Students` perception on the use of videos in learning english at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta.

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v ABSTRACT

Christina, Eveline. 2009. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

There are a lot of factors that influence successful English learning. One of them is perception. Perception influences students’ behavior and motivation to learn. If students have positive perception, it will lead them to have high motivation in learning. They will have positive behavior that can lead them to be successful in obtaining the learning goal. If they have negative perception, it will lead them to have negative behavior. Their negative behavior will lead them to the failure. Learning English using videos is expected to help students since videos can interest students to pay more attention to the English teaching and learning process. Therefore, the knowledge of students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English can inform teachers whether they should continue and improve using it for teaching their students.

This research investigated the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. There are two research problems to be solved: (1) What is the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta? (2) What are the recommendations to improve and to maximize the use of videos in English learning at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

The research participants were second grade students of Teknik Komputer Jaringan class. The researcher employed a survey research; she conducted the research by observing the students’ behavior, distributing a questionnaire to them, and interviewing six students of Teknik Komputer Jaringan class. The data were collected from the results of the observations, the questionnaire and the interview.

The findings showed that, in general, the students had positive perception on the use of videos in their English learning. The students enjoyed the activities using videos, they did not feel bored and they said that they obtained many advantages through learning using videos such as they had new vocabularies, their English skills such as listening and speaking improved, and their knowledge about western culture increased. They also said that after learning using videos, they were curious to know more about English such as the culture, habits and also the language itself. The students recommended that the materials should be updated; they liked to have drama and students’ presentation as other activities.

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vi ABSTRAK

Christina, Eveline. 2009. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Ada banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Salah satunya adalah persepsi. Persepsi mempengaruhi tingkah laku siswa dan motivasi mereka dalam belajar. Jika siswa memiliki persepsi yang positif, hal tersebut akan meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Mereka akan berperilaku positif yang akan membuat siswa berhasil mencapai tujuan belajar. Jika siswa memiliki persepsi negatif, hal tersebut akan membuat siswa berperilaku negatif. Perilaku negatif mereka akan membuat mereka gagal dalam belajar. Belajar bahasa Inggris dengan video diharapkan dapat membantu siswa karena video dapat menarik siswa untuk lebih memperhatikan dalam proses belajar mengajar bahasa Inggris. Pengetahuan akan persepsi siswa dapat memberitahu guru apakah mereka harus melanjutkan dan mengembangkan penggunaan video dalam mengajar siswa mereka.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi siswa terhadap penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Ada dua permasalahan yang harus dipecahkan: (1) Bagaimana persepsi siswa terhadap penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta? (2) Apa saran-saran untuk mengembangkan dan memaksimalkan penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

Peserta dari penelitian ini adalah siswa Teknik Komputer Jaringan kelas 2. Peneliti menggunakan metode survey; yaitu dengan cara mengamati tingkah laku siswa, menyebar kuesioner, dan mewawancarai enam siswa. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dari hasil observasi, kuesioner dan wawancara.

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STUDENTS’

IN LEARNING ENG

Presented to O

ENGLISH LA DEPARTMEN FACULTY OF SA

S’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF VIDEOS

GLISH AT SMK NEGERI 2 DEPOK, YOGYA

A Thesis

ed as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By Eveline Christina Student Number: 041214097

ANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRA NT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATIO

F TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATIO SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY

YOGYAKARTA 2009

S

AKARTA

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i

STUDENTS’ PERCEPTION ON THE USE OF VIDEOS

IN LEARNING ENGLISH AT SMK NEGERI 2 DEPOK, YOGYAKARTA

A Thesis

Presented as Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By

Eveline Christina Student Number: 041214097

ENGLISH LANGUAGE EDUCATION STUDY PROGRAM DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS EDUCATION FACULTY OF TEACHERS TRAINING AND EDUCATION

SANATA DHARMA UNIVERSITY YOGYAKARTA

2009

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v ABSTRACT

Christina, Eveline. 2009. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

There are a lot of factors that influence successful English learning. One of them is perception. Perception influences students’ behavior and motivation to learn. If students have positive perception, it will lead them to have high motivation in learning. They will have positive behavior that can lead them to be successful in obtaining the learning goal. If they have negative perception, it will lead them to have negative behavior. Their negative behavior will lead them to the failure. Learning English using videos is expected to help students since videos can interest students to pay more attention to the English teaching and learning process. Therefore, the knowledge of students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English can inform teachers whether they should continue and improve using it for teaching their students.

This research investigated the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. There are two research problems to be solved: (1) What is the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta? (2) What are the recommendations to improve and to maximize the use of videos in English learning at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

The research participants were second grade students of Teknik Komputer Jaringan class. The researcher employed a survey research; she conducted the research by observing the students’ behavior, distributing a questionnaire to them, and interviewing six students of Teknik Komputer Jaringan class. The data were collected from the results of the observations, the questionnaire and the interview.

The findings showed that, in general, the students had positive perception on the use of videos in their English learning. The students enjoyed the activities using videos, they did not feel bored and they said that they obtained many advantages through learning using videos such as they had new vocabularies, their English skills such as listening and speaking improved, and their knowledge about western culture increased. They also said that after learning using videos, they were curious to know more about English such as the culture, habits and also the language itself. The students recommended that the materials should be updated; they liked to have drama and students’ presentation as other activities.

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vi ABSTRAK

Christina, Eveline. 2009. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English at SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Ada banyak faktor yang mempengaruhi keberhasilan dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris. Salah satunya adalah persepsi. Persepsi mempengaruhi tingkah laku siswa dan motivasi mereka dalam belajar. Jika siswa memiliki persepsi yang positif, hal tersebut akan meningkatkan motivasi belajar siswa. Mereka akan berperilaku positif yang akan membuat siswa berhasil mencapai tujuan belajar. Jika siswa memiliki persepsi negatif, hal tersebut akan membuat siswa berperilaku negatif. Perilaku negatif mereka akan membuat mereka gagal dalam belajar. Belajar bahasa Inggris dengan video diharapkan dapat membantu siswa karena video dapat menarik siswa untuk lebih memperhatikan dalam proses belajar mengajar bahasa Inggris. Pengetahuan akan persepsi siswa dapat memberitahu guru apakah mereka harus melanjutkan dan mengembangkan penggunaan video dalam mengajar siswa mereka.

Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui persepsi siswa terhadap penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. Ada dua permasalahan yang harus dipecahkan: (1) Bagaimana persepsi siswa terhadap penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta? (2) Apa saran-saran untuk mengembangkan dan memaksimalkan penggunaan video dalam pembelajaran bahasa Inggris di SMKN 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

Peserta dari penelitian ini adalah siswa Teknik Komputer Jaringan kelas 2. Peneliti menggunakan metode survey; yaitu dengan cara mengamati tingkah laku siswa, menyebar kuesioner, dan mewawancarai enam siswa. Data penelitian dikumpulkan dari hasil observasi, kuesioner dan wawancara.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

First of all, I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Jesus Christ for

everything He had given to me. He guided me during the process of finishing my

thesis writing. He gave me strength to keep on trying whenever I gave up. He helped

me to find ways whenever problems raised so that I could survive. Without Him, I

could not finish my thesis.

I would like to thank my sponsor, Made Frida Yulia, S.Pd., M.Pd., for her

guidance, patience, time, support and advice. Her comments, corrections and

suggestions for my thesis really helped me to finish it.

I would like to thank Drs. Sutarto, the headmaster of SMKN 2 Depok,

Yogyakarta, for the permission to conduct the research in this school.

I would also like to thank Drs. Trisuko Bambang Wiyono and his family

for his permission to conduct the research in his class, for his willingness to help me

whenever I got confused in conducting the research, for their warmth whenever I was

at their home. I would thank Rina Candrawati, my best friend, who always helps

me. We like to share ideas, life experiences and we strengthen one another.

I would like to express my gratitude to my parents, my sister, and my brother

for their love, prayer, support and encouragement so that I could finish my thesis.

I would also like to thank Mr. Benyamin and his wife, for their willingness

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since my computer was out of order, to Ko Agus, Novi, and Extra Ordinary Youth

Zone (my church community) for their willingness to pray for me and gave me

encouragement so that I could finish my thesis.

My special thanks go to my beloved partner, Ariyanto, S. Farm. I thank him

for his patience and prayer, for giving me endless love, support, affection,

encouragement, happiness and for helping me passed through this uncomfortable

moment.

I would like to thank all my research participants, especially Ursula, Anggy,

Lely, Ardianto, Hajid, and Anggit. I thank their time and their willingness to be

interviewed.

Finally, I would like to thank those whose names could not be mentioned here

for their prayers and encouragement. I believe that God always blesses them all.

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

Page

TITLE PAGE……….. i

APPROVAL PAGES……….. ii

STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY……… iv

ABSTRACT………. v

ABSTRAK………... vi

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS……… vii

TABLE OF CONTENTS……… ix

LIST OF TABLES……….. xii

LIST OF FIGURES………. xiii

LIST OF APPENDICES………. xiv

CHAPTER I. INTRODUCTION A. Research Background………. 1

B. Problem Formulation ………. 3

C. Problem Limitation………. 3

D. Research Objectives……… 3

E. Research Benefits……… 4

F. Definition of Terms………. 5

CHAPTER II. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE A. Theoretical Description……….. 7

1. Theory of Perception………. 7

a. Definition of Perception………... 7

b. Perception on Learning……… 9

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a. Definition of Motivation……….. 10

b. Importance of Motivation……… 11

c. The Relation among Perception, Motivation and Emotion……… 12

3. Theory of Cognitive Development……… 12

a. Sensorimotor Stage………... 13

b. Pre-Operational Stage………... 13

c. Concrete Operational Stage………. 13

d. Formal Operational Stage……… 14

4. Theory of Learning English Using Videos………. 15

B. Theoretical Framework……… 20

CHAPTER III. METHODOLOGY A. Research Method……… 23

B. Research Participants……… 24

C. Research Instruments………. 24

1. The Observation Checklist……….. 25

2. The Questionnaire……… 26

3. The Interview Guide……… 28

D. Data Gathering Technique………. 29

E. Data Analysis Technique……… 30

F. Research Procedures……….. 32

CHAPTER IV. RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION A. Student’s Perception on the use of Videos in learning English……… 34 1. Students’ Perception Based on the Observations

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Process Using Videos……… 34

2. Students’ Perception on the Activities, Motivation and Implication on the Use of Videos in Learning English Based on the Questionnaire……… .41

3. Students’ Perception on the Activities, Motivation and Implication on the Use of Videos in Learning English Based on the Interview………. 54

a. Students’ Perception on the Activities Using Videos……… 54

b. Students’ Perception on the Motivation after Learning Using Videos……… 57

c. Students’ Perception on the Implication after Learning Using Videos……… 61

B. Students’ Recommendation to Improve and to Maximize the Use of Videos in English Learning……… 64

CHAPTER V. CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS A. Conclusions……….. 67

1. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English ………. 67

2. Students’ Recommendations to Improve and to Maximize the Use of Videos in Learning English………. 68

B. Suggestions………... 69

REFERENCES… ... 71

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LIST OF TABLES

Table

4.1 Frequency of the Students’ Responses to Each Statement

of the Questionnaire……….. 84 4.2 Percentage of the Students’ Responses to Each Statement

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xiv

LIST OF FIGURES

Figure

Figure 1 Students’ responses to

“The activities used in my class are various”……...……….. 42

Figure 2 Students’ responses to “The activities help me to improve my English skills”……… 42

Figure 3 Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound off activates my mind to think what the videos tell about”………43

Figure 4 Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound on enhances my comprehension”………..………44

Figure 5 Students’ responses to “I am active in answering questions from my teacher……… 46

