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Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga


Academic year: 2019

Membagikan "Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga"


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(A Descriptive Qualitative Study of the 4th Semester Students of English Education Department of IAIN Salatiga in the Academic Year of 2015/2016)


Submitted to the Board of Examiners as a partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd)

English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga








DECLARATION Bismillahirrahmanirrahim

In the name of Allah, the Most Gracious and Merciful.

Hereby the researcher fully declares that this graduating paper is written by the researcher herself. This paper does not contain any materials which have been published by other people; and it does not cite any other people ideas except the information from the references.

This declaration is written by the researcher to be understood.

Salatiga, 2 September 2016 The researcher


Salatiga, 2 September 2016

Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd.

The Lecturer of English Education Department State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga


Case: Wahyu Dyah Nur Anis Wachidah Graduating Paper


Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

Assalamu’alaikum wr. wb.

After reading and correcting Wahyu Dyah Nur Anis Wachidah‟s graduating paper entitled AN ANALYSIS OF COHESION AND COHERENCE IN THE STUDENTS’ WRITING TEXT, I have decided and would like to propose that this paper can be accepted by the Teacher Training and Education Faculty. I hope this paper will be examined as soon as possible.

Wassalamu’alaikum wr. Wb.








Has been brought to the board of examiners of English and Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty at State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga on September 21th 2016, and hereby considered to complete the requirements for the degree of Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) in English and Education.

Board of Examiners, Head : Sari Famularsih, M.A.

Secretary : Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd.

First examiner : Dr. H. Sa‟adi, M.Ag.

Second examiner : Ruwandi, M.A.

Salatiga, September 21th 2016 Dean of Teacher Training and Education Faculty

Suwardi, M.Pd.



Even the best can be improved

(Researcher’s Documentation)

Effort without pray is arrogant, pray without effort is lie

(Researcher’s Documentation)

ْ نم ْ ا

ْ دا ر

ْ دلا

ا ي ن

ْ ه ي ل ع ف

ْ م ل ع لا ب

ْ و

ْ ن م

ْ ا

ْ دا ر

ْ ة خِر

ْ لا

ْ ه ي ل ع ف

ْ م ل ع لا ب

ْ ن م و

ْ دا ر ا

ا مُه

ْ ه ي ل ع ف

ْ م ل ع لا ب


Those who want the (prosperous) life of the world, then obligatory for

him to master science, and those who want the (prosperous) life of the

hereafter, then obligatory for him to master science, and those who want

both (the world and hereafter), then obligatory for him to master science

as well.



This graduating paper is sincerely dedicated to:

My beloved superheroes, Mr. H. M. Shodikin, S.Pd.I and Mrs. Hj.

Sulastri, thank you for the support, prayer, and everything you give to me. The words could not explain how important you are in my life.

My beloved two brothers M. Fahmi Ilham Akbar Mahendra and M.

Mukhtar Luthfi Anshori Majid who always support me to be better.

The best partner I have ever had, Ahmad Baihaqi. Thanks for all the aids,

motivation, and invocation during this time.




The deepest thanks into Allah SWT, the most gracious and merciful, so that the researcher is able to finish this graduating paper. This graduating paper entitled “An Analysis of Cohesion and Coherence in the Students‟ Writing Text” is presented to the Teacher Training and Education Faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga as one of the requirements for Sarjana Pendidikan (S.Pd) of English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

However, this success would not be achieved without those support, guidance, advice, help, and encouragement from individual and institution. It is an appropriate moment for the researcher to deepest gratitude for:

1. Dr. Rahmat Haryadi, M.Pd. as the Rector of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

2. Suwardi, M.Pd. as the Dean of Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

3. Noor Malihah, Ph.D. as the Head of English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.


Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga and as the counselor of this graduating paper. Thanks for all your support, advise, suggestion, and recommendation for this graduating paper from beginning until the end. Thanks for your patience and care.

5. Sari Famularsih, M.A. as the Head of International Class Program (ICP) of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

6. All lecturers in English Education Department of Teacher Training and Education Faculty of State Institute for Islamic Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga. 7. All lecturers of International Class Program (ICP) of State Institute for Islamic

Studies (IAIN) of Salatiga.

Eventually, this graduating paper is expected to be able to provide useful knowledge and information to the readers. The researcher is pleased to accept more suggestion and contribution for the improvement of this graduating paper.

Salatiga, 2 September 2016 Researcher



Wachidah, Anis Nur Dyah Wahyu. 2016. “AN ANALYSIS OF COHESION AND COHERENCE IN THE STUDENTS’ WRITING TEXT”. Graduating Paper. English Education Department, Faculty of Teacher Training and Education, State Institute for Islamic Studies of Salatiga. Advisor: Rr. Dewi Wahyu Mustikasari, M.Pd.

Keywords: cohesion, coherence, explanation text.



TITLE ... i




MOTTOS ... v







CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background of the Study ... 1

