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Pag e

EASTERN QUEZON COLLEGE

LEVEL OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE READING SKILLS OF GRADE II PUPILS AS PERCEIVED BY

SELECTED TEACHERS OF GUMACA WEST DISTRICT SCHOOL YEAR 2015-2016

An Undergraduate Thesis

Presented to the Faculty of the College of Education

Eastern Quezon College

Gumaca, Quezon

In Partial Fulfillment

Of the requirements for the Degree

Bachelor of Elementary Education

By:

MICHELLE ANNE MARIE A. ARENAL

December 2015

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Pag SKILLS OF GRADE II PUPILS AS PERCEIVED BY SELECTED TEACHERS OF

GUMACA WEST DISTRICT SCHOOL YEAR 2015-2016” has been prepared and

submitted by MICHELLE ANNE MARIE A. ARENAL who is hereby recommended for Oral Examination.

RODONES S. TRIMILLOS, Ph. D.

Adviser

COMMITTEE ON ORAL EXAMINATION

Approved by the Committee on Oral Examination on ________ with a grade of______.

RENATO O. LORICA, Ph. D.

Chairman

RODRIGO G. MONTEREY, SR., Ph. D. ROSITA T. PASUPIL

Member Member

Accepted and approved in partial fulfillment of requirements for the Degree of Elementary Education.

RENATO O. LORICA, Ph. D.

Dean of College ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

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EASTERN QUEZON COLLEGE

The researcher acknowledges with profound gratitude and heartfelt appreciation the

invaluable support, assistance, and guidance accorded to her by special person in the

preparation and completion of this study.

Dr. Rodones S. Trimillos, research adviser who had given selfless personal

guidance and assistance, constructive criticism, and recommendations, which formed all

parts of this paper;

Dr. Renato O. Lorica, Dean of College, for giving encouragement to pursue and

finish the study;

Her friends, Tin, Rachelle, Merz, Mam love and Mam Hannah for their moral

support, encouragement and for their assistance in typing the manuscript;

The respondents, for their cooperation and patience in answering the questionnaire;

and

Jesus Christ our Almighty God, for good health, sound mind, and all the graces

given to her in the completion of this study.

MAMAA

DEDICATION

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To my beloved husband, Richard R. Ringor, and children-Rafael and Miguel. My

parents- Mrs. Raquel and Mr. Domingo F. Arenal, my sister – Ma. Theresa, Mary Anne

and brothers Ramon, Ronald, Rommel, D.A.,JP , this piece of work is whole – heartedly

dedicated.

MAMAA

ABSTRACT

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Pag e

EASTERN QUEZON COLLEGE

TITTLE :LEVEL OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TEACHING STRATEGIES TO ENHANCE READING SKILLS OF GRADE II PUPILS AS PERCEIVED BY SELECTED TEACHERS OF GUMACA WEST DISTRIC SCHOOL YEAR 2015 – 2016

This study sought to determine the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies to

enhance the reading skill a of grade II pupils as perceived by selected teachers of Gumaca

west District during the school year 2015 – 2016. Specifically, it answered the following

questions: (1) what is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of age, gender,

highest educational attainment, and years in service? (2) What are the common teaching

strategies used to enhance reading skills of the pupils? and (3) What is the level of

effectiveness of common teaching strategies to enhance reading skills? The descriptive

method of research is used in this study using the researcher self-made questionnaire as the

main tool for data gathering. This study covered thirty (30) Grade 2 teachers.

The study revealed that majority of the respondents were female. This implied that

most of the Grade 2 teachers in Gumaca West Central School were females. Moreover it

showed that majority of the respondents belong to the age bracket of 36-40. Additionally,

majority of the teacher respondents finish bachelor degree with a percentage of 83% while

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minority finished master’s degree with 17%. The study also revealed that majority of the

respondents rendered 12-22 years in service.

The study showed the perception of the respondents on the common teaching

strategies to enhance the reading skills of the pupils. They strongly agree that using

inferences and question- answer relationship are the most common strategies to enhance

reading skills with the highest total weighted mean of 4.97. It was followed by using

picture clues and sounding out the word with the mean of 4.90 and 4.87 correspondingly. It

was interpreted as strongly agree by the Likert scale. The average weighted mean of 4.74

tells that the 10 teaching strategies were used by the teachers in teaching reading to grade II

pupils.

