj;Jthu;.

:/7;!! cUnghUs; njhlu;Gepiy tiuig ju;f;f mikg;G Kiwf;F khw;Wthu;.

• “ju;f;f mikg;G Kiw Fwpg;G” vd;gij tpgupg;ghu;.

cUnghUs; gupzhkkile;j tpjj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

gz;Gfs; gupzhkkile;j tpjj;ij tpsf;Fthu;.

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26

!!:/8;!!milT kl;lj;ij mjpfupf;fr; nra;tjw;F juTj;js mikg;G Kiw

tbtikg;ig ,ay;GgLj;Jthu;.

,ay;GgLj;jy; vd;gij tpsf;Fthu;.

juTj;js mgptpUj;jpapd;NghJ Vw;gLk; gytPdq;fis mwpe;J nfhs;thu;.

,ay;GgLj;jy; %d;wpd; gbepiyfis tpgupg;ghu;.

,t;ntz;zf;fUf;fis md;whl tho;tpd; NjitfSf;Fg; gad;gLj;Jthu;.!

!

:/9;!!juTj;jsnkhd;wpy; ml;ltiz (Table) cUthf;Ftjw;Fk;

Kfhikj;Jtk; nra;tjw;Fk; fl;likg;G tpdty; nkhop (Structural

Query Language) gad;gLj;Jthu;.

fl;likg;G tpdty; nkhop (Structural Query Language) gw;wpAk; mtw;wpd; tiffs; gw;wpAk; tpgupg;ghu;.

juTj;js cUthf;fk;> Data Definition Language (DDL) %yk; my;yJ juT tiuaiw nkhop (Data Definition Language) %yk; eilngWtij tpsf;Fthu;.

juT tiuaiw nkhopiag; ( DDL- Data Definition Language) gpuNahfpj;J ml;ltizfis(Tables) epu;khdpg;ghu;.

mt;tl;ltizf;F Gyq;fis Nru;j;jy; kw;Wk; Gyq;fis ePf;fy; nraw;ghLfis Nkw;nfhs;thu;.

ml;ltiznahd;iw ePf;Fthu;.

ml;ltizf;F Kjd;ikr; rhtpia jhgpg;ghu;;.

Kjd;ikr; rhtpia ePf;Fthu;.

cUnghUs;fSf;fpilapyhd njhlu;Gepiyfis cUthf;Fthu;.

!

:/:;!!fl;likg;G tpdty; nkhopia (Structural Query Language) gad;gLj;jp

juTj;jsnkhd;wpd; juTfisf; ifahs;thu;.

juT ifahSk; nkhopia (Data Manipulate Language) tpgupg;ghu;.

juT ifahSk; nkhopia gad;gLj;Jtjd; %yk; ml;ltizf;F gjpT (Record) cs;sPL nra;thu;.

ml;ltizf;F Nru;f;fg;gl;l midj;J epuy;fisAk; fhl;rpg;gLj;Jthu;. ml;ltizapypUf;Fk; epuy;fis SELECT, FROM, WHERE kw;Wk;

AND> OR Nghd;wtw;iw cgNahfpj;J Njitf;Nfw;g khw;wq;fisr; nra;J Njitahd tplaq;fis kl;Lk; fhlrpg;gLj;Jthu;.

juT ifahSk; nkhopiag; ghtpj;J juTj;jsj;jpypUf;Fk; epuy;fis ,w;iwg;gLj;jpf; nfhs;thu;.

juT ifahSk; nkhopiag; ghtpj;J juTj;jsj;jpypUf;Fk; epuy;fis ePf;Fthu;.

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27

:/3;!! njhlu;G epiyj; juTj;js khjpupfspd; gpujhd ghfq;fis tpsf;Fthu;.

gpuNtrk;

tFg;gpw;F r%fe;juhj khztu; xUtuJ jfty;fis Njb ngw;W mtuJ tPl;Lld; njhlu;Gf; nfhs;s Ntz;Lnkdf;; $wp> mj;jfty;fis ngw;Wf;nfhs;sf;$ba topKiwfis khztu;fSld; fye;Jiuahly;.

ngau; gjpNtl;by; fhzg;gLk; Nru;tpyf;fj;ijg; gad;gLj;jp khztu; njhlu;ghd jfty;fisg; ngw KbAnkdf; $wy;

NkYk;> trjpf;fl;lzk; nrYj;jy; njhlu;ghd jfty;fis NjLtjw;F trjpf;fl;lzg; gjpNtl;bd; jfty;fisg; ghu;j;jy; Nghd;w gy;NtW Mtzq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLk; re;ju;g;gq;fs; gw;wp mwpe;J nfhs;s ,lkspf;fTk;.

