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GRAMMATICAL DEVIATION AND ITS PHONOLOGICAL

EFFECTS

IN BEBE REXHA’S SONG

LYRICS

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

VATMA ANGGRAINI PUTRI Student Number: 154214128

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS

UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA

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GRAMMATICAL DEVIATION AND ITS PHONOLOGICAL

EFFECTS IN BEBE REXHA’S SONG

LYRICS

TITLE PAGE

AN UNDERGRADUATE THESIS

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Sarjana Sastra

in English Letters

By

VATMA ANGGRAINI PUTRI Student Number: 154214128

DEPARTMENT OF ENGLISH LETTERS FACULTY OF LETTERS

UNIVERSITAS SANATA DHARMA YOGYAKARTA

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vii

SO VERILY, WITH THE HARDSHIP THERE IS RELIEF

WITH THE HARDSHIP THERE IS RELIEF

QS. 94:5-6

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This thesis is dedicated to

my parents,

Yutrianti and Suratman

and also my sister,

Berlian Rahmada Romadhona

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all I would like to send my deepest gratitude to my Allah SWT,

who always gives me His blessing and love as well as gives me everything I need

in my life especially during the process of writing this thesis. I thank Him, for He

has sent me a lot of good people that make my life full of happiness. I could never

ask for more.

I would like to give my sincere thanks to my beloved thesis advisor

Arina Isti’anah, S.Pd., M.Hum., who guided me to write my thesis. I thank her

for the help given to me so I could pass through all the hard days full of

confusions in writing my thesis. I thank my co-advisor Fransisca Kristanti

S.Pd., M.Hum. who gave me her best to help me finishing my thesis. I also thank

my academic advisors F.X. Risang Baskara, S.S., M.Hum. and Dr. Bernadine Ria

Lestari, M.Sc., for the help and support given to me in these 8 semesters.

I would like to thank my parents and my little sister who always give me

their endless love and support. I thank my college best friends Putri, Widi, Mitha,

Ayu and Mbak Uuz, The Micins in Blue Group. Without them, I would probably

die in the first semester. I also thank my other best friends in Zimbabwe, Mantap

Anjeng, Geng Rempong and BBS groups for the huge support in finishing my thesis. Finally, I want to thank all of my friends in English Letters Department

batch 2015 and my other friends I cannot mention here for their support and help.

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LEMBAR PERNYATAAN PERSETUJUAN PUBLIKASI KARYA ILMIAH .. vi

MOTTO PAGE ... vii

CHAPTER II:REVIEW OF LITERATURE... 6

A. Review of Related Studies ...6

B. Review of Related Theories ... 10

1. Stylistics... 10

2. Deviation ... 11

3. Grammatical Deviation ... 13

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2. Data Analysis ... 26

CHAPTER IV:ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS ... 27

A. Types of Grammatical Deviation Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics ... 27

1. Omission ... 29

2. Deviation of Verb ... 37

3. Double Negation ... 39

4. Deviation of Noun ... 41

5. Deviation of Article ... 41

7. Overgeneralization ... 43

B. Phonological Effects of Rhyme and Meter as the Result of Grammatical Deviation in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics ... 43

1. Rhyme... 44

2. Meter ... 48

CHAPTER V:CONCLUSION ... 51

REFERENCES ... 54

APPENDICES ... 56

Appendix 1 ... 56

Appendix 2 ... 60

Appendix 3 ... 63

Appendix 4 ... 65

Appendix 5 ... 67

Appendix 6 ... 68

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 1. The Summary of Grammatical Deviations

Occur in Bebe Rexha’s songs...28

Table 2. Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs ……... 30

Table 3. Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha’s Songs ……... 33

Table 4. Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs...……... 34

Table 5. Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs..………...38

Table 6. Double Negation in Bebe Rexha’s Songs..………... 40

Table 7. Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “I’m a Mess”....………... 45

Table 8. Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s “The Way I Are”....………... 46

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xiii ABSTRACT

Putri, Vatma Anggraini. (2018). Grammatical Deviation and Its Phonological Effects Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: Department of English Letters, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Language is a tool that helps people to express feeling, idea, and information. In using a language, people have their own way to deliver the information to other people. In other words, everyone has his or her own style in using a language, whether in written or in spoken language. Besides, people use language for entertainment purposes as well, for example in literary works. One of the literary works is poem. In writing song lyrics, a song writer also has his or her own style. It is common for the song writers to deviate the rules of a language such as grammar. This also occurs in the songs of Bebe Rexha, an American singer and song writer. Bebe Rexha makes grammatical deviation in her songs in order to make certain phonological effects. As the result, the songs become more beautiful and appealing.

This study focuses on the grammatical deviation in five songs of Bebe Rexha. Those songs are “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are” and “I’m a Mess”. The aim of this study is to find (1) the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs and (2) the phonological effects as the result of the grammatical deviation occuring in the songs.

The approach used to analyze the data of the study is stylistics. Stylistics is one of the linguistic branches that studies about the style in a language and the description of the purpose and the effects as the result. This makes stylistics become the appropriate approach in analyzing the data. In addition, the data is taken by using the purposive sampling strategy.

Based on the analysis conducted by the researcher, there is only one type of grammatical deviation which is syntactical deviation. There are seven grammatical deviation processes in five songs of Bebe Rexha. Those are omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. There are two phonological effects from the grammatical deviations, those are rhyme and meter. In rhyme, the grammatical deviation was applied in order to make the last syllable in a line rhymes with the previous or the next line. In meter, the grammatical deviation was applied to make the right metrical pattern in the song. To conclude, there is only syntactical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs after analyzing the songs using stylistics approach. The deviation create the phonological effects which are rhyme and meter.

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xiv ABSTRAK

Putri, Vatma Anggraini. (2018). Grammatical Deviation and Its Phonological Effects In Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics. Yogyakarta: Program Studi Sastra Inggris, Fakultas Sastra, Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Bahasa adalah alat yang membantu manusia dalam mengekspresikan perasaan, pemikiran, dan informasi. Dalam menggunakan bahasa, manusia memiliki cara mereka sendiri untuk menyampaikan informasi kepada orang lain untuk berkomunikasi. Dengan kata lain, setiap orang memiliki gaya mereka sendiri dalam menggunakan bahasa, baik tertulis maupun lisan. Selain itu, manusia juga menggunakan bahasa di dalam dunia hiburan seperti dalam karya-karya sastra. Salah satu karya-karya sastra adalah puisi. Dalam menulis lagu, seorang pencipta lagu juga memiliki gaya tersendiri. Dalam membuat lagu, seorang pencipta lagu terkadang melakukan penyimpangan di tata bahasa dan ini adalah sesuatu yang biasa terjadi. Hal ini juga terjadi dalam lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha, seorang penyanyi dan pencipta lagu dari Amerika. Bebe Rexha membuat penyimpangan dalam tata bahasa di dalam lagunya untuk menghasilkan efek-efek fonologi tertentu. Hasilnya adalah lagu-lagunya menjadi lebih indah dan menarik.