Further, it revealed that the teachers rated think and aloud strategy as the most

effective teaching strategy ranked 1 (x=4.97) to enhance reading skills of Grade 2 pupils. It

was interpreted as strongly agree by the Likert scale. It was followed by indicator 1,

activating prior knowledge and 5, questions before, during, and after reading ranked 2.5.

Teacher also claimed that the use of picture clues and literacy center having the means of

4.80 and 4.77 respectively, were effective strategies to enhance reading skills of the

pupils.The average mean of 4.88 tells that the 10 teaching strategies in teaching reading

were very effective as detected by the Likert scale where teachers strongly agree on all

indicators of effectiveness of the different strategies

Based on the conclusion, the following recommendations are hereby offered:

Regarding the common teaching strategies to enhance the reading skills of the pupils,

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literacy center must be included to develop more comfortable ambiance for the pupils.

Conducive place is a big factor in learning effectively. Activating prior knowledge must

also be given emphasis for this will sharpen their memory and for their continuous

learning.

The use of KWL strategy (know/want/learned) is also one of the most effective

ways of learning which included among the highest ranks.

TABLE OF CONTENTS

TITLE PAGE i

APPROVAL SHEET ii

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Pag

Chapter 1- THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND 1 Introduction 1

Chapter II-REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES 10 Conceptual Literature 10 Researcher Literature 13 A. Research in the foreign setting 13 B. Research in the Philippine setting 16

Chapter III- RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHOLOGY 21 Research methods and techniques 21

Chapter V- SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS 30

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C. Certification 40

CURRICULUM VITAE 41

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CHAPTER I

THE PROBLEM AND ITS BACKGROUND

Introduction

Reading enables man to ponder the mysteries of the world. Explore guidance is

needed to distinguish them. It is quiet amusing when others ask a pre-school teacher, “what

age do you teach?” when the teacher replied that she teaches beginners, his/her remarks are

“such a headache” while the constant truth is, the teaching of reading is most efficient in

early beginners. Teacher just needs to have enough weapon and strategies to nourish

child’s potential to read well.

Reading is a process of interpreting written or printed verbal symbols. It can be

defined simply but the process is a complex one. Efficient reading is deeper in sense

wherein there is an active dialogue between the author and the reader. The efficient reader

is ready to evaluate challenge and criticize reading materials.

Young readers, once their mind is involved in reading and accumulated with

knowledge, start to raise question for deeper understanding. It can be an ingredient for

blending into new world of thought, imagination and reality. There are many distinct skills

that the child must learn. There are independent efficient reading practices related to habits,

attitudes, which is dependent upon the previous learning experiences in quality and

quantity.

The success of the teaching-learning process in general is dependent upon the

ability of the pupils to read. Elucidating this point, Bautrol (2008:16) stressed that reading

is a tool to successful school achievement. Failure to read however does not refer solely to

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to it such as oral reading difficulties. It is therefore important for a teacher to be a keen

observer of these diffulties (Saturno, 2007:2).

It is only when a mentor discover these difficulties that remedial measure can be

planned and implemented. This then leads to the improvement of the reading ability of the

child, and the teaching-learning process as a whole.

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This study sought to determine the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies to

enhance reading skills of grade II pupils as perceived by selected teachers of Gumaca West

District during the school year 2015-2016.

Specifically, it answered the following question:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of:

a. age b. gender

c. highest education attainment d. years in service

2. What are the common teaching strategies to enhance reading skills of the pupils?

3. What is the level of effectiveness of common teaching strategies to enhance reading skills?

Significance of the study

This research focused on the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies to enhance

reading abilities of grade II has significance to the following:

The teachers. The teachers would use appropriate techniques and methods, real life

situation, reading games wherein the pupils could act, get involve and participate

actively in the learning process which would be made meaningful for the

elementary pupils who are the beneficiaries. It showed that strengthening the

reading instruction is a cooperative enterprise among teachers and supervising by

the teachers and school heads. On this premise the pupil’s progress depends much

on the quality of instruction given by the teachers and effective supervision

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The Pupils. In this study, the findings of this research would inspire, enlighten and become

beneficial to the pupils of Gumaca West District elementary school.

