Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the English and Educational Department

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HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILLS

(A CAR at the Eighth Grade in M

Ts Manba’us Sa’diyah

Bandungan in the Academic Year of 2014/2015)

A GRADUATING PAPER

Submitted to the Board of Examiners in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement for the Degree of Educational Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the

English and Educational Department

By:

AINUL FADZIAH

113 10 141

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

TEACHER TRAINING AND EDUCATION FACULTY

STATE INSTITUTE FOR ISLAMIC STUDIES

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MOTTO

I hear and I forget. I see and I remember. I do and I

understand.

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DEDICATION

This graduating paper is whole intended dedicated for:

1. My beloved mother, Maemanah and father, Suwaryadi, you are my

everything.

2. My lovely brother Ustadzun, who always motivates me.

3. My big family who always support me.

4. The big Family of Banyukuning Elementary School,

5. All of my best friends who always help, support, motivate me.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Assalamu’alaikum Wr. Wb.

Alhamdulillahirabbil’ alamin, thanks to Allah SWT because the researcher

could complete this research as one of the requirements for getting Educational

Islamic Studies (S.Pd.I) in the English Education Department of State Institute

for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga in 2015. Peace and solution always be given

to our last prophet Muhammad SAW who has guided us from the darkness to the

brightness. However, this success would not be achieved without support from

individual, people and institution. For all guidance, the researcher would like

thanks to:

1. Dr. Rahmat Hariyadi, M.Pd, as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic

Studies (IAIN) Salatiga, thanks for the time I spend for studying in

IAIN Salatiga.

2. Suwardi, M.Pd., as the Dean of Teacher Training and Education

Faculty, thanks for Islamic Education that you gave to me.

3. Noor Malihah, M.Hum, Ph.D., as the Head of English Education

Department, thanks for your guidance.

4. Hanung Triyoko, S.S, M.Hum, M.Ed, as the counselor, thanks for

advice, support, suggestion, direction and guidance from the beginning

until the end of this research.

5. All of lecturers in English Education Department and all staffs who

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE ... i

DECLARATION ... ii

ATTENTIVE COUNSELOR NOTES ... iii

PAGE OF CERTIFICATION ... iv

MOTTO ... v

DEDICATION ... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... vii

TABLE OF CONTENT ... ix

LIST OF TABLE AND FIGURES ... xiii

ABSTRACT ... xiv

CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION ... 1

A. Background of the Research ... 1

B. Statements of the Problems ... 7

C. Objectives of the Research ... 8

D. Benefits of the study ... 8

E. Limitation of Terms ... 9

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CHAPTER II THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK ... 12

A. Classroom Action Research ... 12

1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research ... 12

2. The Characteristics of Classroom Action Research ... 14

3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research ... 17

B. Writing ... 19

1. The Definition of Writing... 19

2. The Writing Process ... 20

3. The Purposes of Writing ... 22

C. Project Based Learning ... 23

1. Definition of Project Based Learning ... 23

2. Criteria of Project Based Learning ... 25

3. Benefits of Project Based Learning ... 28

4. Disadvantages of Project Based Learning ... 30

5. Teaching through Project Based Learning ... 31

CHAPTER III RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ... 33

A. Type of Research ... 33

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1. Time ... 33

2. Place ... 34

C. Research Procedure ... 36

D. Population and Sample ... 38

E. Sampling Technique ... 40

F. Technique of Data Collection ... 41

1. Documentation ... 41

2. Observation ... 42

3. Test ... 43

G. Technique of Data Analysis ... 43

CHAPTER IV THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH ... 45

A. Cycle 1 ... 45

B. Cycle 2 ... 59

CHAPTER V CLOSURE ... 78

A. Conclusion ... 78

B. Suggestion ... 79

REFERENCES ... 81

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LIST OF TABLES

Table 3.1 List of Population ...38

Table 3.2 List of Sample ...39

Table 3.3 Observation Sheet ...42

Table 4.1 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 1 ...50

Table 4.2 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 1 ...53

Table 4.3 Students’ Writing skill Rubric Cycle 1 ...55

Table 4.4 Students’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 1 ...56

Table 4.5 Students’ First Writing Score Percentage ...57

Table 4.6 Checklist Observation Sheet Cycle 2 ...68

Table 4.7 Students’ Pre-Test and Post-Test Cycle 2 ...70

Table 4.8 Students’ Writing Skill Rubric Cycle 2 ...73

Table 4.9 Students’ Writing’s Project Result Cycle 2 ...74

Table 4.10 Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage ...76

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ABSTRACT

Ainul Fadziah (2015). “HOW TO IMPROVE STUDENTS’ WRITING SKILL (A CAR at The Eight Grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in The Academic Year 2014/2015)”. A Graduating Paper. Teacher Training and Education Faculty. English and Education Department. State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN). Consultant: Hanung Triyoko, S.S., M. HUM., M. Ed

This research is aimed to describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s method in the writing class is and describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to improve students’ writing skills.

This research was conducted in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015. Twenty nine students of the eighth grade of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the Academic Year 2014/2015 were instructed through Project Based Learning Method to improve their writing skills. The methodology of this research used Classroom Action Research (CAR). There were two cycles to give the students opportunities to improve their understanding about how to reconstruct and comprehend the organization of Narrative Text well and effectively in groups through doing a project. The results show that the students’ skills improve significantly. The Pre-Test score of the Cycle 1 was 62,41 and the Post-Test score was 70,69. It showed there was an improvement 13,27%. The Pre-Test Score of Cycle 2 was 72,07 and the Post-Test score was 84,83. It showed an improvement 17,71%. This method used the students’ skill to rearrange the jumbled paragraph that they have read, then they tried to rewrite by their own word. This method can help students to remember the organization of narrative text, remember the chronological event of this text, and the details of the vocabulary. In the implementation of Project based Learning Method, the students could enrich their vocabularies, grammar mastery, and be confident to rearrange the text that has been read by their own words. They also showed their understanding about narrative text with good connecting information to another details. This method increased their motivations when joining the English lesson, they were more active in the learning process than before. It increased students’ cooperation with other friends. Based on the results, the researcher recommends using Project Based Learning Method as the solution to improve students’ writing skill.