B. Problems of the Study ... 6

C. Objectives of the Study ... 6

D. Limitation of the Study ... 6

E. Significance of the Study ... 7

F. Definition of the Key Terms ... 8

G. Organization of Graduating Paper ... 9



1. Grammatical Cohesion ... 15

a. Reference... 15

1) Personal Reference ... 17

2) Demonstrative Reference ... 18

3) Comparative Reference ... 20

b. Substitution ... 21

1) Nominal Substitution ... 22

2) Verbal Substitution ... 22

3) Clausal Substitution ... 23

c. Ellipsis ... 24

1) Nominal Ellipsis ... 24

2) Verbal Ellipsis ... 25

3) Clausal Ellipsis ... 25

d. Conjunction ... 26

1) Additive ... 27

2) Adversative ... 28

3) Causal ... 30

4) Temporal ... 32

2. Lexical Cohesion ... 34

a. Reiteration ... 34

b. Collocation ... 35

C. Coherence ... 37


2. Use consistent pronouns ... 38

3. Use transition signals to link ideas ... 39

a. Transition words, phrases and conjunctive adverbs ... 41

b. Coordinators ... 42

c. Subordinators ... 43

d. Others ... 43

4. Logical Order ... 43

a. Chronological order ... 44

b. Logical division of ideas ... 45

c. Comparison/ contrast paragraph ... 46

D. Explanation Text ... 46

1. Definition and Purpose ... 46

2. Types of Explanation Text ... 47

3. Structure of Explanation Text ... 48

4. Language Feature of Explanation Text ... 48


B. Object of the Study... 51

C. Data Source ... 51

D. Technique of Data Collection ... 52

E. Technique of Data Analysis ... 52


1. Findings ... 57

a. Grammatical Cohesion ... 60

1) Reference... 60

2) Substitution ... 61

3) Ellipsis ... 61

4) Conjunction ... 62

b. Lexical Cohesion ... 63

2. Discussions ... 64

a. Grammatical Cohesion ... 65

1) Reference... 65

a) Personal reference ... 66

b) Demonstrative Reference ... 69

c) Comparative Reference ... 71

2) Substitution ... 73

3) Ellipsis ... 73

4) Conjunction ... 74

b. Lexical Cohesion ... 75

1) Reiteration ... 76

2) Collocation ... 77

B. Coherence ... 78

1. Findings ... 78

2. Discussion ... 80


b. Using consistent pronouns ... 82 c. Using transition signals ... 82 d. Logical order ... 83 CHAPTER V CLOSURE

A. Conclusion ... 86 B. Suggestions ... 87 REFERENCES



Figure 2.1 Reference Items ... 16

Table 2.1 Personal Reference ... 18

Table 2.2 Demonstrative Reference ... 19

Table 2.3 Comparative Reference ... 21

Table 2.4 Summary of Conjunctive Relations of the Additive Type ... 28

Table 2.5 Summary of Conjunctive Relations of the Adversative Type ... 29

Table 2.6 Summary of Conjunctive Relations of the Causal Type ... 31

Table 2.7 Summary of Conjunctive Relation of the Temporal Type ... 32

Table 2.8 Transition Signals ... 40

Table 3.1 Data Abstraction ... 53

Table 3.2 Data Codes ... 55

Table 4.1 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Cohesion in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 57

Table 4.2 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Reference in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 60

Table 4.3 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Substitution in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 61

Table 4.4 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Ellipsis in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 62


Table 4.6 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Lexical Cohesion in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 63 Table 4.7 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Reiteration

in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 64 Table 4.8 Number of Occurrences and Percentages of Types of Coherence



Chart 4.1 Number of Percentages of Types of Cohesion in the Students‟ Explanation Texts ... 59 Chart 4.2 Number of Percentages of Types of Coherence in the Students‟



A. Background of the Study

“English is now become a global language and an international language for human communication” (Crystal, 2003:2). This is meant that English is the language communication used by all humans in the world. It can be seen especially in the context of English language teaching as a foreign language taught in Indonesia, started from elementary school up to university, they study English. Listening, reading, writing, and speaking are the four importance skills in English teaching and learning. From the fourth language skills, writing is one of the language skills which is important in our life. Through writing, the writers can inform others, carry out transactions, persuade, infuriate, and tell what we feel. However, the writers know that writing or learning to write especially in a second language is not simply a matter of “writing things down”. It is one of the four basic skills that are very complex and difficult to learn.


Paltridge and Starfield (2007:46) that “Academic writing in this progression degree students are not only write their ideas down on paper, but also they have to understand the writing patterned well”. It can be assumed that while the students writing, they have to comprehend the pattern, that there is a reciprocal connection between thinking and writing. It is a fundamental ways of getting across their thoughts to develop their understanding.

Writing at first comes from an idea in the head, then the person who has the idea reveals and expresses it in the form of written language. However, writing is not simply a matter of expressing the ideas in good language and using a good grammar on a piece of paper. Writing will not be easy to understand if the relation among parts is not tightly related. Therefore, writing is not just a matter of using good language, but also a matter of using ability to create unity in a text. It can be concluded that to create a good writing, students have to combine their skill of using a well-patterned language and their ability to relate sentences and paragraphs to become a united text.


contextual properties of paragraph. Furthermore, Halliday (1994:309) notes that “in writing a text, it is required to use a connection that involve the elements both within clause and beyond it which can make the text flow smoothly. The connection which used within the text are cohesion and coherence. It can be meant that cohesion and coherence are the tools which used in the writing text, and those function as the connection among the sentences to make the text stream smoothly. Concerning that thing, Tanskanen (2006:19) states that “cohesion and coherence are one of the ways to attain the unity of the text within its sentences and paragraph”. This statement is exactly true because the cohesive devices in a text can be only fit together through coherence devices that will link them to be one unity.

Cohesion and coherence mean that all of the parts of the sentences are connected logically and linguistically to form a whole. It is an important factor which is necessary to convey the exact information that the author wishes. In coherent writing the writers make connection between sentences, paragraphs, and texts, so that it will be clear to the reader. The writers are not only making connection for themselves but also to their reader. Also in cohesion the property of flow and connection in a written text that stems from the linguistics links among its surface elements. Thus the reader will understand the plot of the text.


Cohesion is the use of cohesive ties to sequence and connect sentences together, and facilitate text to be understood as connected discourse. As Halliday & Hasan (1976:4) sensibly point out:

The concept of cohesion is a semantic one; it refers to relations of meaning that exist within the text and that define it as a text. It happens where the interpretation of some element in the discourse is dependent on that of another.