The parents. The parents must know what the program is and how their children are doing

about it. A public relations program should be in operation so that parental support

is continuous and guaranteed, not a parental involvement only when a child is in

the reading development.

Scope and Delimitation Study

The scope of the study focused on determining the level of effectiveness of teaching

strategies to enhance reading abilities of Grade II in Gumaca West District. The

respondents of this study were the 30 Grade two teachers in Gumaca West District

Elementary Schools. It used self-made questionnaires to gather data.

Theoretical Framework

Reading problems stem from several sources. First, the student may not be able to

read the words themselves. Indeed, word decoding development and deficits are the

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with learning deficits. However, this concern has sometimes led to the neglect of the

counterpart of word decoding: sentence comprehension (McNamara, 2006:12).

It is clear that many readers lack sufficient reading abilities and knowledge to

understand the genre of texts that pervade their classroom lives. World knowledge is

particularly helpful to understanding text genres such as narratives or novels. But students

need domain-specific knowledge to understand their textbook material.

Researcher studying reading strategies have used the “think-aloud protocol” in their

study, in which subjects verbalize their thoughts while involving in a cognitive activity to

probe how language learners process text while reading (Parera, 2006:1). Meanwhile, the

think-aloud approach has also been used as an instructional strategy in classrooms to

demonstrate how skillful students construct meaning from text (Smith, 2006:24). During

think-alouds, teachers present how they interact with text by verbalizing what they are

thinking while reading. Numerous studies have evidence that the think-aloud approach

plays an essential role in enhancing English as a first or second language learners’ reading

comprehension abilities, especially for struggling readers. Smith (2006:25) devised a

productive technique, ThinkAloud Mysteries, similar to the think-aloud approach, for

teaching comprehension strategies to struggling readers in elementary or even middle

school. In addition to think-aloud methods, Walker (2005:56) utilized self-evaluation

sheets to make think-aloud processes more explicit among middle schools students who

had a passive stance on reading for several summers in a reading center. Migyanka et al.

(2006:42) also enriched three primary grade students’ utilization of reading comprehension

strategies by using think-aloud methods. The think-aloud approach is not a practical

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instructional technique to benefit students’ reading comprehension. One noteworthy

problem with think-alouds is that few studies directly examined the relationship between

text-difficulty and think-alouds. Caldwell and Leslie (2003:17) emphasized that “the link

between thinking aloud and comprehension improvement may be affected by variable other

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Figure 1

Level of Effectiveness of Teaching Strategies to Enhance Reading Skills

To determine the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies to enhance the reading

abilities of Grade II pupils, the researcher used the Input, Process, and Output (IPO) as

shown above wherein the data related to demographic profile of the respondents and the

teaching strategies used to enhance reading skills were obtained. After which, analysis of

the respondents profile and the effectiveness of teaching strategies followed. To come up

with the result, the researcher tabulated and interpreted the data. The output reveals the

awareness on the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies as well as the acquisition of

different insights and opinions on teaching strategies to enhance reading skills of the

pupils.

Definition of Terms

For the better understanding of the terms used in this study, they are hereby defined

conceptually and operationally.

Effectiveness – is the capability of producing a desired result. When something is deemed

effective, it means it has an intended expected outcome, or produces a deep, vivid

impression.

Activating – to set in motion; make active or more active. Enhance, intensify, increase, or

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his reputation” synonyms: increase, add to, intensify heighten, magnify, amplify,

inflate, strengthen, build up, supplement, augment, boost, raise, lift, elevate.

Inference – is the act or process of deriving logical conclusions from premises known or

assumed to be true. The conclusion drawn is also called an idiomatic. The laws of

valid inference are studies in the field of logic.

Literacy – is the ability to read and write.

Reading – (process) cognitive process of decoding symbols to derive meaning from text

(as in reading a book or reading music).

Second grade – (called Grade 2 in metric system countries) is a year of primary education

in many nations. Second grade is the second school year after first grade. Students

are traditionally 7-8 years old, depending on when their birthday occurs. In

reading, students read to perform a task using fictional and non-fictional texts, and

learn about story elements, text features, and characters traits. In many countries

and districts, schools have reading benchmarks that students need to meet by the

end of each quarter and/or school year. At the end of the year, students begin their

first novels. Decoding strategies usually end in second grade and reading more

comprehension.