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14 CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

A. Background of the Research

Language can’t be separated from human life. Even language is often

used by human life in every activity, so it can be said that interaction is not

happened without language as the medium. The activities that human life’s

doing are like gathering, playing, and giving information using language as

the medium. Language is a human method to express the ideas, feelings, and

ability with own pleasure.

Brown (2007: 6) defines that language is a systematic instrument of

communicating ideas or feelings by using sounds, gestures, or signs agreed.

The primary function of language is for interaction and communication.

Language has an important role in society as a communication tool.

Language enables people to acquire information, knowledge, communicate

and cooperate along with others. However, language cannot be acquired

spontaneously but it needs to be learnt. Just as a baby they cannot speak as

they were born, but they learn by imitating their parent and others. That’s

why language needs to be learnt in order to make communication and

interaction happen properly. In fact, learning a language is learning to

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learner's ability to communicate and its success is measured from how well

the learner's use the language itself.

English as one of the international languages in the world should be

mastered by people from many countries in the world to communicate each

other. They may know and understand what they speak communicatively

because of English. Because of the reason, English becomes the first foreign

language that is taught in Indonesia from elementary school up to college.

Putri (2013 : 2) said that learning English means learning four

language skills and its components. The language skills are listening,

speaking, reading, and writing, and its components are grammar, vocabulary,

and sounds system. Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside

listening, speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using

written language. In writing, all information is delivered through text. Writing

means producing or creating a piece of text.

Writing is regarded as the most difficult skill for foreign language

learners to master because it involves several components which need to be

considered while the learners are writing, such as content, organization,

vocabulary, language use and punctuation (Brown, 2004:244–245).

Writing needs an ability to organize sentences into good text. Writing

also needs a lot of vocabulary mastery in order to reduce the possibility in the

lack of words when they are writing sentence, paragraph, or text. It needs

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appropriate as the reader understand of that written form. It needs a right

punctuation using in order the reader catches the purposes and meanings as

suitable as the writer hope. And the last is the content. This is the most

important part that the writer should master it. A good writer will make a

good content of writing in order all of the messages that she or he means are

accepted as appropriate as to the readers.

In the writing learning process, students need to understand all of the

factors above to make good writing. It needs more practices in writing so the

students get used to write anything they can.

Writing becomes one of the students’ difficulties in English language

learning besides speaking moreover in MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah. According

from the English teacher of MTs Manba’us Sa’diyah, Mrs. Yuliana, students

have difficulties in creating a good content, organizing several sentences into

good paragraph, and language use.

She said that the students there are lack of the ability in creating good

content. Actually, content is the most important part that should be paid

attention. An integrated content that the writer creates should be understood

by the readers. When the writer creates a bad content, the readers will not get

the messages of the writing well.

She said that the students there are poor in organizing several

sentences into good paragraph. When they listen the word “paragraph”, their

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terrible thing to be done. They feel so afraid to arrange words into sentences,

sentences into paragraph, and paragraph into text. They are worry to make a

trouble on it. This fear should be missed from their thought in order they are

able to become a good writer.

She also said that the students there are sometimes use the wrong

languages. The structural languages that they use are usually spaced

inappropriately. When the teacher asks the students to create a narrative text,

the students actually should use the simple past but they use the simple

present. When they are asked to create a descriptive text, they use the simple

past. These troubles are often happened in this school.

Madrasah Tsanawiyah (MTs) Manba’us Sa’diyah is one of the Islamic

Junior High School which is located in the village. It makes students don’t

have motivation to master the English especially in writing. Their assumption

that English is difficult and writing is also, are still develop in that

environment. The students become afraid in telling their ideas, trying to

organizing sentences, and wrong using the language. In this school, the

teacher needs an appropriate strategy to overcome this problem.

According to Kemp (1995) cited in Rusman (2011), strategy is a

learning process that has to be done by teacher and students in order the goals

of learning process are able to achieve effectively and efficiently. In teaching

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teacher. Teacher is allowed to choose which strategy is effective to be

practiced in the class.

Teachers can practice teaching and learning process through jigsaw.

Jigsaw methodis first developed by Elliot Aronson (1975). This method has two additional version, Jigsaw II (Slavin, 1989) and Jigsaw III (Kagan, 1990). Essentially, it is a cooperative learning design that takes the place of a

lecture. Each student within a team has a piece of the information to be

learned by all students, and each student is responsible for teaching their

section to the other students on the team.

Basically, this method can be applied for the materials which are

related with the reading, writing, listening, or speaking. It combines four

aspects of language (Huda, 2013). However, if this method is practiced in this

school, it will be ineffective strategy. It will be happened because the main

point of this method is share the information to the others. To communicate

with other needs good speaking, so if the students’ speaking skills are poor

the strategy will be applied not as suitable as hoped.

Teachers also can apply SQ3R method. Huda (2013) said that SQ3R or Survey Question Read Recited Review is an understanding strategy which helps students to think of the text they are reading. SQ3R helps students to

find something from the text when they read the text firstly. It helps students

in understanding the text by reviewing the first meaning from title, the bold

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answer of the question, repeating the information they get from answering the

question, and reviewing or reflecting the question they answer before. This

method actually can be applied in every skill of English but if this method is

practiced in teaching writing, the writer thinks this method will be ineffective,

moreover if it is applied in Mts Manba’us Sa’diyah. The students’

motivations in reading text are very poor. When they are given a text, they

will be bored to read it. They have no willing in reading, so they will not get

information from the text. If it is happened, the writing process will be done

ineffectively because there is no information which wants to be written.