Cohesion is expressed partly through grammar and vocabulary. Halliday and Hasan (1976:6) divide cohesion into grammatical and lexical cohesion. Grammatical cohesion includes devices such as reference, substitution, ellipsis and conjunction, while lexical cohesion is divided into reiteration (repetition, synonymy, etc.) and collocation (co-occurrence of lexical items). Furthermore, Halliday and Hasan (1976:31–33) emphasize that “grammatical and lexical elements are interpreted through their relation to other elements in the text, a cohesive tie is formed. There is no single element can be cohesive by itself except if it is related to another”. It can be informed that the text will form cohesive if the unit of the sentences are related each other.


movement from one sentence to the next should flow smoothly and logically. Then, the context in the text will make sense. Moreover, de Beaugrande & Dressler (1981) as quoted by Tanawong (2014:2), argues that “coherence refers to the quality of text when it make sense among the part of idea in the text. It occurs through the expression of the text which makes sense to the reader”. Coherence can be reached by four ways, they are; the use of a repeating key nouns, the use of consistent pronoun, the use of transition signals to link ideas, and through logical order (Oshima and Hogue, 2006:22). Therefore, the writers should use the four ways above in writing the text to make the text coherent.


However, not all texts written by students of English Education Department of IAIN Salatiga have fulfilled the requirements of a good writing which applies cohesive and coherent such those proposed by Halliday and Hassan (1976) and Oshima and Hogue (2006). That conclusion is drawn from the pre-survey in International Class Program of State Institute of Islamic Studies (IAIN) Salatiga in the academic year 2014/2015. The researcher used observation and interview one of Writing lecturer when the researcher studied Writing in fourth semester. The result showed that the students were actually able to write with good idea and good grammar, but unfortunately, they were lack of paying attention to the cohesion and coherence that construct unity of the complete writing. For this reason, the researcher desires to analyze the cohesion and coherence in students‟ writing texts of fourth semester students of English Education Department of IAIN Salatiga.

B. Problems of the Study

This study particularly aimed at finding the answers to the following research questions:

1. How are the students‟ competence in producing cohesion at their writing texts?


C. Objectives of the Study

From this study the researcher wants to achieve some objectives:

1. To describe the students‟ competence in producing cohesion at their writing texts.

2. To describe the students‟ competence in producing coherence at their writing texts.

D. Limitation of the Study

In line with the topic, this study focuses on analyzing cohesion and coherence in the students‟ writing explanation texts and this study is not discuss about the grammatical error of the text. Furthermore, the researcher is only adopt the correct sentences and reduce the wrong sentences which involve the grammatical error. Nevertheless, there is no reduction of grammatical error in logical order, because to interpret logical order in the text, it should be from the whole text. The reduction of the wrong sentences are decrease the comprehension of the text.

E. Significance of the Study

The result of the research is expected to give some useful benefits as follows:


The result of this study is expected to be encouragement in teaching learning process especially for teaching cohesion and coherence in writing subject.

2. Practical benefits

a. The result of this study is intended to be one consideration for English lecturers in applying any strategy or increasing any technique of teaching English, especially cohesion and coherence in writing subject.

b. The result of this study can help writers understanding about cohesion and coherence so that they are able to compose a good writing.

c. The result of this study can be used as a reference, and give additional information for other researchers who want to conduct research about cohesion and coherence.

F. Definition of the Key Terms 1. Explanation text


this form”. This is meant that explanation text is a text which contains the processes associated with natural phenomena, social, science, culture, and more.

2. Cohesion

“Cohesion is a surface phenomenon, it concerns the grammatical and lexical features that create ties between sentences, most importantly lexical repetition, use of pronouns and link words. A lack of cohesion results in a choppy and unconnected style” (Blanpain, 2006:25). It can be informed that cohesion is used to connect the sentences together, so that the text should not in a wavy and it can be understood for the readers. 3. Coherence


G. Organization of Graduating Paper

In writing this research, the researcher divided into five chapters. The systematic organized as follows:

Chapter 1 is introduction that consists of the background of the study, which mentions the researcher‟ reasons why the researcher chooses the topic as a research topic, then problems of the study that explain the problems of the study that is observed by the researcher, next is limitation of the study, which mentions the specific problems that the researcher explains. Besides that it includes the objectives of the study that consist of the aims of the study, significances of the study that describe the advantages of the study, and then the definition of the key terms, and the last is an organization of the paper.

Chapter II is the theoretical framework. It presents the review of related literature of the research such as theoretical foundation which includes theoretical reviews of cohesion, coherence and explanation text.

Chapter III is the research methodology. It tells about why and how this study uses qualitative research as the type of study. It elaborates the methodology of the research including research design, object of the study, data sources, technique of data collection, and technique of data analysis.




A. Previous Studies

The analysis of cohesion and coherence has been conducted previously by some researchers. The related researchers are the following:


grammar; (c) ellipses and substitution show a weak correlation with the overall writing quality; (d) lexical and referential cohesion are significant predictors of coherence while other types of cohesion are not; (e) dominant reference types are pronominal forms and proper nouns, and prominent types of conjunctive relation are temporal and additive; and (f) the most common error in cohesion is inaccurate reference.

2. The second related research was written by Astuti, Suryani, and Kurniati in the year of 2010 from Muria Kudus University. The research title was The Analysis of Coherence in the Background of Graduating Paper. The data source of this research is the seven backgrounds of study of graduating paper written by the students in 2009. They used descriptive qualitative research that is discourse analysis as the research design, while to analyzed the data they used thematic analysis and thematic progression suggested by Eggins (1994). There are three points to be discussed in this research; they are: the types of theme, the thematic progression, and the coherence in the background of graduating paper. The results informed that (1) the types of theme mostly used is unmarked-topical theme, (2) only 8 paragraphs from 55 paragraphs in seven backgrounds have one constant type of thematic progression, (3) from all seven backgrounds of graduating paper, it is concluded that it has lack of coherence.