Skill – is the learned ability to carry out a task with pre-determined results often within a

given amount of time, energy or both. In other words the abilities that one

possesses. Skills can often be divided into domain-general and domain-specific

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Strategy – is a high level plan to achieve one or more goals under conditions of

uncertainty. Strategy is important because the resources available to achieve these

goals are usually limited.

Teacher or school teacher – is a person who provides education for pupils (children) and

students (adults). The role of teacher is often formal and ongoing, carried out at a

school or other place of formal education. In many countries, a person who

wishes to become a teacher must first obtain specified professional qualifications

or credentials from a university or college. These professional qualifications may

include the study of pedagogy, the science of teaching.

CHAPTER II

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE AND STUDIES

Conceptual Literature

Reading is one great habit that can truly change a person’s life forever. Reading can

entertain, amuse and most of all it will enrich one’s knowledge and experience. Reading

purely for leisure is fun but there exists certain reading and strategies which if mastered at a

nascent stage can help someone be better and far more comprehensive readers.

Although the term reading strategies might sound too mechanical and dry for

the ears of a creative book-lover, these strategies can enhance the grasping power and help

an individual get the most out of any book. These skills might not necessarily be learned as

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process and increase the quality as well as quantity of output that get from after reading.

Not only can these strategies can be taught to children right from school, but can be also

used by any person of any age to help improve their reading process. Speed-reading is

actually a combination of various reading methods. The aim of speed-reading is basically

to increase the reading speed without compromising on the understanding or retention.

Some of the strategies used in speed-reading are:

 Identifying words without focusing on each letter

 Not sounding out all words

 Not sub-vocalizing some phrases

 Spending less time on some phrases than other

 Scheming small sections

Speed reading is thus actually not precisely defines by specific guidelines and rules

but is actually just a process that increases the speed of reading without compromising on

the retention of the content.

Scanning through the next is a reading strategy that can be used if someone is

particularly looking at the text through a set perspective in mind. One can only scan for

portion that interest him/her. For the highlights of important points one can skim through

the summary or the preface of the book or the beginning and the ending chapters.

Active Reading. There are times, one just cannot afford to skim through or scan

through the text but need to get an in-depth understanding of the text and hence they need

to make sure they’re actively involve with the text while reading text. There are four

important points that are needed to be kept in mind during active reading which is as

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 Underlining / highlighting: identify the most important parts of the text according to one’s own understanding and highlight or underline them using a pencil or marker while you are reading. One can even use different colors to highlight diverse aspect of the text.

 Make a note of key words: jotting down the heading and details while reading and using one or two key words for each point.

 Question: before starting reading, one should prepare for his/her reading by writing down all the questions he/she wanted the material to answer. This helps a person to read accordingly and ensures to get the answers to all the questions and don’t get destructed while reading.

 Summaries: after reading one complete section of the text, summarize that portion based on his/her own understanding. Later , go through the text again to check how accurate one’s summary is and modify / upgrade it in case there are details left out.

 Structure-Proposition-Evaluation: this is an interesting reading technique suggested by Mortimer Adler in this book how to read a book. The reading technique is mainly for non-fiction genre and elaborates about how a written piece can be read in three phase.

 Studying the Structure of the work: Studying the logical propositions made and organized into chains of inference and evaluation of the merits of the arguments and conclusions.

 Survey-Question-Read-Ricite-Review (SQ3R): this method facilitates a very deep understanding of the matter you are reading. In fact the system aims to facilitate an understanding so clear that the reader should be able to teach whatever he has learned during the process of reading. Instructors who are preparing to teach material without having to refer to notes during the lecture generally use this reading method. The process involved five different steps. Which are as follows:

o Survey: Survey involves getting a quick idea of what the whole writing piece. For example if it is a book, may be the introduction or the summary on the back will suffice.

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decipher the meaning that underlies them. One may create question in their piece for research. It is always advisable to write these questions and their answer in brief.

o Read: try answering the question in own words using only the key words or listing that are required to sum up the complete idea.

o Review: review or summarize the entire thing in mind and rest assured that one will never have to memorize it or learn it by hear.