A teacher needs to use a proper strategy to help her students have

good understanding on new text that they learned. Teacher also needs to

motivate students and create the most effective way to stimulate them, so they

will be interested in practicing their writing. On the other hand, the teacher

should use certain strategy to stimulate students to practice their writing,

because good strategy will support them in achieving good skill including

English skill. Teacher have to teach the material by using good method, good

technique and organize teaching-learning process as good as possible, so

teaching-learning process can run well. It can make student master English

skill, especially in writing skill successfully, because one of the teaching

failures is caused by unsuitable method

There are many teaching strategy that can be applied in the learning

process. Good strategy in the learning helps student understand the lesson,

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Yam (2010) cited that learning takes place through the active behavior of the

student, it is what he does that he learns, not what the teacher does. Students

will get their ability in learning process when they practice and do it.

Project Based Learning is a learning strategy which focuses on students’ project. Students are fully involved in the learning process. They

practice to get information or knowledge through the project that they make.

Through this involvement, students are hoped in requiring all of the

information they need on their own. So, they can master it.

From the reason above, Project Based Learning’s Model is hoped

becoming good strategy to improve students’ writing skill in MTs Manba’us

Sa’diyah in the eighth grade, in the academic year of 2014 / 2015.

B. Statements of the Problem

Statements of the Problem in this research are :

a.How is the implementation of the Project Based Learning’s method use in

the writing class of the eighth grade of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us

Sa’diyah in the academic year 2014/2015?

b. How can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the problem

in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help improve

students’ writing skills in the eighth grade students of Madrasah

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21 C. Objectives of the Research

Considering the above problems, the objectives of this research are

described as follows :

1.To describe what the implementation of using the project based learning’s

method in the writing class is.

2.To describe how can Project Based Learning as the planned solution to the

problem in teaching writing class in the process of doing CAR help to

improve students’ writing skills.

D. Benefits of the Research

This research is expected to give useful information and contribution

for the students, educators, English teachers and English academicians to

know more about Project Based learning as an appropriate model and strategy

to teach writing.

1. Theoretically

Giving some contribution to enlarge and enrich the English

language teaching methodologies especially the knowledge about

Project Based Learning’s Model in teaching writing.

2. Practically;

a. The writer

This research can be used as starting point in improving the

writers’ teaching experience and it is hoped can contribute to help

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22 b. The students

This research can increase students’ activeness to write and

awareness to responsible on their writing skill. It is hoped that the

students will be more motivated to write English well.

c. The English Teachers

This research can give an objective description to the

teacher on how to teach writing to the students using Project Based

Model. It is hoped that teachers can develop language teaching

methods and improve the quality of teaching learning process.

d. The Other Researchers

Give more information about Project Based Learning

Model for the next researchers who will conduct with the similar

problem of writing ability improvement.

E. Limitation of the Terms

To get clear description and avoid errors in interpreting the title, the

writer give limitation of the terms are :

1. Improve

Improve mean to make better in quality or to make more

productive to become better (Webster, 1994: 487). It is also described

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23 2. Student

Student is a person who attends a university, college or school for

study; anyone making a serious study of a subject (Merriam, 1981:983)

3. Writing Skills

Writing is a process that occurs a period of time in thinking to

create an initial draft or outline ( Harris, 1993 : 10 ). Writing skill is one

of the four basic English skill beside listening, speaking, and reading.

4. CAR (Classroom Action Research)

Classroom Action Research refers to an acuracy towards learning

activity in which it appears intentionally and occurs together in a class.

The activity is given by a teacher or with a guidance from the teacher

and done by the students (Arikunto, 2007:3)

F. Outline of the Graduating Paper

This graduating paper consists of five chapters. Chapter one is an

Introduction. It contains Background of the Research, Statements of the

Problems, Objectives of the Research, Limitation of the Terms, Benefits of

the Research, and the last is the Outline of the Graduating Paper; which

contains of general frameworks for each chapter for this graduating paper.

Chapter two is Theoretical Framework. This chapter discovers the theories

which are used by the researcher, they are: Classroom Action Research,

Writing, and Project Based Learning. Chapter three is Research

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Time and Place Setting, Procedure of the Research, Sample and Population,

Sampling Technique, Technique of Data Collection, Technique of Data

Analysis. Chapter four presents the Implementation of Research. The writer

presents the data and the result of pre-test, post-test, and writing project from

the class which is taught by Project Based Learning. Chapter five is Closure.

It contains Conclusion and Suggestion. The last part is References and

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25 CHAPTER II

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK

In this chapter, the writer is going to explain briefly the theoretical

framework which includes the explanation of classroom action research, writing,

and project based learning.

A.Classroom Action Research

1. The Definition of Classroom Action Research

Classroom action research is an action research, which has specific

aim and correlation with class. Marguerite and friends (2010: 40) say in

their books that Action research generally includes a three - step process:

a. Identification of the problem(s) through careful observation and

reflection.

b. Planning and taking appropriate action (the study)

c. Using the findings to determine if teaching and learning have improved or

if further changes are needed

Arikunto (2006: 3) gives three components in classroom action

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An activity to observe the object by use of ways and

methodologies to get the useful data or information to improve the

quality of thing and that is necessary for researcher.

b. Action

A movement activity to action with specific purpose, in the

form of activity cycle network for the student.

c. Classroom

A group of students, they got a lesson from a teacher in the same

time. Then Arikunto concludes that classroom action research means

monitoring toward teaching learning process in the form of an

action, which is deliberated on action and occur in the class.

Action research deals with social practice. Education is a social

practice. In most cases, it involves the direct interaction of teacher and

groups of students. Classroom is a complex arena, secondary schools are

full of intrigue and conspiracy. Trying to reach understanding of issues

concerned with teaching and learning, therefore, implies getting to grips

with a work range of human issues such as the attitude of students, the

politics within departments and the ethos an environment of the

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Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research

might be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving

the quality of action within it.