Penelitian ini terfokus pada penyimpangan tata bahasa dalam lima lagu Bebe Rexha yang berjudul “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are” and “I’m a Mess”. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk menemukan (1) tipe-tipe penyimpangan tata bahasa di lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha dan (2) efek-efek fonologi sebagai hasil dari penyimpangan tata bahasa tersebut.

Pendekatan stilistika adalah pendekatan yang digunakan untuk menganalisis data di penelitian ini. Stilistika adalah salah satu cabang ilmu linguistik yang mengkaji gaya dalam sebuah bahasa dan menjabarkan mengenai tujuan dan efek yang ditimbulkan. Hal ini membuat stilistika menjadi pendekatan yang tepat dalam menganalisis data. Selain itu, data tersebut diambil menggunakan teknik sampel bertujuan.

Berdasarkan analisis, hanya ada satu tipe penyimpangan tata bahasa di lima lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha yaitu penyimpangan sintaksis. Terdapat 7 proses penyimpangan tata bahasa yang ditemukan yaitu omission, deviation of verb, double negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and overgeneralization. Selain itu ada dua efek fonologi dari penyimpangan tata bahasa tersebut: rima dan meter. Penyimpangan tata bahasa diterapkan di dalam lagu untuk membuat suku kata terakhir di sebuah baris berima sama dengan baris sebelum atau setelahnya dan untuk membuat pola meter yang sama. Kesimpulan yang dapat diambil yaitu hanya ada penyimpangan sintaks di dalam lagu-lagu Bebe Rexha setelah dianalisis menggunakan pendekatan stilistika. Penyimpangan-penyimpangan tersebut membuat efek-efek dalam fonologi yaitu rima dan meter.

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1 CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Study

Language is a tool that people use to communicate with others. Language

helps people to transfer the idea in their mind into words. They can produce the

words through the organ of speech in order to deliver the idea to the people they

are talking to. By knowing a language, someone can speak and he or she is able to

be understood by others who know that language (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams,

2011, p. 4). This means that a language makes people connected from one another

and becomes a tool to maintain their relationship.

Language is also a science that is studied by the scientists. The study of

language is called linguistics. Linguistics is defined as the scientific study of

language and its structures rather than the learning of individual languages (Barry,

2009, p. 196). In linguistics there are some components that are observed by the

linguists such as phonology, morphology, syntax, and semantics. Those

components are treated in different ways by the linguists even though they are

actually connected.

In linguistics, the style also becomes the important thing to study. “Style

is the way in which a language is used in a given context by a given person for a

given purpose” (Leech & Short, 1994, p. 10). Style is used in the spoken and

written language. In written language, style is applied in non-literary works and

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literary text” (Leech & Short, 1994, p. 11). The branch of linguistics that

discusses the style in a language is called stylistics.

Stylistics is defined as the study of style (Leech & Short, 2007, p. 11).

“Stylistics is a critical approach which uses the methods and findings of the

science of linguistics in the analysis of literary text” (Barry, 2009, p. 196). The

literary text can be a novel, a prose, a short story, or a poetry. There are rhyme and

meter which commonly applied in a poetry. This is supported by Obermeier et al (2013) that “metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry” (p.

1). A song lyrics is also possible to be analyzed using the theory of stylistics

because the lyric and poetry have the same characteristic such as rhyme

(Vosahlik, 2016, p. 13). Besides the rhyme, the meter is also one of the

characteristics that a lyric and a poetry have. Both rhyme and meter are commonly

applied in a poetry and also in a lyric. This indicates that a lyric and a poetry can

be treated the same way in the analysis of stylistics.

In some song lyrics, the song writer makes the lyrics without following

the rules of the language. In other words, the writer of the song violates the

grammar of a language that is used in writing the song. The grammatical error that

the song writers make is called grammatical deviation. Grammatical deviation is

“when a sentence or sentences break the rules of grammar” (Budiharto, 2018, p.

86).

The song writer does not make the grammatical errors without purposes.

The song writer usually violates the language rules in order to make the song

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sung by Jason DeRulo featuring Nicky Minaj and Ty Dolla $ign. There are lines

in the lyric which are He copping that Valentino ain’t telling me no and the next

line is I’m that bitch and he know. In the second line it should be I’m that bitch

and he knows since the third singular is always followed by verb with suffix {–s}.

However, the songwriter chose to use the word know in order to make the same rhyme with the previous line which ends with the word no. This makes the lines rhyme each other and make the song more appealing.

In this study, Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics are analyzed since there are some

predicted deviations in the lyrics. Stylistics becomes the approach that is used in

order to answer the problem formulation in this study. Besides, the phonological

effects from the grammatical deviation are discussed as well. The phonological

effects are related to the rhyme and meter.

Bebe Rexha is an American singer who is also a songwriter. Her music

genre is mostly pop and RnB. Rexha does not write songs for herself. She writes

some songs which are sung by other musicians such as Selena Gomez, Eminem,

Iggy Azalea and other singers. However, in this study the researcher chooses five

songs of Bebe Rexha, “I Got You”, “Meant to be”, “Me, Myself and I”, “The Way

I Are”, and “I’m a Mess”. This is because the songs are listed in Hot 100 songs in

the Billboard’s chart history according to www.billboard.com. This means her

songs are listened by many people. Besides, as it is stated in

www.aceshowbiz.com, an online magazine, she got 17 nominations and 5 awards

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B. Problem Formulation

This study discusses some problems in order to analyze the grammatical

deviation in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics. The problems are:

1. What types of grammatical deviation are found in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics?

2. How does the grammatical deviation create phonological effects of rhyme and

meter in the song lyrics?

C. Objectives of the Study

There are two objectives of the study that are going to be analyzed based

on the problem formulation above. The first objective is to find out the types of

grammatical deviations that are found in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics. The second

objective is to describe the phonological effects of rhyme and meter that occur in

several lines in Bebe Rexha’s song lyrics influenced by the grammatical

deviation. The phonological effects of rhyme and meter are explained more in this

study. The lines that are not deviated grammatically are not discussed in this

study.