Research Literature

A. Studies in Foreign Setting

Teachers must routinely teach children actually reading and writing for as much as

half of the school day. This is shown to be useful. According to Person and Fielding

(2004:23) activating student’s background knowledge before reading and generating

discussion after reading is useful after reading is useful for improving reading

proficiencies. Effective reading starts when dedicating the first part of reading time to

peeking through chapter, look at the chapter headings view picture, read the introduction

and conclusion, and browse through the study question at the end.

The foundation of every student has an increasing significance compare to when the

student is already as adult. Language instructor is often frustrated by the fact that students

in their intermediate of high school stage do not automatically transfer the strategies they

use to reading a particular selection. They are practicing reading that seems to think that it

always starting at the beginning and going word by word, stopping to look up every

unknown vocabulary items until read the end. These sad practices can have a remedy by

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their reading abilities. There are different effective teaching strategies that can be used

applicable to the varied attitude of the learners.

What should be in as literacy program and how that content should be taught and

learned has been the focus of considerable debate among literacy educators for the past

forty years. Much of this debate has polarized around two approaches to teaching literacy:

the whole language method and the skill-based method and has largely focused on the

teaching reading. Proponents of these methods have strongly influenced both the

recommended content of literacy program and the teaching and learning strategies. The

whole language approach proposes a contextual view of learning literacy. Based on the

constructivist theory, it emphasizes the importance of teaching and learning reading and

writing in authentic literacy contexts. By contrast, the skills based approach has focused on

breaking down reading and writing into component parts and explicit teaching of skills

such as phonics, phonemic awareness, and spelling.

More recent research on literacy teaching advocates a more balanced approach to

literacy content and teaching strategies encompassing aspects of skills based and whole

language methods. Many highlight it is not a matter of which method is best but rather

which approaches are best used to teach a particular specific element of literacy for

particular groups of students. Importantly, it has been pointed out that the most effective

literacy teachers use aspects of both approaches in a balance and integrated way

(Stanovich, 2000:3).

Literacy conventionally refers to reading, writing, speaking, viewing, and listening

effectively in a range of contexts. In the 21st century, the definition of literacy has expanded

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of traditional texts and new communications technologies using spoken language, print,

and multimedia. Learners need to be able to adjust and modify their use of language to

better meet contextual demands in varying situations.

Literacy is not a subject but rather a set of skills that include speaking and listening

reading and writing. These skills are not confined to the English learning are. While

literacy is a strand in the proposed new national English curriculum (Davis, 2002:49) and

development of many literacy skills will occur through the teaching and learning English,

learners will use these skills in these contexts. This means that in defining the learning

content or curriculum for literacy programs in the national training it is reasonable to

expect that a large proportion of literacy learning should align with the content descriptions

and achievement standards in the literacy strand of the proposed curriculum and

achievement standards in the English and ESL learning areas. However, a review of

national and international research on what should be in a literacy program is useful to

ensure that all important aspects of literacy learning have been considered.

In response to increasing national concern about the number of students in the

middle years who are struggling with literacy, a number of US researchers conducted

investigations into effective literacy programs for primary aged students and adolescents

(Biancarosa and Snow, 2004:1; Torgesen, etal., 2007:5). These studies maintain that

students in the middle years need explicit teaching in many of the same areas of literacy as

students in the early years, although there may be less emphasis on phonics instruction.

In addition, Biancarosa and Snow (2004:2) and Torgesen etal. (2007:5)

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concepts be exposed to diverse texts at a variety of difficulty levels and on a variety of

topics include comprehension strategies across all learning areas.

In order to determine the best teaching and learning strategies for literacy learning ,

a number of recent , large scale research studies have focused on elements of pedagogy in

effective literacy programs , while others have explored the characteristics of effective

literacy teachers. Both areas of research have informed the identification of a set of critical

features in literacy.

B. Study in Philippine setting

It is common knowledge that knowing how to read and write is an indicator that one

is educated. It is also an accepted phenomenon that reading is a very relevant part in the

development of an individual’s whole being. Reading is said to be the training of the mind

and the means to attain deeper meaning of reality. Reading is a habit where students learn.