Gwynn (2004) states that classroom action research is a method of

finding out what works best in your own classroom so that you can improve

student learning. Every teaching situation is unique in terms of content,

level, student skills and learning styles, teacher skills and teaching styles,

and many other factors. To maximize student learning, a teacher must find

out what works best in a particular situation.

The aim of action research is to feed practical judgment in concrete

situations, and the validity of the theories or hypothesis. It is not generate

depends so much on scientific test of truth as their usefulness in

helping people to act more intelligently and skillfully. In recent years,

action research has been applied to problem involving curriculum

development, and in service education, particularly within the field of

self-evaluation (Arikunto, 2006: 57).

2. The Characteristic of Classroom Action Research

Syamsuddin and Damaianti (2007: 197) outlined the following

characteristics of classroom action research:

a. It examines problem which are deemed problematic by researcher in

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b. The researcher can give treatment which planned action to solve the

problems and improve the quality, so the subject can get the implication.

c. The steps of research in the form of cycle.

d. Such reflective thinking from researcher both after and before research.

e. Contextual situational, which related to diagnosing and solving the

problem.

f. Classroom action research used collaborative approach.

g. Participatory, which each team member accompany in the research.

h. Self-evaluative, which the researcher evaluate by self continually to

improve the performance.

i. The procedure of research is on-the-spot which designed to handle the real

problem in that area.

j. The result applied immediately, long-range in perspective, measuring up

to supple and adaptive.

Kemmis and Mc Taggart (1988) argue that the three defining

characteristics of action research are:

a. It is carried out by practitioners (classroom teachers) rather than outside

researchers;

b. It is collaborative; and

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Especially, they stress that the momentum for carrying out an action

research is to change the system. This assertion is different from Cohen and

Manion (1985) when they identify collaboration as an important feature of

action research ( Hien, 2009 :99)

Relatively different, Borgia and Schuler (1996) cited in Hien (2009)

describe components of action research as the “Five C’s”:

 Commitment: Time commitment should be carefully considered by

participants of action research since it takes them time to get

acquaintance with other participants, think about change, try new

approach, collect data, interpret results, etc.

 Collaboration: In an action research all participants are equal to each

others in terms of giving ideas, suggestions or anything that leads to

success of the change.

 Concern: In the research process, participants will build up a group of

“critical friends” who trust each other and the value of the project.

 Consideration: As it is mentioned above, reflective practice is a mindful

review of a professional research like action research. It demands

concentration and careful consideration as one seeks patterns and

relationships that will create meaning within the investigation.

 Change: For humans, especially teachers, change is continuing and it is

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3. The Principles of Classroom Action Research

According to Hopkins (1993: 57-61), there are six principles of

classroom action research by teacher as follows:

a. The teacher’s primary job is to teach, and any research method should not

interfere with or disrupt the teaching commitment.

b. The method of data collection must not be too demanding on the

teacher’s time.

c. The methodology employed must be reliable enough to allow teachers to

formulate hypotheses confidently and develop strategies applicable to

their classroom.

d. The research problem under taken by the teacher should be one to which

he or she is committed.

e. The need for teacher researchers to pay close attention to the ethical

procedures surrounding the work.

f. That as far as possible classroom research should adopt a “classroom

exceeding‟ perspective. This is that all members of a school community

actively build and share a common vision of their main purpose.

In accordance with the principles that classroom action research has

to concentrate on the matters happened in the class. A class is one unity of

the concerning elements and to reach the specific aim. The components

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of used, result of the study, environmental of the study, and the management

that conducted by head of the school. The object of perceived in classroom

action research does not have always when process of the study underway

because class is not room, but it is a group of students (Arikunto, 2006: 24).

According to Aqib (2006: 18) classroom action research is one of

the strategic ways for the teacher to improve the educationally service which

must be carried out in the context of study in the class and improvement of

the school program quality on the whole. The aims of the classroom action

research are to improve and to increase the process of the study in the class to

be carried out continuous. These aims are close relationship with the teacher

in fulfilling their professional mission ofeducation.

Related with components of the study, classroom action research

have some benefits, they are:

a. Innovation of the study.

b. Development of the curriculum in the school and class level.

c. Improvement of the teacher professionalism.

B.Writing

1. The Definition of Writing

Writing is one basic skill in learning English beside listening,

speaking, and reading. To write means to communicate using written

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means producing or creating a piece of text. Harmer (2001: 249) states,

language production means that students should use all and any languages

at their disposal to achieve a communicative purpose rather than be

restricted to specific practice points. Writing is more difficult rather than

other language skills because it needs well knowledge and hard thinking

when they produce words, sentences and paragraphs with a good

grammatical.

Harmer (2001: 255) said:

Written text has a number of conventions which separate it out from speaking. Apart from differences in grammar and vocabulary, there are issues of letter, word, and text formation, manifested by handwriting, spelling, and layout and punctuation.

It means that good content of writing only is not enough. A writer

must also have sufficient language components like grammar, vocabulary,

punctuation, and spelling to facilitate him/her in expressing his/her ideas,

experiences, thoughts, and feelings. The writing should be organized well,

in order to be easily read and understood by the readers.

In other word, writing is first and foremost an intellectual activity.

Writing is also a social process. It puts one mind (the writer’s) in touch

with other minds (those of the audience) and creates a community (Beene,

1992: 67). Like reading and reasoning, writing is a recursive process: it

involves overlapping and repetition (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 68). To

write is put down the graphic symbols that represent a language one

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language and the graphic representation. But, writing is the partial

representation of units of language expression (Lado, 1964: 143).

From the explanation above, it can conclude that writing is the way

or the process to express or to represent writer’s knowledge into a textual

medium by following linguistic rules.