Narrative Texts Presented in the Electronic Textbook of Senior High School Grade X Entitled “Developing English Competence”. She analyzed 16 narrative texts presented in electronic textbook of senior high school grade x entitled “Developing English Competence”. This research applied qualitative method, and the data were in the form of sentences and were collected by note taking. In addition, trustworthiness was achieved by employing investigator triangulation. The objects of this research were to identify the types of cohesion and to interpret the occurring types of cohesion in terms of compatibility as language inputs in the narrative text. Finally, she found that reiteration appeared to be the most frequent types of all subcategories of cohesion, and the narrative texts analyzed in this research contain dense lexical cohesion and thus are compatible as language inputs.


B. Cohesion

The connection between sentences may play a role in connected discourse. To connect the sentences together, a writers need cohesion. “Cohesion is all about the relation of meaning in a text. It defines something as a text because a text is a unit of meaning, not a form. It is the source of the text that has a range of meanings related to what is being spoken and written to its semantic environment”. (Jabeen, et al. (2013:139) cited in Kuncahya (2015:16). It is meant that cohesion is clarified through ties in which every one of the text refers to a single instance of cohesion and expressed partly through grammar and partly through vocabulary. That is why there are grammatical cohesion and lexical cohesion.

According to Halliday & Hasan (1976:5) as defined earlier, “cohesion is a set of linguistics devices which connect ideas making explicit the semantic relations underlying them”. It means that the tool for relating the ideas in the text explicitly through cohesive elements. Moreover, “cohesion refers to the range of grammatical and lexical possibilities that exist for linking an element of language with what has gone before or what follows in a text. This linking is achieved through relations in meaning that exist within and across the sentences” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:10). Therefore, cohesion utilizes cohesive ties to sequence and connect sentences together causing a text to be in one piece, not a group of unrelated sentences.


includes reference, substitution, ellipsis, conjunction. Meanwhile, lexical cohesion includes reiteration and collocation. This is because both of them are determined by two different elements. They are grammar and words. In the lexico-grammatical level, the distinction can absolutely be drawn. The concept of each types of cohesion and its subtypes are as follows:

1. Grammatical Cohesion

The grammatical cohesion is established by use of the grammatical elements of the text that expresses the semantic links within and between the sentences. It includes reference, substitution, ellipsis, and conjunction.

a. Reference


out of the cohesion framework, because exophoric reference pints to items outside the text, to the items in the real world. Only endorphoric reference shows cohesive property.

Endorphoric reference consists of two subtypes which are anaphoric and cataphoric reference. Anaphoric reference is the referring to an item in the preceding sentence and cataphoric reference is the referring to an item in the following sentence. The details of reference items are described in the following diagram.

Figure 2.1 Reference Items

*source: Cohesion in English (p.33), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

The diagram in figure 2.1.is the categorization of reference in terms of the position of the referred items. The items can be either situational (endophoric) which refers to a thing as identified in the context of situation, or textual (exophoric) which refers to a thing as

Anaphora (To preceding text) Reference

Endophora (Textual) Exophora



identified in the surrounding text. And either in the previous sentence (anaphoric) which refers back to the preceding sentences, or in the upcoming sentence (cataphoric) which refers to the following sentence. A reference items is an item that has a potential reference and a systematic account on the different types of reference, and their place has to be based on generalized concept of reference (not particular form). In addition, “English reference cohesion is categorized into three subtypes which are personals, demonstratives, and comparatives” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:37). Their concepts are as follow.

1) Personal reference


anaphoric, because “John” is in the preceding sentence. However, only endophoric personal reference such as “He” in example (2) corresponds to the definition of cohesion defined by Halliday & Hasan (1976). The analysis of cohesion in the present study will not determine exophoric reference such as “I” in example (1) as it refers to the item in the real world, and it does not contain cohesive property which connects the sentences together.

(1) I had a cat

(2) John has just bought a car. He loves it very much. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:45)

Table 2.1 Personal Reference

Semantic category Existential Possessive

Grammatical function Head Modifier

Class Noun (pronoun) Determiner

Person: Speaker (only)

Addressee(s), with/without other person(s)

Speaker & other person Other person, male Other person, female Other persons; objects Object; passage of text

I me You

We us He him She her They them It

Mine Yours

Ours His Hers Theirs Its

My Your


Generalized person One One‟s *source: Cohesion in English (p.38), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan,

R. 1976, London: Longman.

2) Demonstrative reference

“Demonstrative reference is used to identify an item relates to location through the scale of proximity” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:37). It can be informed that demonstrative reference is essentially a form of verbal pointing, which identifies the referent by locating it on a scale of proximity. Furthermore, the usage proximity of demonstrative reference such as this, these, that, those, here, there, and the. Similarly to personal reference, demonstrative reference can be exophoric and endophoric. For example:

(1) Leave that there and come here!

(2) John has gone to Thailand. This time he will be there for a year. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:58)


Table 2.2

Demonstrative Reference

Semantic category Selective Non-selective Grammatical

function Modifier/Head Adjunct Modifier

Class Determiner Adverb Determiner

Proximity: Near Far Neutral

This these That those

Here (now) There then


*source: Cohesion in English (p.38), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

3) Comparative reference

“Comparative reference is used to refer to an item via identity and similarity” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:37). It means that comparative reference is based on the thing in terms of likeness and unlikeness. The usage adopts adjectives such as same, equal, similar, different, else, better, more, etc., and adverbs such as so, such, similarly, otherwise, so, more, etc. to signal the reference. For example:

(1) It is the same cat as we saw yesterday.


(3) The blue t-shirt has the same size as the green one. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:70)

From example (1) and (2), the item “same” is used as comparative references. In example (1) the item “same” help referring to a cat, which both persons have seen the other day in their real world situation. Therefore, item “same” in (1) is exophoric and does not have cohesive property. In example (2) the item “same” refers to the specific distance between the earth and the sun. The reference endophoric because it points to an item within a text, therefore, it has cohesive property and it is anaphoric, because it points to the preceding sentence. In sentence (3), the word “same” is used to show both t-shirt share a character, the size in this case. The item “same” in example (3) does not refer to any items in the text; therefore it is a reference and does not have cohesive property.

