My Introduction - Computer and telecomunication system

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Teks penuh

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My Introduction

Name : Kustanto

Address: Perum. Puri Malangjiwan 3.

N0. 12. Colomadu

Highest education: S2 TE UGM

Concentration : Computer Systems

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Final Assessment

Presence

= 5%

Task

= @15%

Midterms

= 30%

Final Exams = 35%

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Delay Tolerance Attend College

= 20 Minute

College Syllabus

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Chaper 1.

Computer Systems

by

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-5

Input-Process-Output Model (IPO)

• Input: keyboard, mouse, scanner, punch cards • Processing: CPU executes the computer program • Output: monitor, printer, fax machine

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6

CPU and Main Memory

Central Processing

Unit

Main Memory

Chip that executes

Chip that executes

program

program

commands

commands

Intel Pentium III

Intel Pentium III

Sun Sparc

Sun Sparc

Processor

Processor

Primary storage area

Primary storage area

for programs and data

for programs and data

that are in active use

that are in active use

Synonymous with RAM

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7

Secondary Memory Devices

Floppy Disk Hard Disk Main

Memory Central Processing

Unit

Secondary memory

Secondary memory

devices provide

devices provide

long-term storage,

long-term storage,

namely:

namely:

Information is moved

Information is moved

between main memory

between main memory

and secondary memory

and secondary memory

as needed

as needed

Hard disksHard disks

Floppy disksFloppy disks

ZIP disksZIP disks

Writable CDsWritable CDs

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Input / Output Devices

Monitor

Floppy Disk Hard Disk

I/O devices allow user

I/O devices allow user

interaction

interaction

Monitor screen

Monitor screen

Keyboard

Keyboard

Mouse

Mouse

Bar code scanner

Bar code scanner

Light pen

Light pen

Touch screen

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-9

Architecture Components

Hardware

 Processes data by executing instructions

 Provides input and output

Software

 Instructions executed by the system

Data

 Fundamental representation of facts and

observations

Communications

 Sharing data and processing among different

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-10

Hardware Component

Input/Output devices

Storage Devices

CPU

ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

CU: control unit

Interface unit

Memory

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11

Memory

Main memory is

Main memory is

divided into many

divided into many

memory locations (or

memory locations (or

cells

9286 Each memory cell has Each memory cell has

a numeric

a numeric addressaddress, , which uniquely

which uniquely

identifies it

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Storing Information

9278

Large values are

Large values are

stored in consecutive

stored in consecutive

memory locations

memory locations

10011010

10011010

Each memory cell

Each memory cell

stores a set number of

stores a set number of

bits (usually 8 bits, or

bits (usually 8 bits, or

one

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-13

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-14

CPU: Central Processing Unit

ALU: arithmetic/logic unit

 Performs arithmetic and Boolean logical calculations

CU: control unit

 Controls processing of instructions

 Controls movement of data within the CPU

Interface unit

 Moves instructions and data between the CPU and other hardware components

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15

The Central Processing Unit

 A CPU is also called a microprocessor

It continuously follows the fetch-decode-execute cycle:

fetch

Retrieve an instruction from main memory

Retrieve an instruction from main memory

decode

Determine what the

Determine what the

instruction is

instruction is

execute

Carry out the

Carry out the

instruction

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16

The Central Processing Unit

(CPU)

The CPU contains:

Arithmetic / Logic Unit

Registers Control Unit

Small storage Small storage areas

areas

Performs calculations Performs calculations and decisions

and decisions

Coordinates Coordinates processing processing steps

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The Central Processing Unit

 The speed of a CPU is controlled by the system clock

 The system clock generates an electronic pulse at regular intervals

 The pulses coordinate the activities of the CPU

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-18

Memory

Also known as

primary storage

, working

storage, and

RAM

(random access memory)

Consists of bits, each of which hold a value of

either 0 or 1 (8 bits = 1 byte)

Holds both instructions and data of a

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Storage Capacity

Every memory device has a storage capacity,

indicating the number of bytes it can hold

Capacities are expressed in various units:

KB

Unit SymbolSymbol Number of BytesNumber of Bytes

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Memory

Main memory is volatile - stored information is lost if

the electric power is removed

 Secondary memory devices are nonvolatile

 Main memory and disks are direct access devices - information can be reached directly

The terms direct access and random access are often

used interchangeably

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RAM vs. ROM

RAM - Random Access Memory (direct access)

ROM - Read-Only Memory

 The terms RAM and main memory are basically interchangeable

 ROM could be a set of memory chips, or a separate device, such as a CD ROM

 Both RAM and ROM are random (direct) access devices!

 RAM should probably be called Read-Write Memory

ROM

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Monitor

The size of a monitor (17") is measured

diagonally, like a television screen

Most monitors these days have

multimedia

capabilities: text, graphics, video, etc.