,jd; %yk; Mtzk; xd;Wld; xd;W njhlu;GgLk; Kiwia fz;Lnfhs;s KbAnkd;gij njspTgLj;jy;.

,r;nray;Kiwia fzpdp gad;ghl;bd; %yk; nraw;wpwDs;s tifapYk; ,yFthfTk; nray;gLj;j KbAnkdf; $wy;;.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr MNyhridfs;

tFg;gpYs;s khztu;fis %d;W FOf;fshfg; gpupj;J fPo;f; fhzg;gLk; nraw;ghLfspy; <LgLj;jyhk;.

1. njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;jsk; (Relation/Tables) vd;gij tpsf;fTk;. 2. ml;ltiznahd;wpd; gz;Gfs; (Properties of relation)

3. gjpT /tupir/epuy;>Gyk; /gz;Gfs; (record/row/tuple, field/attribute)

jug;gl;Ls;s thrpg;Gg; gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk;> ckf;Fupa gFjpia tpNrl ftdj;JlDk; thrpf;fTk;;.

ckf;Fupa jiyg;gpd; tpNrl mk;rq;fs; gw;wp FOTld; fye;jhNyhrpf;fTk;.

Xt;nthU jiyg;gpidAk; ed;F tpsq;fpf; nfhs;sTk;.

jiyg;Gf;fSf;fpilapYs;s njhlu;gpid FOtpy; fye;JiuahlTk;. thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;

njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;jsk; (Relational Database) vd;gij xd;Wld; xd;W njhlu;GilaJk;> xOq;fikf;fg;gl;lJkhd juTj;jsnkhd;wpd; njhFg;G vd vspjhf tpsf;f KbAk;.

cjhuzkhf> ghlrhiy khztu;fspd; juTj; jsnkhd;wpy; khztu;fspd; jdpg;gl;l tpguq;fs;> ghlq;fs;> ntspr;nraw;ghLfs;> Gs;spfs; kw;Wk; MrpupauJ tpguq;fs; Nghd;wtw;iw Nrfupj;J itf;fyhk;. mj;jfty;fs; ntt;NtW ml;ltizfspy; xOq;fikj;J Nrfupj;J itf;fg;gLtJ njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;jsnkhd;wpy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gLk; nraw;ghlhFk;. ,jd; %yk; kpf tpiuthf juTfis mZff; $bajhjhtpUf;Fk;.

njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;jsnkhd;wpy; %d;W gFjpfis ,dq;fhz KbAk;. 1. ml;ltiz(Table)

2. gjpT/tupir (Record/Row/Tuple) 3. Gyk; (field/Attribute)

!

ml;ltiz (Table)

njhlu;Gepiyj; juT Kfhikj;Jt Kiwiknahd;wpd; xU gFjpahf ml;ltiz fhzg;gLfpwJ. ,J Gyq;fisAk; tupirfisAk; nfhz;L cUthf;fg;gLk;. ghlrhiynahd;wpd; khztu;fsJ jfty;fis jpul;Ltjw;fhf

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28

juTf; Nfhg;nghd;iw cUthf;Fk; NghJ mjw;Fg; mtrpakhd jfty;fs; gy;NtW ml;ltizfspy; xOq;fikf;fg;gl;bUf;Fk;;. mt;thwhf mikf;fg;gl;l ml;ltiznahd;W fPNof; fhl;lg;gl;Ls;sJ.

khztu;fspd; jdpg;gl;l jfty;fs; mlq;fpa ml;ltiz - ngau;> gjpntz;> gpwe;j jpfjp> Mz;/ngz;

tpisahl;L ml;ltiz

- ,yf;fk;> ngau;> nghWg;ghrpupau;> ,lk;

!

Student

STIndex Name Addree Class 1022 S.M.G.D. Kumar No:15, Peradeniya Rd, Kandy 8 B 566 G.M.D Ravi No:144/7, Katugasthota Rd, Kandy 11 C 923 F.D.C.Rajah “Sadasiri”,Colombo Rd, Mawanalalla 10B

!