Gain knowledge and develop new skills (Olivar , 2014:11 ) . Understanding the

significance of reading and in line with implementation of the K to 12 Basic Education

Program , the Department of Education ( DepEd ) implemented “Every Child A Reader

Program “ ( ECARP ) , through DepEd Memorandum No.402.s.2004 and Administrative

Order No. 324. This aims to teach public elementary pupils with planned training in

reading and writing to make them independent young readers and writers . Moreover ,

ECARP is also part of the ten-point education agenda of president Simeon Benigno Aquino

III to ensure that the country’s public schools produce well-equipped graduates who could

(25)

In order to develop an effective design to educate public school pupils with reading

skills, assessment is done to find out the status of their reading proficiency. One of the

assessment tool used is called Philippine Informal Reading Inventory (Phil-IRI). It

measures the reading proficiency of pupils through word recognition and reading

comprehension of pupils in English and in Filipino, specifically, by getting the percentage

of word recognition accuracy and percentage of correct answers to comprehension

questions based on the set of criteria for reading levels. Based on the Phil-IRI scale, the

students are categorized into four levels: Nonreader, frustration, instructional and

independent. Pupils under the frustration reading level tend to withdraw him to read by

refusing it. In the instructional reading level, the pupils can only read when being guided

while in the Independent reading level, the pupil can read alone with ease without the

guidance of the teacher. Flojo (2007:8) emphasized that based on the Philippine

Information Reading Inventory, we should determine the strengths and weaknesses of

students. Her study was done to analyze the existing learners’ difficulties in reading and

defining the source of their difficulties in reading comprehension. The study revealed that

learners should be guided to be more aware of their level of achievement as well as specific

strengths and weaknesses on reading. With increased learners’ awareness, the instruction

becomes more effective. In Addition, her study showed that repeated inventories at

periodic intervals in the beginning and end of the school year would make it possible to

determine changes in the level of reading achievement and in the development of more

specific skills and strategies. In this manner, a clear measure of child’s development and

progress could be gained. Intervention programs were done to cater individually the needs

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According to Anacleto (2000:4), all readings begin with recognition of words in the

early years of the child’s growth. They learn to produce new words trough letter-sound

recognitions and letter blending. As they mature and begin to spell longer and more

complex words, they apply to their spelling the concepts of root words and affixes i.e.

prefixes and suffixes. When a child is first taught to read, the emphasis is usually on

decoding skills. This is the proof whereby the written letters and words are translated into

language. He is taught phonics and from learning the sounds of individual letters, he

progresses to putting the sounds together to form words. Early – stage reading books

usually contain a lot of repetition of these first simple words to encourage practice and the

gradual building of a reading vocabulary. At this early stage, the child is, in effect learning

the “code” behind the written words. In this sense, decoding skills are the building blocks

of successful reading. It is in this level that reading accuracy and speed come into play. A

child with good decoding skills is able to read with speed and accuracy, although not

necessarily with good comprehension. It is very important to know the reading

performance of the pupils since this skill is considered the key for gaining knowledge. One

reads to attain Knowledge that is useful in constructing the key for gaining knowledge.

Comprehension refers to the creation and re-creation of meaning of the printed materials

(Miller as cited by Alonzo , 2005 ) . Today, there is much progress about the concept on

reading comprehension.

It is not only through semantic (word meaning), syntactic ( word order ) , phonetic/

gramophonic cues (sound-word relationship ) but it takes place through the good

interaction of the text , context of situation and the prior knowledge and experience of the

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six pupils of morning star Montessori, Inc. through the use of the scholastic reading

inventory. Indicators, such as, pupils’ demographic profile, reading attitude and

environmental factors i.e., teachers factors, school factor and home factor were used to find

out the significant relationship with the reading performance of the pupils. It was found out

that only the teacher factors did not significantly relate with the pupils’ performance.

In this current study, reading was measured by word recognition and reading

comprehension. Word recognition was measured by the correct pronunciation and speed in

reading the Dolch’s basic sight words, wherein, pronunciation deals with the correct letter

sound recognition and blending while reading speed is the time spent in orally reading the

basic sight words. Reading comprehension was measured by getting the scores gained by

the pupils in answering the four (4) levels of comprehension questions i.e. Test I , literal

comprehension ; Test II , interpretive comprehension ; Test III , critical analysis ; and Test

IV , Application and creation level of comprehension ( Villanueva & Delos Santos.