A monitor has a certain maximum

resolution

,

indicating the number of picture elements,

called

pixels

, that it can display (such as 1280

by 1024)

High resolution (more pixels) produces sharper

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Modem

Data transfer devices allow information to be sent and received between computers

 Many computers include a modem, which allows information to be moved across a telephone line

 A data transfer device has a maximum data transfer rate

 A modem, for instance, may have a data transfer rate of 56,000

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Networks

 A network is two or more computers that are

connected so that data and resources can be shared

 Most computers are connected to some kind of network

 Each computer has its own network address, which uniquely identifies it among the others

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A Computer Specification

Consider the following specification for a

personal computer:

600 MHz Pentium III Processor

256 MB RAM

16 GB Hard Disk

24x speed CD ROM Drive

17” Multimedia Video Display with 1280 x 1024

resolution

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Interconnection system computer

Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-26

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-27

Software Component

 Applications

Operating System

 API: application program interface

 File management

 I/O

 Kernel

 Memory management  Resource scheduling  Program communication  Security

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-28

Communications Component

Hardware

 Communication channels

 Physical connections between computer systems  Examples: wire cable, phone lines, fiber optic cable,

infrared light, radio waves

 Interface hardware

 Handles communication between the computer and the

communication channel

Modem or network interface card (NIC)

Software

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-29

Computer Systems

All computer systems, consists of the following:

At least one CPU

Memory to hold programs and data

I/O devices

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-30

Protocols

Common ground rules of

communication between computers, I/O

devices, and many software programs

Examples

HTTP: between Web servers and Web

browsers

TCP/IP: between computers on the Internet

and local area networks

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-31

Standards

Created to ensure universal compatibility of

data formats and protocols

May be created by committee or may become

a de facto standard through popular use

Examples:

 Computer languages: Java, SQL, C, JavaScript

 Display standards: Postscript, MPEG-2, JPEG, GIF

 Character set standards: ASCII, Unicode, EBCDIC

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Telecommunications System

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Telecommunication model

 Terminals

 office equipment , telephones , ...

 Telecommunications processors

 modems, multiplexers, front-end processors, ...

 Telecommunications channels and media

 copper wires, coaxial cables, fiber optic cables, satellites, ...

 Computers

 host computers, network servers, ...

 Telecommunications control software

 telecommunication monitors, network operating systems, ...

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Telecommunication Components

End-user workstation

Telecommunications software

Computers Telecom

processors

Telecom processors Telecom

Channels and Media

5 components

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LAN

PC-workstation PC-workstation

PC-workstation

Port to

other networks

Shared hard disk

Shared printer Databases and

Software packages

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WAN - Internetwork

network in US

network in Europe Mainframe,

hosts

Internet

network in Australia

LAN’s

LAN’s

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Client/server network

Intranet Company A

Intranet Company B

Mainframe host system Router

Router

Internet

Firewall Firewall

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Client - Server

Clients

Clients

comm. server

comm. server DB.

server

Print server

DB.

server server

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The Internetwork-enterprise

The Internet

Intranets

Intranets

Intranets Intranets

Extranets

Client

Enterprise

Supplier

Other Organizations

Electronic Commerce

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Media and Channels

 Signals  analog

 digital

 Cables

 Twisted-pair interference

 Coaxial cable 20x more expensive

5.500 simultaneous phone calls

 Fiber-optic

1 fiber 30.000 phone calls

 Wireless  microwave

 satellites

 Radio, Infrared, Cellular Radio, Mobile computing  GPS global positioning system

Medium Transmission speed Metal wire .0012Mbps - 10 Mbps Microwave .256 Mbps - 100Mbps Fiber optics .5Mbps - 1,000Mbps

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Communication hardware

Modems

9.600 14.400 28.800 bps

Transmission mode

Simplex

1 circuit , 1 direction

Half-duplex

1 circuit, 2 directions, difficult co-ordination

 Full duplex 2 circuits, 2 directions

Transmission accurateness

 parity bits forward and backward error correction

Processors

 multiplexers frequency, time or statistic time distribution

 front-end processors to handle routine communication tasks with peripheral equipment

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Network Topology

Star

all communications go via the central system

Bus

can easily be extended at the ends

Ring

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Star network

With direct

connections

- Efficientfi , alfiso for gi g seee s

- Witfig a lfiar e number of workstfiatfiions cablfiin mi gtfi be a eroblfiem

O’Brien 147 - 148

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Star network (multiplexed)

Access via mulfitfiielfiexe lfiines

eventfiualfilfiy rentfie

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Sgare usa e of a broa ban netfiwork

- more comelfiex gar ware - simelfier cablfiin systfiem

Multidrop lines

Bus network

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Ring Networks

Ring Network

- more equalfi basis

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Public data networks

PAD

Datfia Netfiwork

E. ..: DCS 1000 - 6000 cgar/sec , costfi / volfiume atfia ( X25 ) Due tfio gi g connectfiion costfi ($ 30.000 year) usa e of PAD

PAD =

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ISDN

ISDN

- universalfi netfiwork for tfielfieegone an atfia - > 6000 cgar/sec

ISDN

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49 | 51

Communication

Systems

13

th

lecture

Chair of Communication Systems Department of Applied Sciences

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Chapter 1 Computer Systems 1-50

Textbook Overview

 Web site: http://www.wiley.com/college/englander

 Part 1 (Chapter 1)

 Computer system overview

 Part 2 (Chapters 2-5)

 Number systems and data formats

 Part 3 (Chapters 6-12)

 Computer architecture and hardware operation

 Part 4 (Chapters 13-18)

 Software – operating systems, applications, development environments

 Part 5 (Supplementary Chapters 1-3)

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 Text books (german):

 Jochen Schiller, Mobilkommunikation

 Bernhard Walke, Mobilfunknetze und ihre Protokolle, Grundlagen GSM, Universal Mobile

Telecommunications System (UMTS), ...

 Link (see seminar slides and papers):

http://www.ks.uni-freiburg.de/download/

papers/telsemWS05/UMTS-

nextGeneration/UMTS-Seminararbeit-Stefan%20Nagy.pdf

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End Of Sessions

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