Table 2.3

Comparative Reference

Grammatical function Modifier Sub modifier

Class Adjective Adverb

General comparison: Identity

General similarity

Difference (ie

non-Same, identical, equal Similar, additional

Other, different, else


Similarly, likewise, so, such


identity or similarity) Particular


Better, more, etc. (comparative adjectives and quantifiers)

So, more, less, equally

*source: Cohesion in English (p.39), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

b. Substitution

“Substitution is a replacement of an item by a general word to avoid repetition” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:88). This is meant that substitution is the replacement of one item by another. “There are three types of substitution which are nominal substitution, verbal substitution, and clausal substitution” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:90).

1) Nominal substitution


(1) These biscuits are stale. Get some fresh ones. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:92)

2) Verbal substitution

“Verbal substitution is a replacement of an element in verbal group and its position is always final in the group. In English, the device used as verbal substitution is do” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:112). It can be informed that verbal substitution operates as head of a verbal group, and “do” is the item used to substitute either a verb or other element which represents an action, event, or relation. This is mostly used in spoke language. It can expressed by “do”, “do so”, “can do”, “does”, “did”, and “done”. For example, “do” in example (1) is used to substitute “come” and item “do” in example (2) is used to substitute “like to go to Bangkok”.

(1) ….the words did not come the same as they use to do.

(2) Do you like to go to Bangkok? – Yes, I do. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:112)

3) Clausal Substitution


instead of within the clause, and it may take either positive or negative form which expressed by “so” and “not”. Item “so” in example (1) substitute the clause “he‟s guilty” in the preceding sentence. In example (2) “not” replace the clause “recognize him”. It is worth nothing that and and but are used here to merge the preceding and the following sentence in the example (1) and (2). They are conjunction, another type of cohesion which will discussed later in this chapter.

(1) Everyone seems to think he’s guilty. If so, no doubt he’ll

offer to resign.

(2) We should recognize him when we see him.

Yes, but supposing not. What do we do? (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:134)

c. Ellipsis


obvious for the readers to comprehend. “As ellipsis and substitute are similar, so the subtypes of ellipsis are classified identically to substitution, they are nominal, verbal, and clausal” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:146).

1) Nominal ellipsis

Halliday & Hasan (1976:147) state that “nominal ellipsis is the ellipsis of an item in nominal group, which generally is the subject of the sentence”. It means that nominal group is used to replace the element in the nominal group. In example (1), “student” is omitted in the second sentence, but a reader could assume that it is “Indonesian student…” from the preceding sentence.

(1) There are two English students and one Indonesian student in the class. The Indonesian has been here for one year. (Researcher’s Documentation)

2) Verbal ellipsis


the sentence “Yes, I have” is the shortened form of “Yes, I have been swimming”. Most readers can guess the full form of the sentence from the question sentence of example (1).

(1) Have you been swimming?

Yes, I have. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:167)

In example (2), the item “might”, “was to”, “may not”, and “should” indicate that there is an omission of items in verbal groups. A reader could predict that verb “do” is omitted.

(2) Is Jane going to do this? She might,

She was to, She may not,

She should if she wants her homework done. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:170)

3) Clausal ellipsis


prepositional elements. Generally, would be looked like the whole clause is omitted but leave some elements for the reader to recognize the omitted items. In example (1), the modal element is omitted in the answer, whereas in the example (2), the prepositional element is omitted.

(1) What was Duke going to do? Plant a row of poplars in the park.

(2) Who was going to plant a row of poplars in the park? The Duke was. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:197-198)

d. Conjunction


categorized into additive, adversative, causal, and temporal” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:238).

1) Additive

Halliday & Hasan (1976:224) explain that “additive refers to a type of cohesion that structurally appears and coordinates each other. “The function of additive conjunction is to add information to a sentence using the ties such as and, also, too, additionally, furthermore, etc. the tie can negate the sentence using the ties such as nor, and…not, and…not…either, neither, and…neither, etc. it means that additive depends on the structure of the sentence, and it functions to add the existing information by the virtue of coordination. For example:

(1) For the whole day he climbed up the steep mountainside, almost without stopping. And in all this time he met no one. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:238)

(2) Camp meals are not great problem. Neither are beds, thanks to air mattresses and sleeping bags. (Researcher’s



Table 2.4

Summary of Conjunctive Relations of the Additive Type

Classification Type Example

Simple additive relation (external and internal)

Additive and; and also, and...too Negative nor; and...no, not either,

neither Alternative or; or else Complex additive

relations (internal): emphatic

Additive further(more), moreover, additionally, besides that, add to this, in addition, and another thing

Alternative Alternatively Complex additive

relations (internal): de-emphatic

Afterthought incidentally, by the way

Comparative relations (internal)

Similar likewise, similarly, in the same way, in (just) this way Dissimilar on the other hand, by

contrast, conversely Appositive

relations (internal)

Expository that is, I mean, in other words, to put it another way Exemplificatory for instance, for example,


*source: Cohesion in English (p.249), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

2) Adversative


speaker-hearer situation. The advertise ties such as yet, though, only, but, in fact, rather, etc. for example:

(1) For the whole day he climbed up the steep mountainside, almost without stopping. Yet he was hardly aware of being tired. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976: 239)

Item “Yet” in the second sentence of example (1) is used to give information which is contents contradicts to the expectation of the reader reading the first sentence in example (1).