Gyk; (fields)

Gyk; (Field/Attribute) vd;gJ ml;ltiznahd;wpd; epuyhf miktJld; ,J ml;ltizapd; gz;nghd;whfTk; cs;sJ. xU Gyj;jpy; xNu tifahd juNt gjpag;gLk;.

cjhuzkhf ghlrhiyapy; khztu;fsJ tpguf;Nfhg;gpy; ,lk; ngWk; khztu; ngau;> Nru;tpyf;fk;> gpwe;jjpfjp Nghd;wd khztu;fsJ tpguf;Nfhg;gpd; Gyq;fshFk;.

!

Student

STIndex Name Address Class

1022 S.M.D.G. Kumar No. 15, Peradeniya Rd, Kandy 8 B 566 G.M.D. Ravi No. 144/7, Katugasthota Rd, Kandy 11 C 923 F.D.C. Rajah "Sandasiri" , Colombo Rd,

Mawanalla 10 B

Sports

Participate

(34)

29 gjpT (Record)

gjpT (Record/Row/Tuple) vd;gJ ml;ltizapy; tupirnahd;iwf; Fwpf;Fk;. mjpy; xU tplak; njhlu;ghd xd;Wld; xd;W njhlu;Ggl;l gy;NtW juTfs; Nrkpf;fg;gLk;.

cjhuzkhf ghlrhiynahd;wpd; khztu;fsJ jfty; jpul;lg;gLkhapd; khztnuhUtuJ Nru;tpyf;fk;> gpwe;j jpfjp> Mz;/ngz; Nghd;w tpguq;fs; mlq;Fk;. ,it khztu; tpguf;Nfhg;gpd; gjpTfshFk;.

ml;ltiznahd;wpd; gz;Gfs; (Properties of Relations)

fPOs;s ml;ltizia mtjhdpg;gjd;; %yk; mjd; Kf;fpa mq;fq;fis mwpe;J nfhs;syhk;.

Student

STIndex Name Address Class

1022 S.M.D.G. Kumar No. 15, Peradeniya Rd, Kandy 8 B 566 G.M.D. Ravi No. 144/7, Katugasthota Rd, Kandy 11 C 923 F.D.C. Rajah "Sandasiri" , Colombo Rd, Mawanalla 10 B

Student

STIndex Name Address Class

1022 S.M.D.G. Kumar No. 15, Peradeniya Rd, Kandy 8 B 566 G.M.D. Ravi No. 144/7, Katugasthota Rd, Kandy 11 C 923 F.D.C. Rajah "Sandasiri" , Colombo Rd, Mawanalla 10 B

gjpTfs; g j pT f s ; Gyq;fs;; epiy (Degree)

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30

ml;ltiznahd;wpd; kpf Kf;fpa ,ay;Gfshf %d;W tplaq;fis milahsq; fhzyhk;.

1. ngau; (Name) jdpj;Jtj;ij mwpjy;.

2. epiy (Degree) ml;ltiznahd;wpYs;s Gyq;fsp;d; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fwpf;Fk;.

3. fzf;fply; (cardinality) ml;ltizapypUf;Fk; gjpTfspd; vz;zpf;ifiaf; Fwpf;Fk;.

xU cUnghUspy; eilngWk; epfo;Tfspd; vz;zpf;if kw;iwa cUnghUspd; epfo;TfSld; njhlu;Ggl;L cUthf;fg;gLfpd;w njhlu;Gfspd; epiyNa ,JthFk;.

,j;njhlu;Gfis %d;W tifahf tpsf;fyhk;.

2/ Xd;W - xd;W (one to one) (1 : 1)

cUnghUnshd;wpd; epfo;nthd;W ,jDld; njhlu;Gila mLj;j cUnghUspd; xU epfo;Tld; Vw;gLj;Jk; njhlu;ghFk;.

! ! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2!! ! !!!!!!!!!!!!!!!2! ! xU khztDf;F xU fjpiu xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJld; xU Nkir xU khztDf;F xJf;fg;gl;Ls;sJ. ,j;njhlu;igf; fUj;jpy; nfhs;Sk; NghJ ,J xU xd;W - xd;W njhlu;G vdf;nfhs;syhk;. 3/ Xd;W - gy (one to many )(1 : M)

cUnghUnshd;wpd; epfo;nthd;W mjDld; njhlu;Gila ,d;DnkhU cUnghUnshd;wpd; gy epfo;TfSld; ,ize;J Vw;gLk; njhlu;ghFk;.