D. Definition of Term

There are some terms that will be repeated several times. Those terms

will be used by the researcher in the analysis to provide answers to the problem.

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Grammar is something important to know if someone wants to be able

to speak in a language. Grammar is defined as “the knowledge that the speakers

have about the units and rules of their language” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams,

2011, p. 13). The example is the rules that make the sounds are combined and

becomes words, the words are combined and becomes phrases then sentences.

Grammatical means that “a sentence conforms to the rules of mental

grammar” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 13). Meanwhile, grammatical

deviation means that a sentence is not following the rules and violates the

grammar of a language that is used.

Phonology is the study of how speech sounds form pattern (Fromkin,

Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 227). In phonology, it discusses the sounds in a

language which differ from one to another language. Phonological effects mean

the results of the phonological phenomena in sentences or in texts. In this study,

the phonological effects are found due to the grammatical deviation in the Bebe

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6 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF LITERATURE

This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part reviews related

studies. In this part the researcher discusses similar studies that other researchers

have done. The second is review of related theories. In this part, the theories that

are going to be used to discuss the study are presented. The third is theoretical

framework. In the last part, the researcher explains how the theories and the

reviews are used to solve the problems in this study.

A. Review of Related Studies

The first similar study is “Grammatical Errors and Their Effects in Rich

Brian’s Songs” written by Petra (2018). The object of the study focuses on the

song lyrics by Rich Brian. He chooses three songs that are written by Rich Brian,

those are “Dat $tick”, “Glow Like That”, and “Who That Be”.

The aims of the study are to find the grammatical deviations in Rich

Brian’s songs and to find the effects of the grammatical deviations in the songs. In

his study, Petra (2018) analyzes the sentences, phrases, and words in Rich Brian’s

“Dat $tick”, “Glow Like That”, and “Who That Be” using the stylistics approach

on the grammatical and phonological level. In his study, Petra (2018) finds out

several grammatical errors which include the omission, double negative, error of

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the grammatical errors in the songs are rhyme and meter in order to make some

desired effects towards the listener of the songs.

The difference between Petra’s (2018) study and this current study is that

the object of the study. Even though both studies use songs lyrics, the singers are

not the same. However, the approach is similar. This study will also use stylistics

as the approach to analyze the problems.

The second similar topic is Asmara’s (2018) study entitled Phonological

Features in Robert Frost’s “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” Poems. In his study, he discusses the phonological features that are found in Robert Frost’s

poems. Those two poems are Frost’s works that are obtained in the New Hampshire.

The purpose of the study in Asmara’s (2018) study is to discover the

phonological features in the poems that are used by Robert Frost in writing those

poems. Another purpose is to discover the style that is used by Robert frost in

making “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems. In his study, the

researcher analyzes every line in the “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay”

poems using the stylistics approach. The phonological level of stylistics is the

main approach in his study.

In his study, the researcher finds the types of rhyme, the end rhyme

pattern, meter, and repetition of sound which the poet used in both “Fire and Ice”

and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems. Another finding is the style that Robert Frost

used in writing the poems. He states that Robert Frost has a style called

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There are similarities and differences in this study and Asmara’s (2018)

study. The difference lies on the object of the study. In Asmara’s (2018) study, he

chooses “Fire and Ice” and “Nothing Gold Stay” poems written by Robert Frost as

the object while in this study the researcher chooses songs by Bebe Rexha.

However, the approach that is used by Asmara (2018) and the researcher of this

study is the same. Both researchers choose stylistic approach.

The third study is “Grammatical Deviation in President Jokowi’s Speech

to the APEC CEO Summit” written by Budiharto (2018). In his study, the

researcher analyzes the speech of President Jokowi. The aim of the study is to find

out the types of grammatical deviation in the speech. Another aim of this study is

to find out the extent of the grammatical deviation in President Jokowi’s speech

related to the the speaker’s social status.

In order to solve the problems, Budiharto (2018) uses the analytical

descriptive method. President Jokowi’s speech in the APEC CEO Summit was

observed and analyzed in order to find its grammatical deviation on the basis of

the framework which uses the theory by Leech. Furthermore, he also identified

the social status of the speaker by using Trudgill’s theory

In Budiharto’s (2018) study, the researcher finds that there are two types

of grammatical deviation in the speech. The first one is morphological deviation.

This means that there are addition and reduction of morphemes incorrectly from a

word (Budiharto, 2018, p.93). The second one is syntactic deviation which means

it is about the pattern of the grammar arranged incorrectly. Another finding in the

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Jokowi. In his study, Budiharto (2018) states that the grammatical deviation is not

only done by an uneducated person, but it can happen to educated people as well

(Budiharto, 2018, p.95). According to Budiharto (2018), this againsts the theory

of Trudgill about the Standard English that is used by honorable and educated

people while they who do not speak in Standard English are considered as ‘poor’

and not educated. However, the theory of Trudgill is irrelevant in this case since

Trudgill’s theory is about the native speaker of a language which is English. Thus,

it makes Budiharto’s (2018) finding in this part becomes his weakness in his

study.

The study that is done by Budiharto (2018) has several differences

compared to this study. Budiharto’s (2018) study chooses the speech of President

Jokowi in OPEC CEO Summit as his object of the study, while in this study the

researcher uses Bebe Rexha’s song as mentioned before. Even though the

approach that is used in both studies is stylistic approach, Budiharto (2018) uses

analytical descriptive method including the theories from Leech about

grammatical deviation and Trudgill about the Standard English. Meanwhile, in

this current study the researcher uses stylistic approach that will lead to the

phonological matters in order to solve the problems. However, Budiharto’s (2018)

study and this study discuss the same topic which is grammatical deviation.

The fourth study is “A Stylistic Analysis of The Rime of the Ancient Mariner” written by Shaukat Khan et al (2016). The object of the study is the poem written by Samuel Taylor Coleridge entitled “The Rime of the Ancient

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the elements of the poem, bring out the interpretive potential of the semantically

deviant units in the poem, point out the typographical deviations in the encoding

of the poem’s unique message (Khan et al, 2016, 43). In his study, Khan et al

(2016) uses the approach of stylistics to analyze the poem.

The first result of Khan et al’s study is the typographical deviation that is

found has marked the climax of the poem. Besides, the interpretive value in

deviant parts of the poem can be concluded that it is quite high. The study of

Khan et al (2016) and this study are similar due to the approach that is used. Khan

et al (2016) and the researcher of this study uses the stylistics approach. The difference lies on the object of the study. Khan et al (2016) uses poem while this

study uses songs. The aim of the study is also different since this study leads to

the phonological effects that exist in the song while the study by Khan et al (2016) leads to semantic matters.