Table 2.5

Summary of Conjunctive Relations of the Adversative Type

Classification Type Example

Adversative relations „proper‟ (in spite of) (external and internal)

Simple yet; though; only Containing “and” But

Emphatic however, nevertheless, despite this, all the same

Contrastive relations („as against‟) (external)

Simple but, and

Emphatic however, on the other hand, at the same time, as against that

Contrastive relations („as against‟) (internal)

Avowal in fact, as a matter of fact, to tell the truth, actually, in point of fact

Corrective relations („not...but‟)


Correction of meaning

instead, rather, on the contrary

Correction of wording

at least, rather, I mean

Dismissive (generalized adversative)

Dismissal, closed in any/either case/event, any/other way,


relations („no matter..., still‟) (external and internal)

Dismissal, open-ended

anyhow, at any rate, in any case, however that may be

*source: Cohesion in English (p.255), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

3) Causal

Based on Halliday & Hasan (1976:256) “the function of causal conjunction is to express the sentences‟ relationship between the cause and the result. The causal relation includes result, reason, and purpose to form a cohesive chain”. It means that causal conjunction represents one of clause becomes the cause and the rest is becomes the result. The ties such as so, the, for, because, for this reason, as a result, in this respect, etc., are used to perform this function. For example:

(1) For the whole day he climbed up the steep mountainside, almost without stopping. So by night time the valley was far below him. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:239)


Table 2.6

Summary of Conjunctive Relation of the Causal Type

Classification Type Example

Causal relations,

general(„because...,so‟) (external and internal)

Simple so, thus, hence, therefore Emphatic consequently,

accordingly, because of this

Causal relations, specific

Reason (mainly external) for this reason, on account of this

(internal) it follows (from this), on this basis Result (mainly external) as a

result (of this), in consequences (of this) (internal) arising out of this

Purpose (mainly external) for this purpose, with this mind/view, with this intention

(internal) to this end Reversed causal


Simple for; because Conditional relations

(„if..., then‟) (external and internal)

Simple then

Emphatic in that case, that being the case, in such an event, under those circumstances

Generalized under the circumstances Reversed


otherwise, under the circumstances Respective relations

(„with respect to‟) (internal)

Direct in this

respect/connection, with regard to this; here Reversed



*source: Cohesion in English (p. 260-261), by Halliday, M. A. K. & Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

4) Temporal.

The last type of conjunction is temporal conjunction. As Halliday & Hasan (1976:261) declare that “the function of temporal conjunction is to signal the sequence of events and time. It exist when the events in the text are related in terms of timing of their occurrence”. This is meant that temporal conjunction represents the sequence of time. The ties such then, next, after that, next day, until then, at the same time, at this point, etc., are used for temporal conjunction. For example: (1) For the whole day he climbed up the steep mountainside,

almost without stopping. Then, as duck fell, he sat down to rest. (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:239)

Item “Then” in example (1) is a temporal tie used to signal the sequence of events related to the climber in example (1).

Table 2.7

Summary of Conjunctive Relation of the Temporal Type

Classification Type Example

Simple temporal relations (external)

Sequential (and) then, next, afterwards, after that, subsequently

Simultaneous (just) then, at the same time, simultaneously Preceding earlier, before then/that,



relations (external) which; just before Interrupted soon, presently, later,

after a time; some time earlier, formerly Repetitive next time, on another

occasion; this time, on this occasion; the last time, on a previous occasion

Specific next day, five minutes later, five minutes earlier

Durative meanwhile, all this time Terminal by this time; up till that

time, until then Punctiliar next moment; at this

point/ moment; the previous moment Conclusive relations


Simple finally, at last, in the end, eventually Sequential and

conclusive relations (external): correlative forms

Sequential first...then, first...next, first...second...

conclusive at first... finally, at first... in the end Temporal relations


Sequential then, next, secondly... Conclusive finally, as a final point,

in conclusion Temporal relations

(internal): correlative forms

Sequential first..next, first...then, first...secondly, in the first place...; to begin with...

Conclusive ..finally; ...to conclude with

“Here and now” relations (internal)

Past up to now, up to this point, hitherto, heretofore


Future from now on, henceforward Summary relations


Culminative to sum up, in short, briefly

Resumptive to resume, to get back to the point, anyway *source: Cohesion in English (p. 266-267), by Halliday, M. A. K. &

Hasan, R. 1976, London: Longman.

2. Lexical cohesion

Lexical cohesion is different from the previous types of cohesion because lexical cohesion is non-grammatical. “It is constructed from the selection of vocabulary. This type of cohesion is achieved by the selection of vocabulary” (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:276). It means that lexical cohesion refers to the cohesive effect by non-grammatical elements or the selections of vocabulary. There are two types of lexical cohesion which are reiteration and collocation.

a. Reiteration.


(1) I saw a small dog in the kitchen again. The dog (repetition) was very dirty.

I was thinking to keep that animal (superordinate) out. The puppy (synonym) was obviously not up to it.

The kitchen is for us not for the four legs (general word). (Researcher’s Documentation)

From the examples above, the word “the dog” is the repetition of “a small dog” in the previous sentence. Then, the word “animal” is the superordinate of the word “a small dog” in the previous sentence. Next, “the puppy” is name of the small dog. It is exemplifies synonym. And the last is the word “the four legs”, which expresses the general word of “a small dog”.

b. Collocation.


co-occurrence (e.g. rain, pouring, torrential) (Halliday & Hasan, 1976:294-285). The above explanation clearly stated that collocation refers to tendencies of common occurrence. The tendency is derived from the same lexical environment. When lexical cohesion occurs in a text, it occurs in a series. Example (1) shows a use of lexical cohesion.

(1) My neighbor has just let one of his trees fall into my garden. And the scoundrel refuses to pay for the damage he has caused. (Nunan, 1993: 29)

In example (1), the words my neighbor and the scoundrel refer to the same context which is the person who treats others badly. Out of this context, it is widely known that neighbor and scoundrel are not related at all.