! !

xU tFg;gpy; gy khztu; ,Uf;fyhk;. vdpDk; xU khztd; xU tFg;gpy; khj;jpuNk ,Uf;fKbAk;.

4/ gy gy (many to many )- (M : N)

cUnghUnshd;wpd; gy epfo;Tfs; mjDld; njhlu;Gila NtnwhU cUnghUspd; gy epfo;TfSld; ,ize;J cUthFk; njhlu;ghFk;.

xU khztd; gy tpisahl;Lf;fspy; fye;J nfhs;s KbAtJld; xU tpisahl;by; gy khztu;fs; gq;F gw;wyhk;.

Nkir khztd; khztd; tFg;G 1 M khztd; tFg;G M N

(36)

31 mZf;fl;L (Atomicity)

juTj;jsnkhd;wpd; mbg;gilg; gz;ghf> VjhtJ nranyhd;iw Nkw;nfhs;Sk; NghJ Fwpj;j nrayhdJ> nraw;glyhk; my;yJ nrw;glhjpUf;fyhk; vDk; ,U KbTfis khj;jpuk; eilngWtjhf fhl;lg;gLtjhFk;.

cjhuzk;:

epWtdnkhd;wpy; gapw;rp newpnahd;iw njhlu;tjw;F khztu; xUtu; gjpT nra;ag;gLk; NghJ me;epWtdj;jpDs; xU nray;Kiwnahd;W cUthfpd;wJ. mjd; NghJ Fwpj;j khztd; ,U re;ju;g;gq;fSf;F Kfk; nfhLf;f Ntz;bNaw;glyhk;.

1. khztu; fl;lzk; nrYj;jpg; gapw;rpnewpf;F gjpT nra;aKbAk;. my;yJ 2. fl;lzk; nrYj;jhky; gapw;rpnewpf;F gjpthfhky; ,Uf;fKbAk;.

!

:/4;!juTj;js Kiwiknahd;wpd; Kf;fpa $Wfisg; gFg;gha;thu;.

fw;wy; fw;gpj;jy; nraw;ghL: gpuNtrk;:

mYtyfnkhd;wpy;> Nfhg;G> mYkhup vd;gd gad;gLj;jp jfty;fs; ifKiwapy; guhkupf;fg;gLk; Kiwia ghlrhiy mYtyfj;jpw;Fr; nrd;W mtjhdpj;jgpd; mjd; ed;ik jPikfis gw;wp fye;Jiuahly;.

,f;Nfhg;Gfis guhkupg;gjw;F Fwpg;gpl;lsT ,ltrjp Njit.

jftnyhd;iwg; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F gy Nfhg;Gfis jpwf;f Ntz;bNaw;gLtJld; Neu tpuaKk; Vw;gLfpd;wJ.

,r;nray;Kiwia fzpdp gad;ghl;bd; %yk; nraw;wpwDs;sjhfTk; ,yFthfTk; nra;af;$bajhfTs;sJ.

fw;wYf;fhd cj;Njr MNyhridfs;;

tFg;gpYs;s khztu;fis %d;W FOf;fshfg; gpupj;J xt;nthU FOtpw;Fk; gpd;tUk; tpdhf;fis gfpu;e;jspf;fTk;.

juTj;js Kiwik vdg;gLtJ ahJ? mjd;$Wfs; vit?

njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;js Kiwik vd;gJ ahJ? mjd; $Wfs; vit? njhlu;Gepiyj; juTj;js Kiwiknahd;wpd; xUq;fpizit tpgupf;f. gpd;tUk; nraw;ghLfspy; <Lglr;nra;f.

toq;fg;gl;L;s;s thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuj;ij KOikahfTk; ckJ jiyg;gpw;Fupa gFjpia $ba ftdj;JlDk; thrpj;jwpaTk;.

ckJ jiyg;gpw;Fupa tpNrl jd;ikfis FOtpdUld; fye;JiuahlTk;.

Xt;thU jiyg;gpdJk; nghUs; tpsf;fj;ij tpsq;fpf;nfhs;sTk;.

jiyg;GfSf;fpilNaahd njhlu;Gfis FOtpdUld; fye;JiuahlTk;.