B. Review of Related Theories

In this part the researcher discusses the theories that are used in order to

analyze the object of this study. The theories that are discussed in the following

discussion are only the theories that are close to the problems of this study. The

theories are stylistics, deviation, phonology, and also song.

1. Stylistics

“Stylistics is defined as the analysis of distinctive expression in language

and the description of its purpose and effect” (Verdonk, 2002, p. 4). It means the

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writer or a speaker with other writers or speakers. This is because everyone has

his or her own preference in using or choosing words.

Stylistics can be used to analyze a written and spoken language. Stylistics

can be used to analyze a non-literary and literary text. In literary work, “it is used

to show how the technical linguistic features of the literary work contribute to the

meaning and effects” (Barry, 2009, p. 196). One of the examples of the technical

linguistic feature is grammatical structure. A writer has his or her preference in

choosing dictions for sentences used in his or her literary work. This makes every

writer has his or her own style.

In stylistics, there are several levels of stylistic analysis which are

semantic level, syntactic level, graphological level, and phonological level (Leech

& Short, 2007, pp. 101-105). Among four levels of stylistic analysis, the

researcher only uses two levels: syntactic level and phonological level. The

syntactic level discusses about grammar or the grammatical structure in a text. In

this study it is used to analyze the lyric of Bebe Rexha’s songs. Besides, the

phonological level is also used in this study. This is because phonology deals with

meter and rhyme that are also needed to discuss the object of this study.

2. Deviation

A linguistic deviation is “a disruption of the normal processes of

communication: it leaves a gap, as it were, in one’s comprehension of the text”

(Leech, 1969, p. 61). This means the language that is used by a writer or a speaker

is being violated. The writer or the speaker does not follow the rules of the

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Shamisa states that “there is almost no literary work that does not involve

a sort of deviation from ordinary language” (Shamisa as cited in Pirnajmuddin and

Medhat, 2011, p. 1329). In other words, deviation is something common in

literary works including in a poem. The deviation in the literary work such as

poem differentiates the daily language that people use and the language that a poet

uses in a poem. In poem, it needs a strong word to deliver the ideas of the writer

and the daily language is assumed to be ineffective. Therefore, according to

Shamisa, the deviation in a poem is seen as something that cannot be neglected

since the importance and the influence of a literary work depends on it (Shamisa

in Pirnajmuddin and Medhat, 2011, p.1329).

According to Budiharto (2018), Leech asserts deviations with the concept

of foregrounding (2018, p. 88). Leech (1969) states that linguistic deviation is the

foregrounded figure in a literary work and the language of the literary work

considered as the background (1969, p.57). In other words, deviation in linguistics

is related to the word foregrounding. Foregrounding is the psychological effect

that rises within the literary readers (Verdonk, 2002, p.6). It means the

foregrounding refers to the aesthetic effects that appear in literary works affected

by the deviation.

Leech (1969) also mentions eight types of deviation. Those deviations

are grammatical, lexical, phonological, graphological, semantic, dialectical,

register, and historical period deviation (Leech, 1969, pp. 42-52). In this study, the

grammatical deviation is discussed further in order to analyze the object in this

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3. Grammatical Deviation

“When a sentence is ungrammatical or breaking the rules of grammar,

the sentence is deviated” (Budiharto, 2018, p. 86). In other words, grammatical

deviation is the term for a sentence that is grammatically incorrect or breaking the

grammar rules of a language. The example is the deviations that occur in African

American Vernacular English (AAVE). In AAVE, one of the distinctive

grammatical features is the omission of verb be in a sentence. For example is in

the sentence the soup hot. The sentence is not conforming the grammatical rules.

The sentence is supposed to be the soup is hot.

In grammatical deviation, there are two different features or types. Those

features are syntax and morphology (Leech, 1969, p. 44). In syntax, it deals with

the word pattern in sentences. In morphology, it deals with the grammar of the

word. These types of grammatical deviation are the important things that the

researcher tries to find. This is because the first problem in this study is to find the

types of grammatical deviation in the Bebe Rexha’s songs.

a. Syntax

“Syntax is part of grammar that represents a speaker’s knowledge of

sentences and their structures” (Fromkin, Rodman, & Hyams, 2011, p. 118). This

means that when someone speaks in a particular language, he or she already

knows the structure of the language in his or her head. The speaker knows how to

combine some words into sentences. This is called the rules of syntax which

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The rules of syntax depend on the language. A different language will

have different rules as well. In English, it is SVO language or

Subject-Verb-Object language. For example is the word Sally baked a cake. In that sentence,

Sally is the subject, baked is the verb and cake is the object.

In grammatical deviation, syntax deals with the errors of grammar in a

sentence that makes it incorrect in its structure. Besides, it also deals with

syntactic rearrangement or hyperbaton (Leech, 1969, p. 45). “Hyperbaton is the

freedom poets have enjoyed by custom so that he or she can make the arranging

syntactic elements in irregular order” (Leech, 1969, p. 18). This creates a

possibility for a poet to violate the grammatical rules such as putting a verb after

the direct object. Leech (1969) also gives the example in the words he me saw that

is supposed to be he saw me (1969, p. 45).

There are some errors in English grammar that people make. For a poet it

is common for them to make errors in order to create their literary works more

aesthetic. Those errors in English grammar will be discussed in following

discussion.

i. Double Negation

According to Blanchette (2015), double negation is “a sentence with

multiple negative elements corresponding to a single semantic negation or it is

also called negative concord” (p. 2). In other words, double negation occurs when

two negative expressions are in the same sentence. For example is in the sentence

I didn’t eat no food this morning. In that sentence there are two negatives

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According to Crystal (2008) double negation in a single sentence is not

acceptable in Standard English (p.324). The reason is that the listener or the

reader may confuse with the meaning. For example is in the sentence I don’t eat

nothing and the speaker actually means that he or she has not eat anything. However, the sentence means he or she eats something. This is because of the two

negative expressions in the sentence.

ii. Omission

Ellipsis or omission is “a term in grammatical analysis which means an

omission of a part of structure in a sentence” (Crystal, 2008, p. 166). It means that

a sentence with ellipsis is not a complete sentence. The example is in the sentence

Been there before as the answer of Have you ever visited that city?. The full answer or sentence is actually I have been there before. However, the subject I and the auxiliary verb have is omitted.