Analyzing lexical cohesion is obviously more difficult than other cohesive type because there is no exact keyword to look for. Halliday and Hasan (1976:290) suggested that “when analyzing lexical cohesion in a text, it is important thing to use common sense on the nature and the structure of the language vocabulary”. It means that the use of common sense, the nature, and the structure of vocabulary will help the writers in analyzing the lexical cohesion.


cohesion is just the surface connection of a text. In order to make a text make sense, the text needs coherence, which does not equate to cohesion.

C. Coherence

The Latin verb cohere means “stick together”. Coherence means sticking together logically. Oshima and Hogue (2006:21) proposed “coherence achieved when the sentences and ideas are connected and flow together smoothly. Each sentence should move from one sentence to the next one logically and smoothly. There must be no sudden jumps”. This can be meant that coherence allow the readers to move easily from one idea to the next, from one sentence to the next, and from one paragraph to the next. Coherence involves connection, the connection between parts of sentences, paragraphs, and even larger units will be clear to the reader. The writer should make the connection available to readers and the text meaningful to the readers.


There is a strong connection between the text and the readers concerning coherence. According to Kies (1995) cited in Abusharkh (2012:15) quoted by Maghfiroh (2013:20), “any piece of writing can be coherent if the authors: 1. Know their subject well and 2. Have an eye on their audience and tailor their writing to what their readers probably know and are able to understand”. It is meant that to create coherence, the writers should cut what is irrelevant or unintelligible for the readers.

Oshima & Hogue (2006:22) clarified that here are four ways to achieve coherence in writing:

1. Repeat key nouns.

“Repeating key nouns (key words) or use synonyms, and focus ideas through the text, are used to help the readers remain focused and headed in the right direction. It can keep the thought of the paragraph flowing from sentence to sentence, so that the sentence are linked together” (Oshima & Hogue, 2006:22). It can be meant that through the use of repeating key nouns, the paragraphs or sentences will connect each other. For example:

(1) Most students are intimidated by the works of William Shakespeare. They believe Shakespeare’s sonnets and play are far to complicated to read and understand. (Southeastern Writing Center, 2011)


2. Use consistent pronouns.

Pronouns are used to link or connect sentences by referring to preceding nouns and pronouns. It can help to create paragraph that are easy to read by eliminating wordiness and unnecessary repetition. According to Oshima & Hogue (2006:24), “when use pronouns in the text, make sure that it is use the same person and number throughout the sentence or paragraph. Don‟t change from „you’ to „he’ or „she’ (change of person) or from „he’ to „they’ (change of number)”. It can be concluded that the use of pronoun should be consistent, it refers to the previous nouns or pronouns. Roberts (1985:131) illustrated the example:

The most persistent disputes between Eden and Churchill, apart from DeGaulle, concerned relations with Soviet Russia. After Hitler’s attack on Russia, Eden was strongly pro-Soviet at the start and cooled off later; Churchill was cautious in the early days and became enthusiastic later. Their first dispute came over the Soviet demand, made even when the Germans were at the gates of Moscow, that the Western powers should recognize unconditionally the Soviet frontiers of 1941. Eden was for agreeing, Churchill against. Curiously, Molotov finally stilled the argument by agreeing to an Anglo Soviet alliance without any mention of frontiers. In the end it was Churchill at Yalta who agreed to the Soviet demand.


3. Use transition signals to link ideas.

To achieve coherence, the writer needs to use transition signals. Oshima & Hogue (2006:25) proposed that “transition signals are like traffic marks, they tell the readers when to go forward, turn around, slow down, and stop”. This can be meant that transition signals are used to guide the readers from one idea to the next. Transition signals are connecting words or phrases that strengthen the internal cohesion and coherence of the writing. It is similar to change from one item of idea to another. Transition signals act like bridges between parts of the writing. However, without transition signals it is difficult for the writers to produce a coherent paragraph. “Using appropriate transition signals, the writers will not jump out of the blue or sound too abrupt. Their ideas will flow smoothly one after the other” (Bram, 1995:22). Those explanations lead to the conclusion that coherence is the important element used by the writers in their writing text.

Transition signals are expressions such as first, finally, and however, or phrase such as in conclusion, on the other hand, and as a result. Other kinds of words such as subordinators (when, although), coordinators (and, but), adjectives (another, additional), and prepositions (because of, in spite of) can serve as transition signals.


addition), an opposite idea (on the other hand, but, in contrast), an example (for example), a result (therefore, as a result), or a conclusion (in conclusion).

Transition signals give paragraph coherence because they guide your reader from one idea to the next. There are different kinds of transition signals. Some of them are listed in the chart below.

Table 2.8 Transition Signals Meaning To introduce

an additional idea

In addition Furthermore Moreover

In contrast

However Even though Whereas To introduce

a choice or alternative

Otherwise Or If

Unless To introduce

a restatement or last, final To introduce

an example

For example For instance


(+noun) To introduce

a conclusion or summary

Clearly In brief In

conclusion Indeed In short In summary To introduce

a result

Accordingly As a result As a


Therefore Consequently Hence



* source: Writing Academic English (p.27), by Oshima, A. and Hogue, A. 2006, London: Longman.

a. Transition words, phrases and conjunctive adverbs.

Most words and phrases in the first two columns in the table 2.1. can appear at the beginning, in the middle, or at the end of one independent clause and are usually separated by commas. For example:

(1) In addition, he is one of the best player on soccer team

(2) Luthfi likes camping in the mountains. Also, Luthfi is an experienced hiker.

(3) The Merbabu Mountain is higher than Lawu Mountain, however. (Researcher’s Documentation)



2) Too usually appears only at the end of a sentence, sometimes preceded by a comma.

