• Tidak ada hasil yang ditemukan

Special Education In Indonesia.


Academic year: 2017

Membagikan "Special Education In Indonesia."


Teks penuh




By: Est i W ungu

This paper w ould be described special educat ion in Indonesia. First of all, explanat ion will st art from count r y’ s background, secondly, educat ion syst em in Indonesia and last of all, special educat ion in Indonesia.


Indonesia is t he archipelagic count r y; it has mor e t han 15.000 islands. Indonesia's t err it or y ext ends along 3.977 mile bet w een t he Indian Ocean and t he Pacific Ocean. Indonesia inhabit ed by t he populat ion of 240 million. Populat ion in Indonesia not propor t ionally dist ribut ed. M or e t han half t he people live on Java Island, w here Jakart a, Indonesia’s capit al and largest cit y, is locat ed. Even t hough Indonesia is hom e for mor e t han 100 et hnic gr oups, most Indonesians ar e adher ent of Islam religion mixed w it h M elayu (M alay) cult ur e. The Nat ional language is Indon esian language, but t her e are 200 differ ent r egional languages. Indonesia t im e zone divided int o 3 differ ent ar eas, W est Indonesia Time, Cent ral Indonesia Time, and East Indonesia Time.

Indonesia declar ed t heir independency on August 17, 1945. The first Pr esident w as Sukarno, w ho also know n as t he f at her of t he count r y. Now, Indonesia is a Democrat ic count r y w hich is governed by a president ial syst em.


2.1 Basic law of educat ion

1. Indonesian const it ut ion art icle 31

“ Any cit izen shall have t he right for educat ion and learning” 2. Law number 20 of 2003 on Nat ional Educat ion Syst em:

Art icle 5 (1) : Any cit izen has t he same right t o good educat ion 3. Law number 23 of 2002 on Child Prot ect ion art icle 48 and 49

2.2 Hist ory



t hat t im e. Since 1990 compulsory educat ion includes element ar y school and t hr ee years of junior secondar y school. An addit ional t hree years of senior secondar y school are volunt ar y.

According t o M inist ry of Nat ional Educat ion (2004), in t he 2000 school year 28.7 million Indonesian children at t ended element ary schools: About 82 percent of girls and 97 per cent of boys reach t he f ourt h grade. Secondar y schools ar e at t ended by 58 percent of school-age girls and 58

According t o t he M inist ry of Nat ional Educat ion, t here w ere four level of educat ion in Indonesia: 1. Pre-School Educat ion

Pre-school educat ion is aimed at st im ulat ing physical and m ent al grow t h of pupils out side of t he family circle befor e ent ering primary educat ion. The obj ect i ve of pr e-school educat ion is t o provide an early basis for grow t h and development of at t it udes, know ledge, skills and init iat ive. Among t he t ypes of pre-school educat ion available are kindergart en and play groups. Kindergart ens ar e part of t he school based educat ion syst em w hile t he play groups are part of t he out -of-school syst em. Pre-school is pr ovided for children from 4 t o 6 years educat ion program aft er t he six year primary school program.

3. Secondary Educat ion



ent er t he w orld of w ork and expanding t heir prof essional at t it ude. The lengt h of secondar y educat ion is t hr ee years for general secondary educat ion.

4. Higher Educat ion

Higher educat ion is an ext ension of secondar y educat ion consist ing of academic and professional educat ion, Academic educat ion is m ainly aimed at mast er ing science, t echnology, and research, w hereas pr of essional educat ion is more aimed at developing pract ical skills. Inst it ut ions involved in higher educat ion are of t he follow ing t ypes: academics, polyt echnics, school of higher learning, inst it ut es, and universit ies.


(These parts based on report that w as presented in Japan, December 2006)

3.1 Basic law of special educat ion

1. Law number 20 of 2003 on Nat ional Educat ion Syst em

Art icle 5 (2) : Cit izen w it h physical, emot ional, ment al, int ellect ual, and / or social disabilit y shall have t he right t o special educat ion

Art icle 5 (3) : Cit izen in remot e ar ea shall have educat ion for special educat ion ser vices Art icle 5 (4) : Cit izen w ho has pot ent ial gift and special t alent shall have t he right f or

special educat ion 2. Law number 4 of 1997 about Disabilit ies

3. Bandung Declarat ion (2004) : Tow ard Inclusive Educat ion

4. Bukit Tinggi declarat ion (2005): Inclusion and Removal of Barriers t o Learning, Par t icipat ion, and Developm ent .

3.2 Special Educat ion Condit ion

From t he t ot al populat ion t her e ar e about 1.48 million people w ho cat egorized as disable of w hich 21.42% are school age children (5-18 years). How ever, only 25% or 79.061 children ar e enrolled in special school (Nat ional Census, 2003). All special school est ablished t o support complet ion 9 year compulsory educat ional syst em. According t o count r y r epor t in Educat ion (2004), t he num ber of special st udent s consist s of 45% hear ing impairm ent , 30% visual impairment , 13% mild int ellect ual disabilit y, 3% moderat e int ellect ual disabilit y, 3% moderat e physical disabilit y, 3% mult iple disabilit y, 2% behavioral difficult y, and 1% mild physical disabilit y.



disabilit ies. Lat er, since t hen independence of Indonesia in 1945 ot her special schools f or children w it h ot her special need w er e est ablished. In t he year 2000 the gover nm ent developed special educat ion by expanding t he Sub-Di vision int o t he dir ect orat e of Special Educat ion, lat er in 2006 t he direct orat e changed int o t he Direct orat e for management of Special Educat ion. Ther e is one sub division f or administ rat ion and four sub direct orat es; t hey ar e (1) Sub direct orat e of progr am, (2) Sub direct orat e of School managem ent , (3) Sub direct orat e of curriculum, (4) Sub dir ect orat e of st udent developm ent . The vision of t he direct orat e is t o optimize t he educat ional services for all children w it h special needs so t hat t hey can be sust ainable in t heir life and t heir societ y. (Wardhani, 2006).