There are several types of omission since there are several parts in a

sentence. There are omission of subject, omission of article, omission of modal

auxiliary, omission of linking verb, omission of preposition and omission of

object. For example, in a sentence the subject is omitted then it is called the

omission of subject.

iii. Overgeneralization

“Overgeneralization refers to the process whereby children extend their

use of grammatical feature to context beyond those found in the adult language”

(Crystal, 2008, p. 345). Meaning to say that overgeneralization is commonly done

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words in correct form as it is supposed to be. However, it is not only children who

acquire a language. Some adults in this world also try to acquire a foreign

language and they also tend to make a mistake which is overgeneralization. This

is stated by Matiini (2016) that overgeneralization is the learners’ own way to

make rules of the second language because of the influence of the first language

(Matiini, 2016, hal. 145). The example is when someone who learns English say

‘mouses’ instead of ‘mice’. This is because commonly the plural noun in English

is added a suffix which is {–s} or {–es}.

iv. Deviation of Verb

“Verb is a term used in the grammatical classification of words to refer to

a class traditionally defined as ‘doing’ or ‘action word” (Crystal, 2008, p. 510).

From the definition, it means that verb is used in a sentence to describe what the

subject does. Besides, the deviation of verb means that the verb is used

incorrectly. For example is in the sentence He doin’ it. The sentence is supposed

to be He does it since the subject of the sentence is the third singular person.

v. Deviation of Preposition

“Preposition is a term in grammatical classification of words that refers

to a set of items which typically precedes noun phrases to form a single

constituent of structure” (Crystal, 2008, p. 383). In other words, preposition is

used to connect between two nouns. The example of preposition is in, for, of, on, and so on. The example of deviation of preposition can be seen in the sentence we

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vi. Deviation of Pronoun

“Pronoun is the lexical category functions as noun phrase in isolation”

(Trask, 1996, pp. 221-222). This means that pronoun can stand without any

article. Moreover, pronoun can be a subject and also object in a sentence. The

example of pronoun is they, we, I, you, she, he, me, my, mine, and so on. Those pronouns sometimes appear in incorrect way which is called deviation of pronoun.

The example is in the words this is me phone. In that sentence, the pronoun me is

supposed to be my since the sentence needs a possessive pronoun to show the owner of the object.

vii. Deviation of Article

“Article is a determiner which lacks independent meaning but serves to

indicate the degree of specificity of noun phrase” (Trask, 1996, p. 21). In other

words, an article is meaningless if it stands alone. In English, there are two kinds

of article, which are definite article and indefinite article. The example of definite

article is the and the example of indefinite article is a or an. The example of deviation of article is in the words they hid in a isolation place. In that sentence, the correct article is an since the following word is begun with vowel.

viii. Deviation of Noun

“Noun is defined as one of the lexical categories that denote individual

physical entities” (Trask, 1996, p. 188). Commonly, noun is associated with the

notion of ‘name’ and ‘thing’ (Crystal, 2008, p. 333). It means, the noun can be the

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The deviation of noun sometimes occurs in a sentence. The example of

deviation of noun is in the sentence he eats some candy. The noun candy in the sentence is incorrect. It is supposed to be candies because the number of the candy is more than one and it can be seen from the determiner some.

b. Morphology

“Morphology is the branch of grammar which studies the structure or

forms of words” (Crystal, 2008, p. 314). This means morphology discusses

word-formation or the process to make new words. For example is the inword-formation of

how a word can be formed by adding affixes which is called affixation. When the

word happy is added by the prefix {-un} then it becomes unhappy. The word that

is changed also changes the meaning from happy which means a good feeling into

unhappy which means unpleasant feeling.

4. Phonology

“Phonology is a branch of linguistics that studies the sound system of

languages” (Crystal, 2008, p. 365). In phonology, the speech sounds are being

studied. By studying phonology, someone can differentiate which sounds that

have meaning and which sounds that are meaningless in a language. For example

is the word blcak is meaningless in English. However, the word black has a meaning in English which is the name of color. Besides that, phonology also deals

with rhyme and also meter that is explained in following discussion.

In phonology, it also studies the poetic devices which are used to analyze

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assonance, and alliteration. However, this study will only discussed the effects in

rhyme and meter.

a. Rhyme

Rhyme, as stated by Madden (2002), is the sounds that come at the final

lines when the final vowel and consonant sounds in a word at the end of one line

match the vowel and consonant sounds at the end of another (2002, p. 70). This

means that rhyme focuses on the nucleus and the coda in the last word of a line

which similar to the last word in the previous or in the next line. “This will make

the mind of the listener starts to recognize the patterns and to anticipate what will

follow” (Bradley, 2009, p. 50).

There are three kinds of rhyme. First is monosyllabic rhyme. The

example of it is the words rat and cat. Second is disyllabic just like in the words

jelly and belly. Third is multisyllabic in the words achromatic and acrobatic. Besides, “rhyme comes in numerous varieties and each has a distinct function in

sound and sense” (Bradley, 2009, p. 57). First is perfect rhyme or full rhyme

which words have the same vowel and also the consonants that are identical. The

examples for the perfect rhyme are the words tall and call. Second is slant rhyme

or imperfect rhyme which involves shared final-consonant sounds but different

vowel sounds (Bradley, 2009, p. 57). The example is the word all and bowl.

b. Meter

Meter refers to “the measurable repetition of accented and unaccented

syllables in poetry” (Arp & Johnson, 2009, hal. 1664). Madden (2002) defines

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71). This stressed and unstressed pattern are something important to observe in

the poetry. Besides, this element is also used to observe other literary work. In this

case, song is also included.