3) The short time words then, now, and soon usually do not need commas.

b. Coordinators

This group includes the seven coordinating conjunctions and, but, so, or, nor, for, and yet and the five correlative (“paired”) conjunctions both…and, not only…but also, neither…nor, either…or, and whether…or. Coordinators may or may not commas. When they connect two independent clauses, use a comma. For example:

(1) Tom walked the dog, and he grabbed the mail.

(2) Children not only need love, but also need discipline. (Oshima & Hogue, 2006:28)

When coordinators connect two words or phrases, do not use a comma. For example:

(1) Do you like tea or coffee?

(2) Children need not only love but also discipline. (Oshima & Hogue, 2006:28)

c. Subordinators


independent clause to make a sentence. The sentence may or may not have a comma. For example:

(1) Although I have been here before, he is just too hard to ignore. (2) Sefty begins to sneeze whenever she opens the door to greet a

fresh air. (Researcher’s Documentation)

d. Others

The transition signals in this group include nouns such as example, adjective such as additional, prepositions such as in addition to, verbs such as cause, and adverbs such as too. There are no punctuation rules for this group, but it is important to notice what kind of words follow the signals.

4. Arrange your ideas in logical order.

The choice of one kind of logical order over another will, of course, depend on the topic and the purpose of the text. The combination of two or more different logical orders are recommended in the same paragraph. The important point to remember is to arrange the ideas in some kind of order that is logical to the readers accustomed to the English way of writing.

Oshima & Hogue, (2006:34) define “some common kinds of logical order in English, they are chronological order, logic division of ideas, and comparison/contrast”.


“It is order by time, a sequence of events or steps in a process” (Oshima & Hogue, 2006:34). It means that the text which contain of the sequence of events, or describing the steps of a process is include chronological order. Oshima & Hogue, (2006:33) illustrate the example in the following paragraph on how to grow an avocado tree uses time order to organize the steps.

How to Grow an Avocado Tree


inches to encourage the growth of side branches. In just a few more weeks, you will have a beautiful indoor plant. In conclusion, enjoy your new plant, but do not expect to bear fruit. Avocados grown from seed occasionally flower and bear fruit; however, first you will have to plant it outside and then wait anywhere from five to thirteen years.

b. Logical division of ideas.

Oshima & Hogue (2006:34) state that “logical division is when a topic is divided into parts and each parts is discussed separately”. This is meant that logical division is a pattern of organization in which the writers divide a topic into points and discuss each point separately. Oshima & Hogue, (2006:3) illustrate the example in the following paragraph about gold uses logical division. First, it discusses gold‟s beauty, and second it‟s utility.



space. In conclusion, gold is treasured not only for its beauty but also for its utility.

c. Comparison/contrast paragraph.

“Comparison or contrast paragraph is the similarities and/or differences between two or more items are discussed” (Oshima & Hogue, 2006:34). It can be meant that the writers should write about the similarities and differences between two or more people, places, things, or ideas to interpret the comparison and contrast paragraph. Oshima & Hogue, (2006:5) illustrate the example in the following paragraph about synonyms compare and contrast word meanings.


Synonyms, word that have the same basic meaning, do not always have the same emotional meaning. For example, the words stingy and frugal both mean “careful with money”. However, calling someone stingy is an insult, but calling someone frugal is a compliment. Similarly, a person wants to be slender but not skinny, aggressive but not pushy. Therefore, you should be careful in choosing words because many so-called synonyms are not really synonymous at all.

D. Explanation Text

1. Definition and Purpose


happens in the world. Explanations are important, because they help make sense of the world we live in and allow us to store this knowledge for future use. In addition, “explanation also play a valuable role in building and storing our knowledge. Technical and scientific waiting are often expressed in this form” (Barwick, 1999:50).

2. Types of Explanation

According to Stubbs (2000:76), “explanation text types occur in a variety of places. The most common explanation texts are found in textbooks and lectures”. It informed that explanation text mostly presented in the textbooks and lectures. Sometimes, the explanation may be part of a larger text, it may be found in an information report or in a procedural text. When writing explanation, the writers establish that the phenomenon exist and then explain why or how this came about. The writers should acquire a great deal of content knowledge before beginning the explanation. There are different types of explanation: a. Explaining an occurrence or how something works. For example,

how a television works or a plant grows or a computer functions. b. Describing why things happen. For example, why volcanoes erupt or

why our breath becomes misty in the cold.

c. Comparing the similarities and differences between objects. For example, compare the performance of detergent in hot or cold water. d. Explaining how to approach a problem that has to be resolved. For


precautions that could be taken to survive a nuclear attack or natural disaster.

3. Structure of Explanation Text

Based on Barwick (1999:50), explanation text have the following structures:

a. Title.

b. General statement introducing or identifying the phenomenon. c. Series of sequenced paragraphs.

d. Labelled diagrams and flow charts. 4. Language Feature of Explanation Text

Barwick (1999:50) divides explanation text to the following language features:

a. Use of present tense.

b. Use of complex noun groups to build detailed descriptions, e.g. the enormous expanse of arid land; the rampaging; threatening river. c. Use of abstract nouns, e.g. heat, earthquakes.

d. Use of pronoun for words already introduced in the text. e. Usually the subject is not human, e.g. mountains, rain, video. f. Use of sentences that have a clear subject and verb agreement. g. Use of action verbs to explain clause, e.g. from, started from.


i. Use of connectives to link time sequences in a cause and effect sequence, e.g. first, then, after, finally, so, as a sequence.

j. Use of passive voice and nominalization to link the event through cause and effect.

k. Use of time conjunctions, e.g. when, as, to sequence and link events and to keep the text flowing. Placing of these conjunctions first in the sentence in order to focus the reader‟s attention, e.g. when he reached the summit of the mountain, he felt exhilarated.


Figure 2.1
Table 2.1 Personal Reference
Table 2.2 Demonstrative Reference
Table 2.3 Comparative Reference


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