2. The Writing Process.

Writing, particularly academic ones, is not easy. It takes study and

practice to develop this skill. For both native speakers and new learners of

English, it is important to note that writing is a process, not a product

(Oshima, 1991: 3). There are four components of a writing process:

inventing, drafting, revising, and editing (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 71).

a. Inventing

Inventing is the crafting before write a first draft. Inventing, a

prewriting stage, includes choosing a topic or issue, discovering about

the topic, narrowing and shaping ideas into a plan, and framing a

generalization that sets forth perspective on topic and suggest how the

text will present perspective and ideas.

b. Drafting

Drafting includes proposing a thesis statement, deciding on tone,

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c. Revising

Revising includes rethinking the content, organization, and level

of formality of text. Revising is the key to success because the process of

rewriting gives a chance to writer in improving their written.

d. Editing

Editing includes check revised draft for misspellings, grammatical

confusion, or incoherence and putting text in a suitable format for

audience.

Ron White and Arndt (1991) cited in Harmer (2001) are keen to

stress that writing is re-writing; that re-vision – seeing with new eyes – has

a central role to play in the act of creating text. In their model, process of

writing is an interrelated set of recursive stages which includes :

a. Drafting

Drafting means outlining the general information which wants to

be written. This is the first part in writing.

b. Structuring

Structuring means ordering the information and experimenting

with arrangements. In this part, the writer arranges the outline which

is written in the draft before into good text.

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Reviewing means the step to get checking the context,

connections, assessing the impact, and editing.

d. Focusing

Focusing is making sure you are getting the message across you

want get across.

e. Generating Ideas and Evaluation

It is a part for assessing the draft or subsequent it. When the errors

are done, the writer should making revision or improvement.

3. The Purposes of Writing

The goal of written language is to convey information accurately,

effectively, and appropriately; and to do this written language has to be

more explicit than spoken discourse ( Richards, 1990: 101). In another

purpose writing is to persuade an already knowledgeable audience that can

interpret factual information in a way that shows the information is now

part of academic experience (Beene and Kopple, 1992: 72).According

Oshima and Hogue (1991: 3), the purpose of a piece of writing determines

the rhetorical form chosen for it. A persuasive essay will be organized in

one way and an expository essay in another way.

C. Project Based Learning

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According to Krajcik&Blumenfeld (2006) Markham, Larmer,

&Ravitz (2003) cited in Lee, Blackwell, Drake,& Moran,

(2014)project based learning is an inquiry-based instructional approach

that offers one avenue to reform. It reflects a learner-centered

environment that concentrates on students’ use of disciplinary

concepts, tools, experiences and technologies to answer questions and

solve real-world problems.

On the journal entitled “A Review of Research on Project-Based Learning”, Thomas (2000) definesproject based learning (PBL) as a model that organizes learning around projects.It means that learning

process is focused on the concepts and principles, involving the

students in the problem-solving investigation, and other tasks which

give students opportunity to construct their own knowledge, and then

achieve the goal to produce the real project.

He also agrees with the definition found in PBL handbooks for

teachers (Jones, Rasmussen, & Moffitt, 1997; Thomas, Mergendoller,

&Michaelson, 1999), that projects are complex tasks, based on

challenging questions or problems, that involve students in design,

problem-solving, decision making, or investigative activities; give

students the opportunity to work relatively autonomously over

extended periods of time; and culminate in realistic products or

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37

Jason Schwalm and Karen SmuckTylek on their journal (2009)

cites that PBL is an approach to instruction that emphasizes

“authentic learning tasks grounded in the personal interests of

learners” (Grant, 2009:1). The Buck Institute for Education calls PBL

as “a systematic teaching method that engages students in learning

knowledge and skills through an extended inquiry process structured

around complex, authentic questions and carefully designed products

and tasks” (Markham, 2003:4). However it is defined that PBL

presents students with real-world, multidisciplinary problems that

demand critical thinking, engagement, and collaboration.

On the other definition, PBL is defined as a teaching approach

that has significant potential to transform teaching from a dull and

mundane process of passive learning to one where students actively

engage with the material, resulting in deeper learning and significant

other outcomes (Yam& Rossini : 2010).

From the definition above, the writer concludes that project

based learning is a model of teaching learning process which focuses

on the students’ project. Students become the center of all activities

during learning process. They begin the learning from the question or

problem which sends them to find information with their own. They

should find the solution of the problem and the goal should they

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38 2. Criteria of Project Based Learning

According to the Training of 2013 Curriculum which published

by BPSDMPK and PMP 2013 and Center for Youth Development and

Education-Boston (Muliawati, 2010 : 10) cited by Widyantini

(2014)the criteria of project based learningare :

a. There is problem or complex challenges which is shown to the

students

b. Students design the problem-solving process or challenge which is

shown by using investigation

c. Students learn and apply ability and knowledge that they have to the

several contexts when doing project.

d. Students work in a cooperative team, and also when they discuss

with the teacher

e. Students practice several ability which is needed to their mature and

career (how to allocate the time, being responsible person, personal

skill, and learn from experience)

f. Students reflect their activity regularly

g. Students’ final projects are evaluated

Thomas (2000) has different criteria. He has five criteria on

project based learning. They are centrality, driving question,

constructive investigations, autonomy, and realism.

PBL projects are central, not peripheral to the curriculum. This

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projects are the curriculum. In PBL, the project is the central teaching

strategy; students encounter and learn the central concepts of the

discipline via the project. There are instances where project work

follows traditional instruction in such a way that the project serves to

provide illustrations, examples, additional practice, or practical

applications for material taught initially by other means. However,

these "application" projects are not considered to be instances of PBL,

according to this criterion. Second, the centrality criterion means that

projects in which students learn things that are outside the curriculum

("enrichment" projects) are also not examples of PBL, no matter how

appealing or engaging.

PBL projects are focused on questions or problems that "drive"

students to encounter (and struggle with) the central concepts and

principles of a discipline. This criterion is a subtle one. The definition

of the project (for students) must "be crafted in order to make a

connection between activities and the underlying conceptual

knowledge that one might hope to foster."