Figure 6 Students’ responses to “I am eager to know everything about English”………...46

Figure 7 Students’ responses to “I do the assignment given seriously”………. 47

Figure 8 Students’ responses to “I listen and watch the videos seriously”………..48

Figure 9 Students’ responses to “I am enthusiastic to learn English using video in the next meeting”………...49

Figure 10 Students’ responses to “My vocabulary list increases”……… 50

Figure 11 Students’ responses to “My listening skill improves”…... 51

Figure 12 Students’ responses to “My speaking skill improves”………. 51

Figure 13 Students’ responses to “My knowledge about foreign culture and its habits increase”………. 53

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LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix

A. The Observation Checklist………. 74

B. The Interview Guide……… 77

C. The Questionnaire……….. 79

D. The Raw Data of the Questionnaire……… 81

E. The Frequency and Percentage of Students’ Responses to Each Statement of the Questionnaire………. 83

F. The Students’ Interview Transcript……… 86

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1 CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION

This research investigates the students’ perception on the use of videos in English learning. This chapter presents six parts: (1) research background, (2) problem formulation, (3) problem limitation, (4) research objectives, (5) research benefits, and (6) definition of terms.

A. Research Background

As an international language, English is learnt by all people in the world including Indonesia. Most schools in Indonesia have English as their compulsory subject. Students have to be able either to communicate or to write in English in order to face the globalization era. There is an expectation that students can learn English successfully.

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teaching-learning strategies (Ames, 1988: 260). After knowing students’ perception,

teacher can plan appropriate teaching-learning process.

There are a lot of ways in English teaching-learning process. Teachers can

use technology because through it, the activities can be more varied. Among the

various technologies that are available, videos are suitable to be used in the

teaching-learning process because it can convey the information or knowledge in

a more interesting way and gives pictures of complicated context (Cognition and

Technology Group as cited in Choi, 1992).

Videos permit second language learners to observe the dynamics of

communications as they observe native speakers in real situation and use different

accents, registers, and paralinguistic cues such as posture and gestures (Secules,

Herron, Tomasello, 1992: 480). Videos also encourage learners in reasoning,

thinking, and solving problems by bringing them to real world situations. Through

videos, students’ problem solving skills can be enhanced.

Moreover, Senior High School students like to have visual aids in their

learning and videos can provide it. The use of videos in English teaching-learning

is expected to help students to be easier in learning English although sometimes it

does not work as it is expected. Teachers sometimes have dissatisfaction to the

students because they do not actively participate in the learning while the students

feel that the instructional activities are different from their preconceived

perception on language learning. This unexpected situation can appear less when

teachers know their students’ perception. The knowledge of students’ perception

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language learning. Therefore, this research is conducted to find out students’ perception on the use of videos in English teaching-learning process.

B. Problem Formulation

The study would address two questions:

1. What is the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

2. What are the recommendations to improve and to maximize the use of videos

in English learning at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta?

C. Problem Limitation

The research is focused on finding students’ perception on the use of videos in English learning and finding recommendations to improve and to maximize the use of videos in English learning. The research is conducted at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. The school is chosen because it uses videos in its English learning and it is also open for any educational researches. The researcher conducts the research in the second grade of Teknik Komputer Jaringan class. This class is chosen because it is accessible for conducting the research and there is time suitability between the schedule of the English lesson and the researcher.

D. Research Objectives

Based on the problem formulation, this research has two objectives: 1. To know the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English at

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2. To obtain the recommendations in order to improve and to maximize the use of videos in English learning at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta.

E. Research Benefits

This research gives benefits to the English teachers of SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta, and university students who are interested in conducting research on the use of videos in learning English.

1. English Teachers of SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta.

This research will help teachers to understand the importance of students’ perception on the use of videos in English learning. If teachers know that students have positive perception, they can consider the use of videos in teaching their students. On the other hand, if teachers know that students have negative

perception, they have to find what makes the students have negative perception on the use of videos in English learning because through the theory, learning English using videos gives many benefits to the students. Teachers can improve the

activities or the methods or the video materials in order to fulfill students’ needs in English learning.

2. University students

The results of the research are expected to help university students who are interested in conducting research on learning English using videos. They may use

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English learning. They can develop the research on other aspects of the use of videos in English learning.

F. Definition of Terms

Below are the terms which need to be defined in order to avoid

misunderstanding. They are:

1. Perception

The definition of perception is “the act of perceiving by the senses or

intellect or by the mind of what is presented to them; discernment, cognition” as cited in http://dictionary.reference.com/browse/perception. Perception, in this research, refers to second grade Senior High School students’ perception on the

use of videos, which can be seen through the activities in the English teaching-learning process. What is meant by students’ perception is how students see and think about their English teaching-learning process using videos at school, whether the teaching learning process using videos can fulfill students’ needs or not, whether the activities are interesting or not, whether students’ English skill improve or not, whether the teaching-learning is successful or not.

2. Videos in English Learning

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Richards (1999: 1), videos in English learning contains a mix of entertaining,

dramatized sequences and authentic documentaries in which students can learn

many varied materials in their English learning. Students can learn culture,

grammar, vocabulary and many other topics. Videos in this research refer to the

materials which provide sound and picture such as monolog, dialog, stories and

songs. The materials are used in English teaching-learning process of second

grade Senior High School student at SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta.

3. SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta

SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta is a school where the students learn English using videos. The teachers use videos in order to help the students in

understanding the English, and also to make the students more enthusiastic in

learning English. The teachers have some activities which are related to the use of

videos. They are watching videos with the sound off, watching videos with the

sound on, watching videos by pausing, and the last is guessing the ending of the

story in the videos. The video materials can be used to teach grammar,

vocabulary, culture and also songs. From forty-eight meetings, the teachers use

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7 CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter discusses theoretical description and theoretical framework. Theoretical description discusses some theories related to the research, while theoretical framework discusses major relevant theories which help to answer the research questions.