2008:1).

After identifying the reading levels of the participants in word recognition and

reading comprehension, a reading program was designed tailored to the students’ reading

need. The information collected served as the bases in making decisions for planning and

appropriate school-based teaching and learning instruction as well as a reading program to

improve the performance of pupils. The assessment results are considered in the

preparation of the school improvement plan. Reading program is classified into goals like

development or instructional reading program, or the independent reading program.

Correspondingly, the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

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research-based knowledge about reading including the effectiveness of various approaches

to teach the children. In gathering information for the study, they followed three methods;

first, they review variety of Public which are data bases to determine what research had

already been conducted on how children learn to read. Second, they gather information

from public sources about their needs and understanding of reading research, and third,

they consult leading education organization whose concern is in reading issues. Through

the NICHD study, they concluded that vocabulary should be taught directly and indirectly.

Chapter III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

Method and Technique

This study used descriptive statistics that include the frequency distribution,

measures of central tendency , measures of central location, measures of dispersion or

variation, (Broto, 2012). It portrayed accurately the demographic profile of the respondents,

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Sampling Design

In this study, the researcher used purposive or convenience sampling. A

convenience sample is one of the main types of non-probability sampling methods. A

convenience sample is made up of people who are easy to reach (Orence and Mendoza,

2013:243)

This study covered all the thirty grade two teachers of Gumaca West District to

determine the effectiveness of teaching strategies to enhance reading skill of pupils.

Respondents who participated in the study were those grade two teachers who teach in

Gumaca West District at the time the study was conducted.

Data Gathering Instrument

In this study, the researcher used a self-made questionnaire as the main tool in data

gathering. The questionnaire includes: demographic profile of teacher-respondents, the

strategic used to enhance the reading skills of the pupils and the level of effectiveness of

common strategies as perceived by the grade two teachers of Gumaca West District.

Data Gathering Procedure

First, the researcher drafted the questionnaire for comment and suggestions by the

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revision of questionnaire. After this, the approval of the intention letter from the

administration containing the request to conduct a survey to selected teachers of Gumaca

West District.

The questionnaire were distributed and retrieved. The gathered data were recorded,

ordered, analyzed and interpreted accordingly.

Statistical Treatment

In this study, the researcher used different statistical measures to treat the collected

data. All the data were carefully read and examined for analysis. They were tallied and

entered into a master list of the data collection sheet. Percentage was used to interpret the

profile of the respondents:

P=f xN100

where: P = percentage

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Weighted mean was used to describe each item in the questionnaire. The formula is:

WM =

f x

N

where : WM = Weighted Mean

∑fx = summation of the product of number of responses and the

assigned weight

N = number of respondents

To interpret the weighted mean, the researcher used the following scaled rating:

5.00 – 4.21 Strongly Agree 4.20 – 3.41 Agree

3.40 – 2.61 Undecided 2.60 – 1.81 Disagree

1.80 – 1.00 Strongly Disagree

Chapter IV

PRESENTATION, ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION OF DATA

This chapter presents and discusses the presentation, analysis and interpretation of

data. This aims to answer questions regarding this study. It presents the data gathered after

the survey through the questionnaires. The responses were presented in form of figures,

graphs and table in a systematic presentation. The data were gathered, analyzed, tabulated

and interpreted for better understanding. The presentation was organized in three parts in

accordance with the sub problem of the study.

Part I dealt with the demographic of the respondents in terms of age, gender,

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on the common teaching strategies to enhance the reading skills of the pupils. Part III dealt

with the respondent’s perception on the level of effectiveness of common teaching

strategies to enhance the reading skills of the pupils.

1. Demographic Profile of the Respondents

Table 1

Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Sex

Sex f Percentage Rank

Male 3 10% 2

Female 27 90% 1

Total 30 100%

Table 1 revealed that majority of the respondents were female with the frequency

of 27 of 90% of the respondents. The remaining 10% were male respondents. This

implied that most of the Grade 2 teachers in Gumaca West Central School were females.