Projects involve students in a constructive investigation. An

investigation is a goal-directed process that involves inquiry,

knowledge building, and resolution. Investigations may be design,

decision-making, problem-finding, problem-solving, discovery, or

model-building processes. But, in order to be considered as a PBL

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transformation and construction of knowledge (by definition: new

understandings, new skills) on the part of students

(Bereiter&Scardamalia, 1999). If the central activities of the project

represent no difficulty to the student or can be carried out with the

application of already-learned information or skills, the project is an

exercise, not a PBL project. This criterion means that straightforward

service projects such as planting a garden or cleaning a stream bed are

projects, but may not be PBL projects.

Projects are student-driven to some significant degree. PBL

projects are not, in the main, teacher-led, scripted, or packaged.

Laboratory exercises and instructional booklets are not examples of

PBL, even if they are problem-focused and central to the curriculum.

PBL projects do not end up at a predetermined outcome or take

predetermined paths. PBL projects incorporate a good deal more

student autonomy, choice, unsupervised work time, and responsibility

than traditional instruction and traditional projects.

Projects are realistic, not school-like. Projects embody

characteristics that give them a feeling of authenticity to students.

These characteristics can include the topic, the tasks, the roles that

students play, the context within which the work of the project is

carried out, the collaborators who work with students on the project,

the products that are produced, the audience for the project's products,

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Gordon (1998) makes the distinction between academic challenges,

scenario challenges, and life challenges. PBL incorporates

real-life challenges where the focus is on authentic (not simulated)

problems or questions and where solutions have the potential to be

implemented (Thomas, 2000).

3. Benefits of Project Based Learning

Many benefits of incorporating project work in second and

foreign language settings have been suggested. Fragoulis (2009) on his

journal entitle “Project-Based Learning in the Teaching of English as A Foreign Language in Greek Primary Schools: From Theory to Practice” agrees several taught about the benefits of project based learning.

First, he agrees with Fried-Booth’s (2002) opinionthat the process

leading to the end-product of project-work provides opportunities for

students to develop their confidence and independence. In addition, he

also agrees with Stoller (2006 ; 27) that students demonstrate increased

self-esteem, and positive attitudes toward learning.

He also notes Skehan’s (1998) opinion that students’ autonomy is

enhanced by PBL, especially when they are actively engaged in project

planning (e.g. choice of topic). He also mentions the further benefit

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to students’ increased social, cooperative skills, and group

cohesiveness.

He finds another reported benefit said by Levine (2004) that

PBL is improve language skills. This opinion is supported by Haines

(1989) which is noted in his journal too. PBL is improve language

skills because students engage in purposeful communication to

complete authentic activities, they have the opportunity to use

language in a relatively natural context and participate in meaningful

activities which require authentic language use.

He explains about authentic activities as Brown (1993) said they

refer to activities designed to develop students’ thinking and problem

solving skills which are important in out-of-schools contexts, and to

foster learning to learn.

He adds with Stoller’s (2006) opinion, project-based learning

provides opportunities for “the natural integration of language skills”.

He also adds as Lee (2002) that PBL makes students have enhanced

motivation, engagement and enjoyment.

He notes that projects being authentic tasks, are more

meaningful to students, increase interest, motivation to participate, and

can promote learning. Enjoyment and motivation also stem from the

fact that classroom language is not predetermined, but depends on the

nature of the project (Larsen-Freeman, 2000:149). Another set of

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higher order critical thinking skills. These skills are very important,

since they are life-long, transferable skills to settings outside the

classroom.

Finally, the writer concludes the benefits of PBL are to enhance

students’ motivation, interest, and confidence, students’ language skills

are improved, students get used to solve their problem related to the

authentic activities, and the students become independent because they

solve it themselves.

4. Disadvantages of project Based Learning

Several studies found that PBL is challenging for teachers to

enact despite its positive benefits. For example, one study found the

following barriers to successful implementation of PBL:

a. projects were time-consuming

b. classrooms felt disorderly

c. teachers could not control the flow of information

d. it was difficult to balance giving students independence and

providing them supports

e. it was difficult to incorporate technology as a cognitive tool, and

f. authentic assessments were hard to design (Marx, et al., 1997).

In addition, the authors found that teachers generally focused on

addressing one or two of these challenges at a time and moved back

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44

information gradually and with varied success (Marx, et al., 1994;

Marx, et al., 1997). Teachers also may struggle with entrenched beliefs

when attempting to implement PBL. For example, it may be

challenging to negotiate between giving students opportunities to

explore their interests or covering the state standards, allowing

students to develop individual answers or providing students with one

correct answer, and empowering students to direct their learning or

controlling the distribution of expert knowledge (Ladewski, et al.,

1991).

5. Teaching through Project Based Learning

Fragoulis also notes that effective project-based learning requires

the teacher to assume a different role (Levy, 1997). The teacher’s role

is not dominant, but he/she acts as a guide, advisor, coordinator

(Papandreou, 1994), and facilitator. In implementing the project

method, the focal point of the learning process moves from the teacher

to the learners, from working alone to working in groups.

To make PBL effective, Yam and Rossini (2010) notes that

teachers play important roles in motivating students and creating a

classroom environment conducive for students learning (Yam &

Burger 2009). Collaboration among the students, teachers and others in

the community is important so that knowledge can be shared and

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Therefore, teachers’ support as well as continuous tutorial

discussions involving teachers and students is imperative to sustain

students’ motivation in the PBL process (Blumenfeld et al. 1991). For

instance, teachers can help by providing access to information, and

support learning by scaffolding instructions to make the tasks more

manageable. It is argued that teachers shouldbreak down tasks to make

it manageable, coaching students in formulating strategies to solve

problems, and gradually releasing responsibility to the students

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46 CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

G. Type of Research

Research methodology is science that learns about research method or

research instrument (Sofanudin, 2009:35). The method used in this research

was classroom action research. As stated by Kemmis that ActionResearch is a form of self reflective enquiry undertaken by participants in social situation

in order to improve the rationality and justices, their understanding of these

practices and the situations in which the practices are carried out; (Hopkins,

1993: 44)

Elliot (1982) cited in Richard (1989) states that action research might

be defined as the study of a social situation with a view to improving the

quality of action within it. Applying classroom action research is intended to

give new information and knowledge to the teacher and students in Mts

Manba’us Sa’diyah.