A. Theoretical Description

There are four major areas discussed; they are theory of perception, theory of motivation, theory of cognitive development, and theory of learning English using videos.

1. Theory of Perception

This part presents theory of perception including definition of perception and perception in learning.

a. Definition of Perception

According to Sternberg (1988: 8), perception is defined as the way a person gives meaning to the world. It needs a cognitive thought, which might help someone to achieve a meaningful interpretation. Moreover, Kreitner and Kinichki (1992: 126) add “perception is a mental and cognitive process that enables people to interpret and understand the surroundings.”

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that the messages can be meaningfully interpreted. The forming of perception is influenced by experience and human sensory senses. Even though some people are given the same stimuli, they will see, think and give response to the stimuli differently. It is because the forming of perception is subjective. However, perception does not solely involve sensory processes but also a mental process. Hardy and Heyes as cited in Kurniyati (2006: 9) state that “the basic form of perception is people’s born talent; meanwhile perceptional ability is the result of learning, which is determined by the environment.”

Perception on something can affect one’s behavior toward it. When someone understands the stimuli that he receives, he will give response to the stimuli. If someone believes that the stimuli fulfill his needs and expectation, it will make him have positive perception on the stimuli. Every person has different perception based on his needs and expectation.

Expectation and previous experience constantly interact with one another to influence our perception of sensory events...Perception is also substantially influenced by our motivation and needs.…Our expectation, past experiences, and psychological states combine, setting us to perceive the world in certain ways. (Bootzin, 1983: 119-120)

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b. Perception on Learning

Perception on learning has relation with belief and concept. Perception on learning has connection with belief about knowledge that can influence students’ behavior toward the learning. It means that perception on learning has a big role in the process of obtaining the knowledge.

There is a system that relates the concept with the environment. The concept is formed by the stimuli that come from the environment. This system is called interactive system. It has three elements; those are presage, process and product or learning outcome (Biggs, 1992: 3-6).

1) Presage

Presage is an indicator of future occurrence. It includes learning conception and learning context such as teachers and school attributes, and also students’ understanding about knowledge. The examples of presage are educational practices, students’ preparation, and the procedures of assessment.

2) Process

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3) Product

Product or learning outcome is influenced by the learning strategies used. Students can have good learning outcome when the learning strategies that are used are suitable for them, which can make them have positive perception on the learning. Students’ perception on English learning is influenced by the implementation of English teaching-learning activities.

The three elements above are mentioned in five elements of language teaching-learning activities that build students’ perception by Champbell (2001: 173-186). Those are 1) the way the teacher teaches the students, 2) what kind of material that the teacher wants the students to learn, 3) how the students behave in class during the process of learning, 4) what material that the students learn, and 5) what the goals of learning the language are.

In perception on learning, the students’ behavior can be changed through the process of learning. For instance, at first, a student experiences that speaking activity is difficult. However, since speaking activities are adjusted to the students’ condition and interest, he, then, considers the speaking activities interesting. This theory helps the researcher analyzes parts of perception on learning using videos from the students that need to be observed.

Theory of Motivation in Learning a. Definition of Motivation

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it ways, desire that strengthens and leads to goal-oriented behavior. Motivation also strengthens the influence of needs and desires on the intensity and direction of behavior.

b. Importance of Motivation

Motivation is very important in the learning process because according to cognitive approach called attribution theory, motivation influences individual’s behavior in the learning process. It brings the individual to the success or failure.

Motivation refers to goal-directed behavior, and when one is attempting to measure motivation and attention, it can be directed toward a number of features of the individual. The motivated individual expends effort; he is persistent and pays attention to the task at hand; he has goals, desires, and aspirations; he enjoys the activity; he experiences reinforcement from success and disappointment from failure, and he makes strategies to aid in achieving goals. That is, the motivated individual exhibits many behavior, feelings, cognitions, and the individual who is unmotivated does not.

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Another reason why motivation is very important is because it can influence students’ attitudes toward the learning. Students will be successful when they have integrative motivation. There is strong support for the proposition that integrative motivation promotes successful second language acquisition, as has been proposed and shown in many studies (Gardner and Lambert, 1972)

Motivation has connection to attitudes. If students have positive attitudes toward the learning, it means that they have high motivation. On the other hand, if students have negative attitudes toward the learning, it means that they have low motivation. If students have low motivation, it can lead them to the failure.

c. The Relation among Perception, Motivation, and Emotion

Perception and motivation are two important things which can influence people’s attitude toward the learning process. The interaction between perception of environment or stimuli and subjective cognitive can give a result called emotion. Emotion can influence people’s feeling. Emotion has relation with motivation; when people have negative emotion such as anger, it can influence their motivations which then affect their attitudes toward the learning. It means that in the learning process, if people have bad feeling, it can make their motivation lower than usual, and it can lead them to the failure.

2. Theory of Cognitive Development

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into four stages. The four stages are sensorimotor stage, pre-operational stage, concrete operational stage, and formal operational stage. Below are the explanations of each stage.

a. Sensorimotor Stage

Infancy until the age of 2 is included in this stage. During this stage, a child learns about himself and his environment through motor actions. His thought derives from sensation and movement. Teaching for a child in this stage should be carried on to the sensorimotor system.

b. Pre-operational Stage

Toddler and Early Childhood at about age 7 are included in this stage. In this period, the child begins to use symbols to represent objects. The child learns to think about things and events that are not immediately present. His thinking is influenced by fantasy such as what he would like things to be. He creates his own imagination.

c. Concrete Operational Stage

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d. Formal Operational Stage

Adolescence is included in this stage. This person no longer requires concrete objects to make rational judgments. His intelligence is showed through the logical use of symbols related to abstract concepts.

According to Piaget’s stages of cognitive development above, the age of Senior High School is included in formal operational stage (12 years old – adult). The formal operational period is the fourth and final of the periods of cognitive development in this theory. This stage, which follows the Concrete Operational, commences at around 12 years of age (puberty) and continues into adulthood. It is characterized by acquisition of the ability to think abstractly, reason logically and draw conclusions from the information available. During this stage, the young adult is able to understand such things as love, “shades of gray”, logical proofs, and values.