3.2 Educat ion syst em for special educat ion

Children w it h special needs have t he sam e educat ion syst em like non disabilit ies children. They could ent er kindergar t en, primar y, secondar y and higher educat ion level. Recent ly, som e schools provide facilit ies for preschool children w it h special needs.

Ther e are t w o t ypes’ school services for children w it h special needs: a. Special School: t hese schools only for st udent w it h special needs.

Type of special schools:

1. SLB-A : Special School for Visual Impairment 2. SLB-B : Special School for Hearing impairment 3. SLB-C : Special School for M ild Int ellect ual Disabilit y 4. SLB-C1: Special School for M oderat e Int ellect ual Disabilit y 5. SLB-D : Special School for Physical impairment

6. SLB-E : Special School for Emot ional Social Behavior Dif ficult ies 7. SLB-G : Special School for M ult iple Disabilit ies

8. SLB-M : Special School for Aut ist ic Children



(Wardhani, 2006). The Direct orat e of Special Educat ion also made som e crit eria and select ion for t he school t hat could be an inclusive school for t he children w it h special needs. Unt il


6 6. Accelerat ion program

Accelerat ion program provides f or t he gift ed st udent , but som et imes st udent ’s select ion f or accelerat ion class based only from t heir IQ’ s score. So, it ’s import ant t o be car eful about psychological mat urat ion and developm ent in gift ed children. Some case show ed t hat st udent w it h ver y high scor e in IQ has immat ur e em ot ional developm ent , so she/ he failed t o handle emot ional or social problems in daily life. Government and school should have compr ehensive assessment t o develop t his program and aft er they run t he program, evaluat ion and monit or should be implem ent ing cont i nuously.

7. Compet ency based cur riculum

In t his concept , curriculum is w rit t en and developed by minimum compet ency based, w hich must be had by ever y st udent af t er he or she f inished one basic (unit ) compet ency, one unit of t ime and or one l evel of educat ion (M inist ry of Nat ional Educat ion, 2004). This curriculum emphasizes on t he basic compet ence, t he role of t he t eacher is on t he account abilit y, t hey have t o guide t he st udents learn about t he subject and t o solve probl ems independent ly. Ther efor e, qualit y of t he t eacher must be improved t o achieve t he curriculum’ s object ives.

Though t her e are som e improvem ents, special educat ion in Indonesia st ill confront w it h a lot of issues and problems. Government , st akeholders, t eachers, and par ent s should w ork t oget her t o creat e a bet t er environment f or st udent s w it h special needs. This effort w ill not only ensure t hat st udent s w it h special needs gain t heir educat ion’s right but also t o achieve Indonesia’s educat ional goal, w hich is t o enhance t he int ellect ual life of t he people and develop Indonesian man or w oman.

Refer ences:

1. Indonesia Governm ent . 2007. Ret r ieved November 1, 2007 f rom:

ht t p:/ / w w w .indonesia.go.id/ en/ index.php/ cont ent / view / 301/ 793/

2. Indonesia Embassy in Korea.2007. Ret rieved November 1, 2007 from:

ht t p:/ / w w w .indonesiaseoul.org/ indexs.php

3. M inist ry of Nat ional Educat ion. 2006. Policies of t he Direct orat e for M anagem ent of Special Educat ion. Ret rieved Oct ober 26, 2007 from: ht t p:/ / ww w .dit plb.or.id/ 2006

4. M inist ry of Nat ional Educat ion. 2004. Count ry Repor t : Qualit y Educat ion for All Young People Challenges, Trends, and Priorit ies in 47t h Int ernat ional Conference on Educat ion. Ret rieved Oct ober 26, 2007 from:



5. Wardhani, Purna. 2006. Count ry Report : Development of Special Educat ion in Indonesia, in 26t h Asia-Pasific Int ernat ional Seminar on Educat ion for Individual wit h Special Needs. Ret rieved Oct ober 27, 2007 from:


Dokumen terkait

The recombinant protein is composed of equal num- bers of subunits as can be deduced from the estimated molecular mass and the catalytic subunit contains the essential Fe S

Materi Sejarah dan Kebudayaan Islam Kelas VII H dan VII I di SMPN 13 Malang yaitu terdiri dari beberapa tahapan yaitu a) pemberian masalah b) mengumpulkan data c) pemecahan masalah


Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui dan menganalisis pengaruh dimensi budaya kaizen terhadap kinerja karyawan Pada Hotel Payaloting Internasional.. Penelitian



PEMBANGUNAN RTH KAWASAN KANTOR CAMAT BONE yang Insya Allah akan diadakan pada :. Hari/Tanggal : Kamis, 2 April 2015 Jam : 08:00 Wita, s/d

Langsung Kegiatan APBD pada Badan Ketahanan Pangan Kabupaten Musi Banyuasin Tahun Anggaran 2014, maka dengan ini kami Pejabat Pengadaan Barang / Jasa Kegiatan APBD pada Badan