H. Time and Place Setting 1.Time

This research carried in the eighth grade students of MTs

Manba’us Sa’diyah Bandungan in the academic year of 2014/2015.

There were some steps in this research: preparation, implementation,

analyses of the data, and report writing. The details of each activity were

as follow :

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a)4th February 2015 : Proposal Draft Consultation

b)20th February 2015 : Instrument Consultation

2) Implementation

a)25thFebruary 2015 : Research Permission

b)26thFeb - 26thMarch 2015 : Data collection

3) Analyses of Data and Research Report

a)27th March 2015 : Data Analysis

b)6th April 2015 : Research Report

2. Place

This research was taken place at MTs PSA Manba’us Sa’diyah

Banyukuning Village, Bandungan Sub district, Semarang Regency. MTs

Manbaus Sa’diyah Bandungan is one of the junior high school in

Bandungan. The detail of this school is described as follows:

a) School Name : MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah

b) No. School Statistic : 121233220038

c) School Type : B ( 11 November 2012 )

d) School Address : JalanKalipawon 1,5 Banyukuning – Jambu

: (Sub district) Bandungan

: ( Regency) Semarang

: ( Province) Central Java

e) Phone/HP : 085640279484

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g) School Status : Private ( as a part of a committee )

MTs PSA Manbaus Sa’diyah is a junior high school which applies

Islamic Education in the learning process. It is one roof school which

applies boarding house in the teaching learning process. It school has only

three classes, grade Seven, Eight, and Nine. It is only one class for each

grade. This school has built since 1st Juni 2009 under the Manba’us

Sa’diyah committee’s management. This school has built cause of the

cooperation of the AIBEP (Australia Indonesia Basic Education Partner)

and the figure this school surrounding.

The environments of this school are religious people, so it is built

to fulfill people need in Islamic Education. It applies learning process as

same as boarding house. There are many Islamic Subjects which is taught

beside the general ones.

In this school, the lesson is started at 07.00 a.m. It is begun with an

additional subjects, boarding house’s learning in the class for about 30

minutes and continued with the usual subject. It is finish at 13.25 p.m.

except on Friday the lesson ended at 11.00 a.m. It is 40 minutes for one

hour lesson and there are two break times at 09.30 – 09.45 and the second

break to do praying together at 11.45 - 12.15. Therefore, the students learn

approximately 45 hours in a week divided into 17 general subjects and 6

boarding house’s subject. In the eighth grade, English is taught twice a

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I. Research Procedure

This study used action research, so the writer used the steps as Kemmis

stated. The procedures stated by Kemmis are briefly describes in the

following scheme.

Figure 3.1 Research Procedure

(Kemmis in Hopkins, 1963)

There were two cycles in this action research. In each cycle the

procedures are follows :

a.Planning

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50

1) Preparing materials, making lesson plan and designing the steps in

doing the action.

2) Preparing list of students’ name and scoring.

3) Preparing teaching aids.

4) Preparing sheets for classroom observation (to know the situation

of teaching-learning process when the method or technique or

model is applied).

b. Action

1) Teaching the material.

2) Team study.

3) Giving occasion to the students to ask any difficulties or problems.

4) Giving written test

c. Observation

Observation is one of instruments used in collecting the data.

Observation is a scientific method that can be systematically used to

observe and note the phenomena investigated (Hadi, 1995: 136).

The writer used this observation to write something that happened in the

classroom.

d. Reflection

The writer’s reflection was done by discussing with her

collaborator. Note of the lack, incompatibility between action and

scenario or different response of students that expected. They

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alternative decision of problem solving. Then the next cycle could be

decided or designed.

J. Population and Sample

Population is the whole of the research subject (Arikunto, 1991:102).

The population of this research was all of the students of in Manba’us

Sa’diyah Islamic Junior High School Bandungan Subdistrict. The numbers of

the population are described on the following table.

Table 3.1 List of Population

No Grade

Number of Students

Number

Males Females

1. VII 11 9 20

2. VIII 12 17 29

3. IX 12 9 21

Number 35 35 70

Arikunto ( 1991) also states that sample is the representation of the

population will be researched. The samples were 29 students, 17 females and

12 males taken from the population. They came from intermediate to

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54 29. Singgih Prabowo

K. Sampling Technique

The researcher used purposive sampling technique to get sample in

her investigation. Purposive sampling is sampling technique based on the

characteristics that is decided of the previous researcher (Dantes, 2012 : 46 ).

In this case, the writer asked Mrs. Yuliana Kustatik, S.Pd as the English

teacher to find more information from the students of Madrasah Tsanawiyah

Manba’us Sa’diyah about their writing skills. She suggested to take the eighth

grade which is become the object of this research. According to her, this class

needs more help in writing learning process. The students of this class are

poor in writing ability. She suggested to choose this class and said this

research would be done successfully.

L. Technique of Data Collection 1.Documentation

As the object that is paid attention to get information, we keep

eyes open for three sources, they are paper, place, and people (Arikunto,

2010). The documentation was used to get more information about the

students of the eighth grade of Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah

Bandungan. It was used to get a lot of data from this school, they were

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situation of the school. The source of this data was text book or other

supporting book from Madrasah Tsanawiyah Manba’us Sa’diyah.