It is also said that the age of sixteen, in which more or less at the same age as second grade Senior High School students, students’ ability to think and understand something meaningfully is developed. However, students at this age prefer paying attention to the things that interest them. Therefore, teaching and learning activity must be carefully designed in order to attract students’ attention.

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When a student reaches the formal operational stage, the range of assessments is almost endless. These young people can now employ the use of analogies and hypotheses in problem solving. They can incorporate value judgments and problems of social and cultural scope as part of their processing.

Piaget also knows the needs of Senior High school students in the education field. He said that Senior High school students like to learn something using visual aids, illustration, simple graphs and diagrams. They like to be taught using step by step explanation. It is better for teachers to give the students opportunity to explore many questions through discussion of social issues because they like to share their ideas. Teachers can ask them to work in pairs or groups and give them a problem which has to be solved. Students in the formal operations stage also like to learn something through music.

From the explanation above, it can be concluded that Senior High students are interested in visual aids and illustrations. They also like to learn something through music. Since their abilities to think and understand something are developed, Piaget advices the teachers to use well-organized materials that offer step by step explanations. The use of social issue and problems can develop their critical thinking ability and problem solving skill. This theory helps the researcher to analyze the students’ needs in their age which can be used as factors to build the students’ perception on the use of videos.

3. Theory of Learning English Using Videos

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English. The first reason is video has the ability to use both auditory and visual system. According to Baggett as cited in Secules et al. (1992: 480) learners can construct a meaning of a story from either audio or visual information alone, but it appears that when presented together, each source provides additional and complementary information. Through video, learners can write a summary of a movie completely better than when they only listen to the audio-only version. It means that information that is obtained visually is memorable.

Second, videos can connect students with faraway place. Videos permit the students to observe the dynamics of interaction as they observe native speakers in authentic situation and using different accents, registers, and paralinguistic cues such as gestures and postures (Secules, et al., 1992: 480). Herron (1992: 480) says that videos give great sense of what the country would be like if the students visited it.

Third, videos can enhance self-confidence and breakdown social-stereotypes. According to Terrel (1993: 17), authentic videos have even been shown to inspire self-confidence. As a result, students say that they have fewer obstacles about using their second language.

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Fifth, videos help to demonstrate abstract ideas. Videos, by nature, are filled with valuable extra-linguistic clues. Research shows that exposure to visual stimuli increases students' comprehension and retention of lexical items. Then, that visual exposure, when joined with an audio component, significantly increases students' comprehension of a video text. It means that videos help to give pictures of abstract ideas.

Secules, et al. (1992: 480) had made a research on the use of video at Emory University. They gave different treatment on two groups of students. One group was taught using videos while the other group was taught using non-video. The result of this research was the group which was taught using videos had scores better than the group which was not taught using video. They said that through the research, they concluded the use of video in the teaching and learning process could enhance students’ ability in improving their skills.

According to Garret (1991: 340), “playing a video in a class gives less trouble than playing an old-fashioned 16mm movie on projector.” She says that teachers generally find videos attractive resources. Moreover, the sources of videos material are complete and can be varied. She also says that through videos students can model all kinds of communicative interactions to demonstrate gestures, postures and facial expressions.

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printed sources. Videos have also been shown to be motivating and loaded with sensory impact, affective factors that aid comprehension.

Videos can be powerful tool for meaningful learning. It all depends on the teachers’ ability to make the teaching-learning process shows its role in helping the students to obtain the goal of the learning. The key in using videos effectively is preparation. Teachers can maximize the learning opportunities by encouraging students to become active in the process of teaching and learning. Teachers have to find suitable activities which can activate the students in the learning.

Although there are many advantages that can be obtained from using videos, there are also disadvantages of the use of videos. The use of videos in the teaching and learning process needs more facilities. A school which uses videos has spent much money in order to provide the video equipment, the screen or television, the guideline books to use it, and the video materials. The teachers have to learn how to teach using videos, they also have to find suitable and interesting activities that make the students active to participate in the teaching and learning process.

There are many activities which can be used in videos learning. According to KQED (2008) as cited in http://www.kqed.co.id, activities on videos learning are divided into three parts. They are before viewing, during viewing, and after viewing.

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Teachers have to prepare the classroom environment and video equipment so that the teaching-learning process can run well. Teachers also have to stimulate students’ pre-existing knowledge before he turns on the videos in order to make the students ready in following the lesson.

Activity during viewing means the activities in the process of learning using videos. Teachers can give students a focus viewing assignment in order to help the students in understanding the topics of the video. Teachers can sometimes use one short segment at a time and direct the learning experience to encourage students’ awareness of production values and techniques. When the topic or content of the video is quite difficult for the students, teachers can press “pause” often to help students in understanding about what is discussed in the videos. Other activities that can be used are viewing videos with the sound off to identify students’ prior knowledge or asses what they have learned by having them provide their own narration. Teachers can use videos without the picture to make the students create their own visual images which later will be compared to the video images. To give the students a chance to focus on the material, teachers can view the videos twice. Teachers can sometimes do closed-captioning as a reading reinforcement. All the activities during viewing try to make the students active in participating in the process of learning.

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in their mind about the program in a limited time, for instance only two minutes. To develop their writing skill, the students have to write a paragraph about the topic in the videos. Teachers can also use jigsaw activity to activate their mind about many topics which can be raised after watching the video; they can ask students to find solution for the problem based on the content in a video and explain the solution. Those three parts of activities using videos helps students to reach the learning goal. It gives the students meaningful learning.

B. Theoretical Framework

Perception is an important factor that influences successful learning since it influences someone’s motivation to learn and behavior or attitudes. In order to answer the first research question, namely students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English, the researcher employed four theories. They are theory of perception, theory of motivation, theory of Piaget’s cognitive development, and theory of learning English using videos.