Kd;itg;gpw;F jahu;gLj;Jf. thrpg;Gg;gj;jpuk;

md;whl tho;f;ifj; NjitfSf;F juT Nrkpj;J itf;fg;gLk; re;ju;g;gq;fs; gytw;iwf; fhzyhk;.

cjhuzk;:

1. xUtuJ Njitf;Nfw;g gyuJ njhiyNgrp ,yf;fq;fisAk; KftupfisAk; Nrkpj;jy;.

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32

2. ghlrhiynahd;wpy; khztu;fs; Mrpupau;fs; Ntiyahl;fs; Nghd;Nwhupd; jfty;fis Nrfupj;J itj;jy;.

,t;thW fhzg;gLk; juT gy;NtW NjitfSf;fhf gy;NtW re;ju;g;gq;fspy; gad;gLj;jg;gLtijf; fhzyhk;. ifKiwapy; Nkw;nfhs;sg;gl;l juTj;jsj;ij> jw;fhyj;jpy; fzpdp gad;gLj;jypd; %yk; kpfTk; nraw;wpwDlDk;> rupahfTk; nra;J nfhs;sf;$bajhfTs;sJ.

juTk; jftYk;

juT> jfty; vd;gd VNjDk; nray;KiwfSf;F Vw;gNt NtWgLfpd;wd. jftnyhd;iw cUthf;Ftjw;F juT ahNjDk; nray;KiwfSf;F cl;gLj;jg;glNtz;Lk;. ,r;nray;KiwfSf;F cl;gLj;jg;gLk; tplq;fs; juT vdg;gLk;. ,r;nray;Kiwapd; gpujpgydhf ntspaplg;gLgit jfty; vdg;gLk;. xU re;ju;g;gj;jpy; jftyhf ,Uf;Fk; tplankhd;W NtnwhU nray;Kiwf;F juthfTk; cl;nrYj;jyhk;.

fPOs;s cjhuzj;jpd; %yk; ,jid kpf ,yFthf tpq;fpf;nfhs;syhk;

epkyd;> 25> 54> 78 vd fhl;lg;gLkhapd;; ,jpypUe;J ve;jnthU njspthd tpsf;fj;jpidAk; ngwKbahJ. ,jid juT vdyhk;.

khztu; ngau; - epkyd; - jkpo; 25> fzpjk; 54> tpQ;Qhk; 78 vd fhl;lg;gbd; njspthd tpsf;fj;ijg; ngwKbAk;. ,J xU nraw;ghl;bw;F cl;gLj;jg;gl;L xOq;fikf;fg;gLk; NghJ njspthd fUj;ijg; ngwg;gLfpd;wJ.

Nkw;Fwpg;gpl;l ghlg;Gs;spfspd; ruhrupiag; ngw;Wf;nfhs;Sk; NghJ Nkw;Fwpgplg;gl;lit juthf vLf;fg;gl;L nraw;ghl;bd;;; tpisthff; fpilf;Fk; ngWNgwhJ> epkyd; Nkw;$wpa ghlq;fspy; ngw;w ruhrup vdf;fhl;lKbAk;. MfNt juT> jfty; vd;gtw;wpw;F nraw;ghl;bw;F mikthfNt tpsf;fkspf;f Ntz;Lk;.

fzpdpapy; ,Uf;Fk; juTj;jsk; xd;wpy; cs;s juit mZFtjw;F gy;NtW cghaq;fs; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wd. ,jpy; xd;W Rl;b (Index) ,LtjhFk;.

Rl;b (Index)

fzpdpkakhf;fg;gl;l juTj;jsk; xd;wpy; ,Uf;Fk; juit nraw;wpwDld; ngw;Wf;nfhs;tjw;F Rl;b gad;gLj;jg;gLtJ kpfTk; rpwe;j Kiwnahd;whFk;. ,q;F juTj; jsq;fis tupir xOq;fpy; cUthf;fg;gLk; Njit Vw;glhJ. Rl;baplypdhy; juTj;jsj;jpd; xt;nthU gjpitAk; ,dq;fz;L> mjw;Fupa juTr;Rl;bAld; njhlu;Ggl;L tpiuthf juit mZff;$ba tha;g;Gf; fpilf;fpd;wJ. ,jd; NghJ juTj;jsj;jpd; gpujpnahd;W Ngzg;gLtJld; Nkyjpfkhf rpwpa ,lf;nfhs;ssT Rl;bf;fhfg; gad;gLj;jg;gLfpd;wJ.

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