2.Observation

Observation method is also called tracking comprise attention

focusing activity to such object by using all of the senses (Arikunto,

2002:133). This method was used to collect the data when the writer did

the research in the use of Project Based Learning’s Model to improve

students’ writing skill. It also used to know the situation of the teaching

learning process when the strategy was applied. It became the crucial

method because we did not only know the students’ responses but we

could also know about their feeling and their thought of their teacher.

This was the observation sheet the researcher used in this research.

Table 3.3 Observation Sheet

No Expression

Scale

Always Often Rare Never

1. Students are happy to follow the

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56 2. Students are passive during the

lesson

3. Students try to collect the task on

time

4. Students are understand the lesson

5. Students ask to the teacher if they

didn’t understand

6. Students do the project with their

friends

7. Students are nervous to present

the material in front of the class

8. Students get difficulties to answer

the question

9. Students give feedback from the

result of the project

10. Students use English in classroom

communication

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57

Writer gave test in the meeting. It was written test. These tests

were pre-test and post-test that were given in every cycle of this research.

Except the pre-test and post-test, the students also were given a project in

every cycle. All of the tests can be seen on Appendixes.

M. Technique of Data Analysis

After collecting the data, the next step of the study were

analyzing the data. The data are the result of test from pre test and post test.

In analyzing the test scores, a statistical technique was to find out the mean

score of the students.

The formula that the writer used as follow:

Explanation :

Mean : the average scores

∑x : number of scores

N : number of case (responden) (Hadi, 1974 : 37)

The second technique was counting the percentage of the students’

writing skill through organizing a text.

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58 Explanation :

P : number percentage

F : frequency (students’ understanding)

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59 CHAPTER IV

THE IMPLEMENTATION OF RESEARCH

In this Implementation, the researcher has arranged two teaching sessions,

the steps are: planning, acting, observing, and reflecting

A. Cycle 1

1.Planning

The activities in the planning are :

a. Preparing materials, making lesson plan, and designing the steps in

doing the action in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH

b. Preparing list of the students’ name and scoring

c. Preparing teaching aids (material, books, bold marker,etc)

d. Preparing sheet for classroom observation ( to know the situation of

teaching learning process when the method or technique or mode is

aplied in MTs MANBA’US SA’DIYAH)

e. Preparing a test (pre test).

2.Implementation

The reasearcher and collaborator did research on Friday 6th March

2015 in the Eighth class. The class atmosphere was too crowded and

disorganized. It was because they got Mathematic lesson in the last

minute. So they were bored. This was a challenge for researcher to face

this situation. Next, the researcher introduces herself and explains what

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Mrs. Yuliyana : assalamualaikum Wr. Wb

Students : waalaikumsalamWr. Wb

Mrs. Yuliyana : morning class, how are you today?

Students : I’m fine thank you. How about you?

Mrs. Yuliyana : I’m fine too thank you

Jangan heran kenapa hari ini saya membawa teman, ya karena kelas ini selama beberapa hari kedepan akan menjadi kelas special karena kelas ini akan menjadi object penelitian ( don’t be wonder, why I am with my

friend today, for next somedays this class will be a special class, because

this class there will be an object of research )

Students : wah keren dong Bu? (that’s great Mom)

Mrs. Yuliyana : ya karena kelas kalian adalah kelas yang istimewa, jangan bangga dulu, istimewa nakalnya, ( yes, because this is special class, don’t be proud. I mean super naughty class )

Students : huuuu ,

Mrs. Yuliyana : Now, the time is yours Miss Ainul.

Researcher : good morning students

Students : good morning Miss

Researcher : I would like to Introduce my self, my name is

Ainul Fadziah and you can call me Ainul. Any question?

Fara : where do you live?

Researcher : I live in Tarukan, Bandungan

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Musrifah : what is your Hobby Miss?

Researcher : my hobby are writing, watching film, and

traveling. Any question ?

Students : enough Miss.

Researcher : let us start our first meeting today, I want to know

all of you, so please introduce your self one by one, who want to be the

first?

Fara : I am Miss. ( Fara introduced her self and than all

of students )

Researcher : before we start our lesson today, I will give you a

pre-test.

Researcher went around spreading pieces of pre-test. Then, students did

it in 10 minutes. After they were finished, they collected to the

researcher.

Researcher : now, we will study about Narrative Text. Do you

know about it?

Singgih : No Miss.

Students : wwuuuu, (they shouted)

Umam : I know Miss.

Researcher : OK. Tell me now!

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62

Researcher : Excellent! Then, can you tell me what the purpose

of that text is?

Umam : untuk menghibur pembaca (to entertain the reader) Researcher : That’s great! Anybody wants to translate your

friend’s answer?

Fara : Yes, I am.

Researcher : OK, please! Give in complete sentence!

Fara : OK, Miss. The purpose of narrative text is to retell

the past event, to amuse or entertain the reader or listener.

Researcher : Excellent. That’s very complete answer. Then, do

you know what the generic structure of this text is?

Fara : Orientation, Complication, Resolution, and

Re-orientation or coda.

Researcher : That’s great!

Then, the researcher explained about narrative. She gave a

narrative text. She wrote in the whiteboard the example of making

sentences to the text entitled SNOW WHITE. She explained the generic

structure one by one paragraph started from Orientation, Complication,

Resolution, and Re-orientation or Coda about 10 minutes.

Researcher : OK. Now, we will make a narrative’s project. But,

we have to make a group before. Please count from 1 to 7 one by one.

Figur

Figure 3.1 Research

Figure 3.1

Research p.49
Table 3.1 List of Population

Table 3.1

List of Population p.51
Table 3.2 List of Sample

Table 3.2

List of Sample p.52
Table 3.3 Observation Sheet

Table 3.3

Observation Sheet p.55
Table 4.5 (Students’ First Writing Score Percentage)

Table 4.5

(Students’ First Writing Score Percentage) p.72
Table 4.10 (Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage)

Table 4.10

(Students’ Second Writing Score Percentage) p.91

Referensi

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