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their learning based on their age. The researcher also employed the theory of learning English using videos in order to recognize the activities that are used in learning using videos and the advantages and disadvantages of using videos in English learning. It also helps the researcher to find out whether the use of videos can fulfill students’ needs or not.

The result of students’ perception on the use of videos in learning English can be positive or negative. Based on the theories above, if most of students’ needs in learning can be fulfilled by the use of videos in their English learning, it can lead them to have positive behavior toward the learning, which later leads them to have positive perception. On the other hand, if only few of students’ needs in learning are fulfilled by the use of videos in their English learning, it can lead them to have negative behavior toward the learning, which later leads them to have negative perception.

Researching second grade Senior High School students’ perception is important. The results of the research can be used to improve the quality of the use of videos in English learning. It can also encourage other schools to use videos in their English teaching-learning activities.

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23 CHAPTER III METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents the methodology of this research. The methodology is divided into six parts; they are research method, research participants, research instruments, data gathering technique, data analysis technique, and research procedures.

A. Research Method

In order to answer the research questions stated in chapter one, the researcher employed a survey research. According to Groves, Fowler, Couper, Lepkowski, Singer, and Tourangean (2004a: 2), “a survey is one of the most methods that is commonly used in the social sciences. Its aim is to understand the social phenomena, the societies work and also to test theories of behavior.” It means that a survey research is a research that is used to understand the human behavior and the characteristics of the target people. Survey research was best applied in this research since this research was aimed to find out the students’ perception on the use of videos in English learning and students’ recommendation to improve and to maximize the use of videos in English learning.

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human experience to be observed, the results obtained in this research are in the form of words rather than numbers.

B. Research Participants

The target population of this research was the second grade of senior high school students of SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. However, since it would not be possible to survey the entire population of the students, a small group of students was taken to be a representative of the population selected. The research participants were the second grade of Teknik Komputer Jaringan students of SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta. of academic year 2007/2008. This class was chosen

because it was accessible for conducting the research and there was time suitability between the schedule of the English lesson and the researcher.

The total number of students in Teknik Komputer Jaringan class was thirty two students. However, because of some reasons such as the students were absent when the research was conducted, the number of the students was not the same as it was planned. From thirty-two students, the researcher took six students to be interviewed.

C. Research Instruments

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1. Observation Checklist

The first instrument was observation checklist. It was used to answer the

first research question. According to Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2000: 293),

“Observational data are attractive as they afford the researcher the opportunity to

gather ‘live’ data from ‘live’ situation”. In other words, by carrying out

observation, the researcher would be able to look at the real condition of the

participants being observed. The researcher used observation since it gave data on

every action taking place in the classroom. Morrison (2000) stated “observation

will enable the researcher to gather data on physical setting, human setting,

interactional setting, as well as program setting.” By using observation, the

researcher was helped to gather data in every setting.

In the research, the observation checklist was very useful in helping the

researcher to gather data. The observation helped the researcher to observe the

students’ behavior in the learning process through videos. The observation

checklist consisted of three parts. The first part (Part A) was students’ behavior

before learning through videos. In other words, the first part was student’s

behavior before viewing. This part consisted of 6 points. The second part (Part B)

was students’ behavior during learning through videos. In other words, the second

part was student’s behavior during viewing. This part consisted of 8 points. The

third part (Part C) was students’ behavior after learning through videos. In other

words, the third part was students’ behavior after viewing. This part consisted of 6

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In conducting the research, the researcher used nonparticipant observation.

In nonparticipant observation, the observer was not really involved in the

activities of the group. The researcher purely observed the students in the

classroom. It was done in order to minimize the missing data on the students’

progress and to provide truthful data. Therefore, a nonparticipant observer would

be very helpful.

2. Questionnaire

The second instrument was a questionnaire. According to Seliger and

Shohamy (1989: 172) “a questionnaire is printed forms for data collection, which

include questions or statements to which the subject of the research is expected to

answer.” The questionnaire was used to obtain information about the students’

perception on the activities, motivation and implication of using videos. It was

also used to determine the six students who would be interviewed. There are two

types of questionnaire: closed form and open form. This research used closed

form questionnaire. According to Ary et al. (2002), there are two advantages; first,

the response rate of the questionnaire could reach 100%. Second, a questionnaire

is also practical because the answers can be returned at the same time as when the

questionnaire is distributed.

This closed form of a questionnaire consisted of twenty-five statements,

covering three categories. The first category (Part A) was about the students’

perception on the activities used in learning English using videos. It covered

questions number one up to number eight. The second category (Part B) was

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videos. It covered questions number nine up to number sixteen. The third category (Part C) was about the students’ perception on the implication of learning English using videos. It covered questions number seventeen up to number twenty five.

The questionnaire used Likert Scale, a scale with a number of points that provides ordinal scale measurement (Wiersma, 1995). A set of related responses for each point was provided. The responses were valued from “never, rarely, sometimes, often, and very often.” The rank was one to five. To find out what choices of the respondents, they were asked to put a tick on the column based on their choices. The questionnaire used Indonesian in order to make the students understand the statements in the questionnaire easily.

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be interpreted that the respondents had negative perception.

3. Interview

The third instrument was an interview. The interview questions were

similar to the statements in the questionnaire. The interview was conducted to the

research participants in order to obtain information about the reason why they

gave a certain answer in the questionnaire. Further, the interview also

strengthened the data to answer the research questions. According to Kvale, as

cited in Cohen, Manion, and Morrison (2000: 267), ”the use of interview in

research marks a move away from seeing human subjects as simply manipulable

and data as somehow external to individuals, and towards regarding knowledge as

generated between humans, often through conversations.” The interview was also

aimed to gather information about the students’ perception on the use of videos in

their English teaching-learning process and their recommendations to improve and

to maximize the use of videos.

The interview used in the research was a structured interview. Structured

interview, which was used as one of the instruments of the research means that the

questions for interviewee were already prepared before the interview was done.

