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Potensi Cendawan Endofit sebagai Agens Pengendali Hayati Phytophthora Palmivora (Butl.) Butl. Penyebab Busuk Buah Kakao

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Academic year: 2021

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Phytophthora palmivora %XWO %XWO 3HQ\HEDE %XVXN %XDK .DNDR Potency of Endophytic Fungi as Biocontrol Agent of Cacao Black Pod Disease Caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl

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ABSTRACT

Black pod disease (BPD) of cacao caused by Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) is one of the major diseases on cacao plantation worldwide. Endophytic fungi (EF), fungi that live asymptomatically inside healthy plants, were examined to study their potentials as biocontrol agent of the disease. Six of EF selected from 37 species (from 2843 isolates), isolated from healthy pods of cacao from Marena in Central Sulawesi were tested for their abilities to control BPD. Pods on living trees

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curve (AUDPC). Latent period, infection rate and effectiveness were also recorded. In vitro growth inhibition of pathogen and induced plant defense mechanisms due to EF were also investigated. Xylariaceae and Calocybe gambosa treatment generated the highest effectiveness control level, i.e. 38.8% and 33.8% respectively, followed by Resinicium friabile and Aschersonia treatment, i.e. 17.4% dan 12.7% respectively. Pestalotiopsis and Fusarium were not effective to control BPD.

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pathogen and induced resistance of plant were partially responsible for disease suppression by Xylariaceae, C. gambosa, R. friabile and Aschersonia.

Keywords: Calocybe gambosa, induced resistance, peroxidases, salicylic acid, Xylariaceae

ABSTRAK

Penyakit busuk buah kakao yang disebabkan oleh Phytophthora palmivora (Butl.) Butl merupakan salah satu penyakit

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Buah kakao di lapangan disemprot dengan propagul cendawan, setelah dua minggu buah dipanen dan diinokulasi dengan patogen P. palmivora di laboratorium. Perkembangan gejala penyakit pada buah diamati, dihitung periode laten, keparahan penyakit, laju infeksi (r), nilai AUDPC dan tingkat keefektifan penekanan penyakit busuk buah. Kemampuan CE menginduksi ketahanan tanaman dan penghambatan pertumbuhan patogen in-vitro juga dianalisis. Cendawan Xylariaceae dan Calocybe gambosa menghasilkan tingkat penekanan penyakit paling tinggi, berturut-turut sebesar 38.8% dan 33.8%, diikuti oleh Resinicium friabile dan Aschersonia masing-masing sebesar 17.4% dan 12.7%. Cendawan Pestalotiopsis dan Fusarium tidak efektif menekan penyakit busuk buah kakao. Periode laten sangat berkaitan dengan keparahan penyakit. Penghambatan pertumbuhan patogen dan induksi ketahanan tanaman berperan dalam penekanan penyakit oleh Xylariaceae, C. gambosa, R. friabile dan Aschersonia.

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