According to Madden (2002) the group of syllables making up one

metrical unit is called foot (p. 71). There are four types of metrical feet: iambic,

trochaic, anapestic and dactylic. Those metrical feet are usually applied by poets

in writing poems. Furthermore, the number of feet in each line is described as

monometer, dimeter, trimeter, tetrameter, pentameter, hexameter, heptameter and

octameter.

i. Iambic

In this iambic foot, it begins with unstressed syllable. The unstressed

syllable is marked with ( ˇ ). Then it is continued by the stressed syllable. The

stressed syllable is marked with ( / ). The example is:

ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ /

1) Shall I | compare | thee to | a sum | mer’s day

ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ /

2) Thou art | more love | ly and | more tem | perate

From the example above it can be seen that those lines are begun with

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ii. Trochaic

In this foot there are two syllables as well. Those are stressed syllable

and unstressed syllable. In this foot, the stressed syllable is followed by the

unstressed syllable. The example is:

/ ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ

1) Deep in | heart-wrung | tears I’ll | ledge thee

/ ˇ / ˇ / ˇ / ˇ

2) Warring | sighs and | groans I’ll | wage thee

The two lines are begun with stressed syllable deep and war-. They are followed by unstressed syllable in and -ring. This metrical pattern is repeated 4 times. This means there are 4 feet in every line above.

iii. Anapestic

Anapestic is different from iambic and also trochaic. In anapestic, it

contains two unstressed and one stressed syllable. Anapestic begins with two

unstressed syllable then follows the one stressed syllable. The example is:

ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ /

1) The Assyr | ian came down | like the wolf | on the fold

ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ /

2) When the blue | waves rolls nigh | tly on deep | Galilee

It can be seen from the example above that in the first foot in every line

has two unstressed syllable and it is followed by one stressed syllable. This

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iv. Dactylic

Dactylic has the same number of syllables with the anapestic. The

difference is that in dactylic foot, it begins with one stressed syllable and followed

by two unstressed syllables. The example is:

/ ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ

1) Are you still | standing there | east of the | Garden of Eden or

/ ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ / ˇ ˇ

2) Were you re | lieved by the | flood that re | vised our ge | ography

The example above shows that in dactylic each line is begun with a

stressed syllable: are and were. They are followed by 2 unstressed syllables in one

foot: you still and you re-. There are 4 feet in every line since the metrical pattern is repeated 4 times.

5. Song

According to Ammer (2004), song is defined as “any piece of vocal

music” (p. 389) and “lyric is the text of the song” (p. 223). The lyric in a song is

similar to a poetry since both share the same characteristics which one of them is

rhyme. This is supported by Vosahlik (2016) that “common feature for both lyric

and poetry is rhyme” (p. 13).

The writer of lyric and poetry also have their own style in creating the

lyric and poetry related to the rhyme. In other words, lyric and poetry can be

treated the same way in stylistics. In addition, they can be analyzed through the

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Usually, a song lyric is categorized in lyric poetry. Lyric poetry is

“characterized by the expression of the speaker’s innermost feelings, thoughts,

and imagination” (Madden, 2002, p. 76). This makes the contents of songs mostly

are telling a story and expressing the singer’s mind.

C. Theoretical Framework

The approach that is used in this study is stylistic approach and the level

that the researcher chooses in this study is on the syntactical level or grammatical

level. In this syntactical level, the theory helps the researcher to analyze the

structure in the songs. Moreover, the researcher also chooses the stylistic

approach in phonological level. This helps the researcher to find the possible

effects of the song to the listener through the rhyme and the meter of the songs.

The theory of deviation is also important in this study. The theory of

deviation that focuses on the grammatical deviation helps the researcher find the

answer of the first problem in this study which is about the types of the

grammatical deviation. Then, the researcher analyzes the songs and makes a

conclusion about the types of grammatical deviation found in the songs.

Another theory in this study is phonology. The theory of phonology

consists of two main theories which are rhyme and meter. These theories are used

in this study to analyze the pattern of the songs including the stressed and

unstressed syllable in the songs that will relate to the grammar and structure. This

will help the researcher to find the answer of the second problem which is about

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24 CHAPTER III

METHODOLOGY

In this chapter there are three main parts to discuss. The first is the object

of the study. In this part the researcher discusses the data of this study. The second

is approach of the study. In this part, the researcher discusses the approach that is

used to analyze the data that the researcher has collected. The third is the method

of the study. In this part, it shows the way the researcher collected the data and

then analyzed the data.

A. Object of the Study

The object in this study is the song lyrics of Bebe Rexha’s songs. As a

singer and also a songwriter, Bebe Rexha is quite productive in writing and

arranging songs. There are several song lyrics that she wrote and sang herself.

However, in this study the researcher chose five Bebe Rexha’s songs which are

placed in Hot100 in the billboard’s chart history according to www.billboard.com.

Those songs are “I’m a Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and

I” and “I Got You”. The lyrics of the songs are taken from www.azlyrics.com.

The five songs of Bebe Rexha were chosen based on the grammatical

deviation which found as well. One of the example of the grammatical deviation

was clearly found in one of the song titles which is “The Way I Are”. In the title,

the pronoun I was followed by an auxiliary are, however it should be followed by

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B. Approach of the Study

This study applied stylistic approach in analyzing the object which were

the songs of Bebe Rexha. Stylistic approach was conducted in two levels:

grammatical level and phonological level. “Stylistics is defined as the analysis of

distinctive expression in language and the description of its purpose and effect”

(Verdonk, 2002, p. 4). This means that stylistics also discusses the purpose and

the effect of a certain text and in this case the text is from the lyric of Bebe

Rexha’s songs. Since this study analyzed the language style in Bebe Rexha’s

songs and its effects, stylistic approach was suitable for this research.

C. Method of the Study

1. Data Collection

This research applied a sample study as the data collection method. This

means that the researcher only chose some of Bebe Rexha’s songs. In this study,

the researcher chose five songs of Bebe Rexha and those songs were “I’m a

Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and I” and “I Got You”.

Furthermore, in this study the researcher applied the purposive sampling strategy.

This required the researcher to choose what to be sampled and it had to be able to

purposefully inform an understanding of the research problem and central

phenomenon in the study (Creswell, 2007, p. 125). In other words, the sample was

not randomly chosen.

In analyzing the data in this study, the researcher conducted several steps.

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a Mess”, “Meant to be”, “The Way I Are”, “Me Myself and I” and “I Got You”

from the Billboard’s chart history. Second, the researcher found the lyrics in

www.azlyrics.com. Third, the researcher observed the grammatical deviations in

the lyrics. Forth, the researcher analyzed the process that made the grammar in the

lyrics were deviated in order to answer the problem formulations in this study.

2. Data Analysis

In order to answer the two problems, the researcher observed the lyrics of

Bebe Rexha’s songs. First of all, the researcher looked for the grammatical

deviations in the song lyrics. Then, the grammatical deviations were analyzed and

classified into some categories based on the process that occur such as double

negation, ellipsis, deviation of verb and so on. Next, the grammatical deviations in

the lyrics were categorized into two types of grammatical deviation which were

syntax and morphology. This was in order to answer the first problem in this

study which was about the types of grammatical deviation in Bebe Rexha’s songs.