There were twenty five questions prepared and asked by the researcher. The

interview questions used Indonesian in order to make the students easier in

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D. Data Gathering Technique

In gathering the data, the researcher used the three instruments to answer the two research questions. This sub-chapter explained how the instruments worked and also how the data were gathered. There are three steps in gathering the data.

In the first step of gathering data from the participants, the researcher maximized the use of observation checklist. The researcher observed the students’ behavior before viewing, during viewing, and after viewing. The observation took about two weeks, one observation each week. The researcher only did the observation twice because of the time availability between the schedule of Teknik Komputer Jaringan English lesson and the researcher.

In the second step, the researcher distributed a questionnaire. The questionnaire was used to obtain information about the students’ perception on the activities, motivation and implication of using videos. It was also used to determine the six students who would be interviewed. It took twenty minutes for the students to fill in the questionnaire. The schedule of distributing the questionnaire was chosen by considering the schedule of the English class and the available time of the English teacher and the researcher.

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E. Data Analysis Techniques

After the data were gathered, the researcher then analyzed them in order to obtain answer to the questions formulated in the problem formulation. The research used three instruments: an observation checklist, a questionnaire and an interview, which strengthened one another. Therefore, the data analyzed were from the three instruments.

First, the researcher analyzed the observation results that were related to the students’ behavior before viewing, during viewing and after viewing. The observation helped the researcher to answer the first research question. According to Bootzin (1983:120), if students have positive behavior toward the learning, they will have positive perception on the learning. On the other hand, if students have negative behavior toward the learning, they will have negative perception. Based on that theory, the researcher analyzed the students’ behavior toward the use of videos in learning English.

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The students’ total response score to the questionnaire could reflect the students’ perception on the use of videos in English learning (Faisal, 1981: 48). a. The students whose scores were 101-125 were considered having ‘very good’

perception.

b. The students whose scores were 76-100 were considered having ‘good’ perception.

c. The students whose scores were 51-75 were considered having ‘middle’ perception.

d. The students whose scores were 26-50 were considered having ‘bad’ perception.

e. The students whose scores were 1-25 were considered having ‘very bad’ perception.

The categories of making the classification above were based on the consideration:

a. The maximum score of column 5 or ‘very often’ was 125 b. The maximum score of column 4 or ‘often’ was 100 c. The maximum score of column 3 or ‘sometimes’ was 75 d. The maximum score of column 2 or ‘rarely’ was 50 e. The maximum score of column 1 or ‘never’ was 25

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perception on the use of videos in learning English. The students who had ‘very

bad’ and ‘bad’ perception were included as students who had negative perception

on the use of videos in learning English. Those responses were used as the data of

this research. From those data, the researcher could determine the students who

would be interviewed.

Third, the researcher analyzed the interview results. The interview

questions were quite similar to the questionnaire. However, in the interview, there

were questions to ask the reason or background the students gave certain answers.

The researcher did the interview twice in order to obtain reliable data.

F. Research Procedures

There were some steps used in the research. Before conducting the

research, the researcher first chose the problem to be solved. Then, the researcher

decided the school and participants of the research. Next, the researcher did the

preparation steps. In these steps, the researcher asked permission letter from the

English Language Education Study Program of Sanata Dharma University. Afterwards, the researcher gave the permission letter to the secretariat of SMK Negeri 2 Depok, Yogyakarta to conduct a research in the school. Then, the researcher had a meeting with the English teacher in order to arrange the

appropriate schedule to conduct the research.

The researcher, then, did pre-observation and observations on the

participants. After the researcher observed twice, she distributed the questionnaire

to the participants. Then, the researcher analyzed the questionnaire in order to

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interviewed the participants in order to obtain more information needed to answer

the research questions. The researcher interviewed the participants twice using the

same questions. The second interview was aimed to confirm the participants’

answers in the first interview.

The next step was analyzing the data gathered from the observations, and

the interview. The first research question was answered through the observations,

the questionnaire and the interview. While the second research question was

answered through the interview. Afterward, the data gathered were interpreted.

After the data were interpreted, the researcher made conclusion based on the

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34 CHAPTER IV

RESEARCH FINDINGS AND DISCUSSION

This chapter presents the findings of the research. This research was

conducted to find out the students’ perception on the use of videos in learning

English and students’ recommendations to improve and to maximize the use of

videos in English learning. The findings were divided into two parts. They were

part A that explained the students’ perception and part B that explained the

students’ recommendations.

A. Students’ Perception on the Use of Videos in Learning English

The data were obtained through three instruments; they were an

observation, a questionnaire, and an interview. Each instrument would be

analyzed separately. These three instruments were used to answer the students’

perception on the use of videos in learning English while to answer the students’

recommendations to maximize and to improve the use of videos, the researcher

only used an interview.

1. Students’ Perception Based on the Observations of Students’ Behavior in the Teaching-Learning Process Using Videos

Bootzin (1983: 120) says that perception is very important because it can

influence students’ behavior and motivation toward the teaching and learning

process. Based on that theory, the researcher divided the observation into three

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The researcher focused on observing students’ behavior before viewing (section 1), during viewing (section 2), and after viewing videos (section 3).

The first observation was done on September 22nd , 2008. The total number of present students was thirty-two. The teaching and learning process took place in a classroom. In the first section, every student had prepared his or her English book on the tables. Some of them were talking while waiting for the teacher who was preparing the video equipment for about five minutes. Before the students watched the video, they were asked about the previous video that they learnt the week before. The students were quite active in answering the teacher’s questions. After doing the review, they were asked about what they knew related to kinds of European food and beverages for breakfast to activate their background knowledge. Most of them tried to answer but only some of them could answer the question correctly. Afterward, the students paid attention to the teacher’s explanation about the material they were going to learn. All of the students paid attention to the teacher seriously.

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correct pronunciation, and then the students were asked to pronounce the same

words.

In the third section, the students were asked to have a conversation in

pairs about what they had for breakfast that morning. All of the students enjoyed

the conversation. There were some students who still used Indonesian and English

in one sentence; however, they tried to speak actively. They sometimes made

jokes. There were no students who looked sleepy. They were enthusiastic in the

process of learning. Overall, the students were active and enjoyed the teaching

and learning process.

The second observation was done on October 13th , 2008. The total

number of present students was thirty. The teaching and learning process took

place in the English laboratory. In the first section, every student had prepared his

or her English book on the tables. The teacher played a “My heart will go on”

song before beginning the lesson in order to make the atmosphere of the class

comfortable. Some students sang that song while the other students talking to their

friends. When the teacher began the lesson, all students paid attention to him.

Before they watched the video, they were asked about a character named Kate

who played in the video they watched the week before. They were asked what the

character did at that time. They answered the question together. Although they

made noise, it showed that the students were active in answering the question.

Then the teacher asked the students about kinds of job that they knew. Almost

half of the total students answered the question. Then the teacher only said that

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In the second section, they watched the video. The same as the first

observation, at the first viewing, the students watched the video with the sound

off. All of them watched the video seriously. Most of them took notes. When they

finished watching, they were asked to write ten sentences about the video content

in pairs. Next, they watched the video again with the sound on. While watching

the video, they analyzed their sentences in order to know whether their ideas of

their sentences were correct or not when watching video with the sound off

compared with watching the video with the sound on. Then, they discussed the

video content with the teacher. In this section, the teacher did not play the video

until the end. After the discussion, the students were asked what would happen

next and what the end of the story was. The students shared their ideas about the

end of the story enthusiastically. After they were brainstorming, they watched the

video again to know the end of the story.

In the third section, the students were asked to have a conversation in

pairs about the content of the video. They did it actively. However, three to four

students did not do the conversation seriously. They had another topic of

conversation, and they spoke in Indonesian. After having the conversation, the

students were asked voluntarily to retell the content of the video using their own

words in front of the class. Students who were willing to retell the content of the

video would be given points. Four students were willing to do it. Although their

speaking was not fluent, however, they wanted to try; they made effort to speak

English. While the other students listened to their friends, the researcher found

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doing something that was unrelated to the English lesson while their friends were

retelling the video content. The last activity in this section was singing a song.

The video showed the song text and all students sang the song together.

From the observation above, there was information that could be analyzed

and concluded. The information focused on the students’ behavior since from the

students’ behavior, it could be seen what the students’ perception was. Below was

the analysis.

According to Piaget (as cited in Barry, 2003), Senior High school

students like to learn something using visual aids, illustration, simple graphs and

diagrams. They like to be taught using step by step explanation. They like to share

their ideas through question and answer session and discussion. They also like to

work in pairs or groups.

Based on the observation, the use of video gave the students visual aids

and illustration. The activities used in the teaching and learning process were done

step by step and the students sometimes had to do the works in pairs or groups.

The students were also given many chances to share their ideas about the video

content.

The students’ behavior before viewing was considered positive. They

were active in answering teacher’s questions about the topic they were going to

learn. Most students also paid attention to the teacher’s explanation about the

material.

The students’ behavior during viewing was also considered positive. All

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video was played with the sound off. Therefore, they watched the video seriously,

some students frowned their forehead that showed that their mind was thinking

about the video that was played. Even some students took notes. Sometimes they

laughed when the story was funny. Sometimes they gave comments directly about

the happening in the video. It meant that all students were interested in the video.

When they finished watching the video with the sound off, they did the focus

viewing assignment seriously. The researcher observed that they remembered

what the story told from the focus viewing assignment. When they watched the

video with the sound on, they paid more attention to it since they were curious

whether their ideas about the video were right or wrong. They could also answer

the teacher’s questions related to the video that they watched. It meant that they

understood the story in the video. They were more curious when the video did not

play until the end. They were quite active in sharing their ideas about the ending.

Then, when they watched the ending and in fact their ideas were different from

what was played in the video, they were surprised and laughed. The researcher

really observed that all students were enthusiastic and enjoyed the teaching and

learning process using video.

The students’ behavior after viewing was quite positive. They listened to

the teacher’s instruction. They did the conversation in pairs using the video topic.

Most students were active. However, the researcher observed that three to four

students did not do the conversation seriously. They had another topic that was

chatted to their friends. In the first observation, no students looked sleepy.

Figur

Table 4.1 Frequency of the Students’ Responses to Each Statement

Table 4.1

Frequency of the Students’ Responses to Each Statement p.16
Figure 2 showed that students gave positive response to the second

Figure 2

showed that students gave positive response to the second p.60
Figure 3 Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound off activates my

Figure 3

Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound off activates my p.61
Figure 4 Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound on enhances my

Figure 4

Students’ responses to “Watching videos with the sound on enhances my p.62
Figure 5 Students’ responses to “I am active in answering questions from my

Figure 5

Students’ responses to “I am active in answering questions from my p.64
Figure 7 Students responses to “I do the assignment given seriously.”

Figure 7

Students responses to “I do the assignment given seriously.” p.65
Figure 9 showed that students gave positive response to the sixteenth

Figure 9

showed that students gave positive response to the sixteenth p.66
Figure 9 Students’ responses to “I am enthusiastic to learn English using video in

Figure 9

Students’ responses to “I am enthusiastic to learn English using video in p.67
Figure 10 showed that students gave positive response to the nineteenth

Figure 10

showed that students gave positive response to the nineteenth p.68
Figure 11 Students’ responses to “My listening skill improves”

Figure 11

Students’ responses to “My listening skill improves” p.69
Figure 13 showed that students gave positive response to the twenty-fifth

Figure 13

showed that students gave positive response to the twenty-fifth p.70
Figure 13 Students’ responses to “My knowledge about foreign culture and its

Figure 13

Students’ responses to “My knowledge about foreign culture and its p.71
Table 4.1

Table 4.1

p.102
Table 4.2

Table 4.2

p.103

Referensi

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