After answering the first problem in this study, the researcher conducted

the next analysis which was phonological analysis towards the lyrics of Bebe

Rexha’s songs. The researcher analyzed the rhyme and meter in the lyrics as the

possible effects of the grammatical deviations that occurred in the lyrics of Bebe

Rexha’s songs. However, the researcher only observed the sentences or lines in

the lyrics that were grammatically deviated. The sentences which were not

grammatically deviated were not discussed in this study. This was conducted in

order to answer the second problem which was the phonological effects caused by

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27 CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

In this chapter, there will be two main parts that will be discussed by the

researcher. The first part discusses about the types of grammatical deviation in

Bebe Rexha’s songs in order to find the answer for the first problem formulation.

The second part discusses about the phonological effects of the grammatical

deviation which are found in the Bebe Rexha’s songs. This part is for answering

the second problem formulation in this study.

A. Types of Grammatical Deviation Found in Bebe Rexha’s Song Lyrics

In this part the researcher analyzes the types of grammatical deviation in

Bebe Rexha’s songs. There are two types of grammatical deviation which are

syntax or syntactical deviation and morphology or morphological deviation

(Leech, 1969, p. 44). However, in the five Bebe Rexha’s songs there is only

syntactical deviation and the researcher does not find the morphological deviation

in the songs.

In syntactical deviation, the deviations in Bebe Rexha’s songs that are

already analyzed by the researcher are categorized into seven grammatical

deviation processes. Those processes are omission, deviation of verb, double

negation, deviation of noun, deviation of article, deviation of preposition and

overgeneralization. In this part, researcher discusses all the grammatical

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The researcher provides the information about the grammatical

deviations processes found in Bebe Rexha’s songs in the table below.

Table 1. The Summary of Grammatical Deviations Occur in Bebe Rexha’s Songs

The table above shows the total deviations found in five songs of Bebe

Rexha which is 50 deviations. The table shows there are seven grammatical

deviation processes as well. The grammatical deviation process of omission

dominates the whole grammatical deviation since it has the highest percentage

which is 78 %. The frequency for the omission is 39. The deviations of verb found

in the songs are 5 and the percentage for it is 10 %. This makes the deviation of

verb lies in the second position after the omission. The third place is in the

deviation that is categorized as double negation. There are two double negations

in the songs and the percentage is 4 %. The rest of the grammatical deviation

processes such as deviation of noun, deviation of article, overgeneralization and

deviation of preposition have the same frequency which is only 1 deviation. The

percentage is also the same: 2 %. Those grammatical deviation processes is

discussed in the following discussion.

No Grammatical Deviation

Process

Frequency Percentage (%)

1. Omission 39 78 %

2. Deviation of Verb 5 10 %

3. Double Negation 2 4 %

4. Deviation of Noun 1 2 %

5. Deviation of Article 1 2 % 6. Deviation of Preposition 1 2 %

7. Overgeneralization 1 2 %

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1. Omission

The omission is one of the grammatical deviation processes that is mostly

found in the five Bebe Rexha’s songs. There are 39 grammatical deviations of

omission found from a total 50 grammatical deviations in those five Bebe Rexha’s

songs. It means that grammatical deviation of omission dominate more than a half

of grammatical deviations found in the songs. The omission in the songs mostly

occurs in the subject of the sentences. This means that most of the sentences in the

song lyrics have no subject in them. The example is in the line Pop a couple xans

with somebody in Bebe Rexha’s song “Meant to be”. In the sentence, the subject is omitted. The correct form of the sentence is I pop a couple xans with somebody.

In five songs of Bebe Rexha, the researcher finds six types of omission.

Those are omission of subject, omission of article, omission of modal auxiliary,

omission of linking verb, omission of object and omission of preposition. The

further explanation of those six types of omission is provided bellow.

a. Omission of Subject

The first type of omission is the omission of subject. All five songs by

Bebe Rexha have the grammatical deviation in omission of subject in them. The

omission of subject in the songs in total is 30 from 39 grammatical deviation of

omission. Those 30 omissions of subject occur in the four songs out of five songs

that are being studied. Those are “Me, Myself and I”, “I Got You”, “The Way I

Are” and “I’m a Mess”. The full display of omission of subject is provided in the

appendix 1. The table below only provides the sample from the five songs of Bebe

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Table 2. Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs

Song Grammatical Deviation Grammatical

“Me, Myself and I” Get what I want when I

See where this thing goes We will see where this things goes

The table shows the grammatical deviations in omission of subject in five

songs of Bebe Rexha. In the song “Me, Myself and I” there are 12 omissions of

subject. In “The Way I Are” there are 9 omissions of subject. In the song “I Got

You” there are 6 omissions of subject. Meanwhile, in “I’m a Mess” there is only

one omission of subject.

The subjects omitted are different in each sentence. This depends on the

context of the song. This also depends on the person or people that the singer is

talking to. For example is in the song “Me, Myself and I”. All the subjects in the

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G-Eazy want to show their expression. They want to show their mind and opinion to

others. It can be seen in the line:

Get what I want when I want Know I’m great

Those sentences show the speaker’s or the singer’s mind about himself or herself.

The correct sentences are:

I get what I want when I want I know I’m great

This is different from the sentence with omission of subject in the song “I

Got You”. One of the sentences in “I Got You” is:

Tell a lie for you

The subject that is needed is I since the song is talking about the singer’s hope towards someone else. In that sentence the speaker or the singer commits to do

something in the future. Therefore, the auxiliary will or would is needed after the subject I. The sentence that precedes the sentence above is I’d do the time for you

or in the full form is I would do the time for you. Thus, the correct sentence for the

deviated sentence above is:

I would tell a lie for you

The auxiliary would is used in order to keep the consistency of the sentences since

in the previous sentence it uses the word would.

Another example is in the song “The Way I Are” in the line:

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In this song, the singer tells others about her and her friends. This means the

subject is first person plural we. This can be seen from the line that after the conjunction ‘cause or because, the subject is we. Therefore, the correct subject for

the line above is we.

We roll it up because we are so ill

The line above is the correct sentence for the deviated sentence in the lyric.

In the song “I’m mess” there is only one sentence that is grammatically

deviated. The deviated sentence in the lyric is:

Have a drink on me cheers to the failing

The correct sentence for the sentence above is:

They have a drink on me cheers to the failing

The subject they is chosen because in this part of the song, the singer is describing people around her which act meanly to her. This means the singer talks

about the third person plural. The third person plural that is needed is they since its role is an active subject that does something. Their and them are not correct for

it does not show the possession of something and it is not an object that is

affected.

b. Omission of Article

Omission of article only occurs in one out of five Bebe Rexha’s songs.

The song is “Me, Myself and I”. The further information is provided in the table

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Table 3. Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha Songs

The table above shows the grammatical deviation which is omission of

article. The four omissions of article are found in Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and

I”. The four sentences are considered deviate the rules in English. This is stated by

Fromkin et al (2011) in one of the sentence examples in their book that in a sentence which lack of article is ungrammatical (2011, p. 63). Meaning to say that

an article cannot be omitted in a sentence. In Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I”

there are four sententences that the articles are omitted.

I just need privacy I just need space I’m folding cake It’s no debate

Those sentences are lack of article which make them grammatically incorrect. The

sentences should be added by an indefinite article since the noun is indefinite.

Besides, the nouns in the four sentences are also firstly mentioned in those

sentences so it needs an indefinite article a or an. The correct forms of the sentences are:

I just need a privacy I just need a space I’m folding a cake It’s not a debate

Song Grammatical Deviation Grammatical

“Me, Myself

and I” And as far as I can see I just need privacy

And as far as I can see I just need a privacy

I just need space I just need a space

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Since all the nouns in the four lines above begin with non-vowel letter then the

indefinite article that is used is a.

c. Omission of Linking Verb

The researcher finds two omissions of linking verb after analyzing the

five songs by Bebe Rexha. The omissions of verb found in Bebe Rexha’s “The

Way I Are” and “Me, Myself and I”. The table below provides the examples about

the omissions of linking verb in two Bebe Rexha’s songs.

Table 4. Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha’s songs

Song Grammatical

Deviation

Grammatical

“The Way I Are” Roll it up ‘cause we

so ill

You roll it up because we are so ill

“Me, Myself and I” A Stella Maxwell

right beside of me

A Stella Maxwell is right beside me

From the table it can be observed the sentences that are grammatically

deviated. For example is in the sentence:

Roll it up ‘cause we so ill

In that sentence there is no verb after the subject we and before the adverb and adjective so and ill. The sentence will be correct when a linking verb is added after the subject since the sentence is followed by adverb so and adjective

ill. This is supported by Fromkin et al (2011) that verb be is needed before the adjective and it acts as an auxiliary (2011, pp. 153-154). Meaning to say that there

must be a verb after a subject and before the adjective or in this case is adjective

that precede by adverb. Therefore, the correct sentence will be:

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The linking verb that is added is are because the subject that precedes it is we which is plural.

d. Omission of Modal Auxiliary

There is only one omission of modal auxiliary in Bebe Rexha song called

“The Way I Are”. The omission of modal auxiliary is found in the line:

I be right behind her spinal

The sentence shows what the speaker is going to do in the future. The sentence

above is grammatically incorrect since there is no modal auxiliary after the subject

I. According to Fromkin et al (2011), “auxiliaries provide the verb with a time frame and one of them is events that occur in the future” (2011, p. 129). This

means that the appropriate modal auxiliary for showing the coming events is will. Therefore, the sentence needs modal auxiliary will after the subject I. The correct form of that sentence will be:

I will be right before her spinal

According to the discussion above, it shows the importance of modal

auxiliary in a sentence. If it is left behind then the sentence is incomplete. This

makes the sentence is grammatically deviated.

e. Omission of Preposition

The researcher analyzes five songs by Bebe Rexha and finds one

omission of preposition in one of the songs. The song is “Me, Myself and I”. The

omission of preposition is in the line:

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In the sentence, the speaker or singer wants to say that he or she pray to

the Lord. However, the sentence is incorrect because the preposition to is omitted.

The correct sentence will be:

I pray to the Lord, my soul to take

This is supported by the rule about the verb phrase containing preposition phrase

by Fromkin et al (2011) that one of the rules for the verb phrase is a verb and followed by a prepositional phrase (2011, p. 132). It is described as:

VP  V PP

For example is in the sentence The man sits on the bench. It explains in the following discussion:

The man sits on the bench

V PP

The verb sit is followed by the prepositional phrase on the bench. Prepositional phrase of course needs a preposition in it so it is called prepositional phrase. In the

example above, the preposition that is used is in.

In the lyric of “Me, Myself and I”, the line Pray the lord, my soul to take

it should be added by preposition so that it can be a prepositional phrase. The

appropriate preposition for the sentence is to since it is in a phrasal verb.

Pray the lord, my soul to take

V N

The rule is VP  V PP so the sentence should be:

I pray to the Lord, my soul to take

V PP

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If the preposition to is omitted then it is not a prepositional phrase. This will break the rule of verb phrase VP  V PP which makes the sentence is

deviated or grammatically incorrect.

f. Omission of Object

Omission of object is found in one of Bebe Rexha’s songs that are being

analyzed in this study. It is in Bebe Rexha’s “Me, Myself and I”. The lyric in the

song is:

Celebrate nightly and everyone rages.

The sentence is incomplete since there is no object after the verb celebrate. The verb celebrate in this sentence is functioned as a transitive verb. Transitive verb is

a verb that can take a direct object (Crystal, 2008, p. 494). Meaning to say that

transitive verb requires an object or more than one objects. The appropriate object

for the sentence is it since a pronoun can be a direct object. The correct sentence

would be:

I celebrate it nightly and everyone rages

The word it refers to the success and the popularity that are gained by the speaker

or the singer as in the lyric.

2. Deviation of Verb

There are five deviations of verb found in Bebe Rexha’s songs. From five

songs that are being analyzed, the researcher only finds the deviation of verb in

the song “I’m a Mess” and “The Way I Are”. The detailed information about

Figur

Table 2. Omission of  Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs ……...............................

Table 2.

Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha s Songs . View in document p.12
Table 1. The Summary of Grammatical Deviations Occur

Table 1.

The Summary of Grammatical Deviations Occur . View in document p.42
Table 2. Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha’s Songs

Table 2.

Omission of Subject in Bebe Rexha s Songs . View in document p.44
Table 3. Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha Songs

Table 3.

Omission of Article in Bebe Rexha Songs . View in document p.47
Table 4. Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha’s songs

Table 4.

Omission of Linking Verb in Bebe Rexha s songs . View in document p.48
Table 5. Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha’s Songs

Table 5.

Deviation of Verb in Bebe Rexha s Songs . View in document p.52
Table 6. Double Negation in Bebe Rexha’s Songs

Table 6.

Double Negation in Bebe Rexha s Songs . View in document p.54
Table. 7  Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb

Table 7.

Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb . View in document p.59
Table. 8  Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb

Table 8.

Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Verb . View in document p.60
Table. 9  Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Noun

Table 9.

Rhyme Effect of Deviation of Noun . View in document p.61

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