Table 2

Percentage Distribution of Respondents According to Age

Age Bracket f Percentage Rank

21 - 25 1 3% 7

26 - 30 1 3% 7

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36 – 40 10 33% 1

41 – 45 7 23% 2

46 – 50 3 10% 4

51 – 55 1 3% 7

56 – 60 2 8% 5

TOTAL 30 100%

Table 2 showed that 33% of the respondents belongs to the age bracket of 36-40

years. This is followed by the age bracket of 41 – 45 where there are seven (7) respondents

representing 23% of the total respondents. There are five (5) respondents who belong to

age of 31 – 35 . There is 1 or 3% of the respondents who belong to 26-30 years old and

another 3% who belong to 21-25 years.

17.00%

83.00%

Highest Educational Attainment

Master's degree Bachelor's degree

Figure 2

Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Their Highest Education Attainment

Figure 2 showed the percentage distribution of respondents according to their

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with a percentage of 83% while minority finished Master’s degree with a Percentage of

17%. No respondents finished a Doctoral degree.

1-11 yrs 12-22 yrs 23-33 yrs

0 5 10 15 20 25

Years in Service

Figure 3

Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Their Years in Service

Figure 3 showed the number of respondents according to the number of years in

service. There were seven (7) respondents who rendered their service for 1 – 11 years and

twenty (20) respondents who rendered their years in service for 12 – 22 years. Among the

respondents, there were three (3) who rendered their service for 23 – 33 years. None of

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II. Most common Teaching Strategies to Enhance the Reading Skills of Grade II Pupils.

Table 3

Most and Least Common Teaching Strategy used to Enhance Reading Skills

Teaching Strategies 5 4 3 2 1 X INT R 1. Activating Prior knowledge 18 10 2 0 0 4.53 SA 9 2. Think Aloud Strategy 20 8 1 1 0 4.57 SA 8 3. Literacy Center 18 8 4 0 0 4.47 SA 10 4. Using KWL in the Classroom 27 1 1 1 0 4.80 SA 5 5. Questions Before , During and After

Reading 23 3 3 1 0 4.60

SA 7

6. Directed Reading/Thinking Activity 25 2 2 1 0 4.70 SA 6 7. Inferences 29 1 0 0 0 4.97 SA 1.5 8. Question/Answer Relationship 29 1 0 0 0 4.97 SA 1.5 9. Using Picture Clues 28 1 1 0 0 4.90 SA 3

strategies to enhance reading skills of the pupils. They strongly agree that using inferences

and question- answer relationship are the common strategies to enhance reading skills with

the highest total weighted mean of 4.97. It was followed by using picture clues with a mean

of 4.90 and sounding out the word with the mean of 4.87 (ranked 4). It was interpreted as

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respondents strongly agree as common strategy used by Grade II teachers to enhance

reading skills of the pupils.

Table 4

Effectiveness of Teaching Strategies

Teaching Strategies 5 4 3 2 1 WM INT R

1. Activating Prior knowledge 28 2 0 0 0 4.93 SA 2. 5 2. Think Aloud Strategy 29 1 0 0 0 4.97 SA 1 3. Literacy Center 23 7 0 0 0 4.77 SA 10 4. Using KWL in the Classroom 26 4 0 0 0 4.87 SA 7 5. Questions Before , During and After

Reading 29 0 1 0 0 4.93

SA 2. 5 6. Directed Reading/Thinking Activity 26 4 0 0 0 4.87 SA 7 7. Inferences 27 3 0 0 0 4.90 SA 4.

5 8. Question/Answer Relationship 28 1 1 0 0 4.90 SA 4.

5

effective teaching strategy (rank 1, x=4.97) to enhance reading skills of Grade 2 pupils. It

was interpreted as strongly agree by the Likert scale. Indicator 1, activating prior

knowledge and indicator 5, question before, during, and after reading were ranked 2.5 by

the respondents. Next were indicators 4, 6, and 10 with the mean of 4.87 and it was

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center having the means of 4.80 and 4.77 respectively, were effective strategies to enhance

reading skills of the pupils.

The average mean of 4.88 tells that the 10 teaching strategies in teaching reading

were very effective as detected by the Likert scale where teachers strongly agree on all

indicators of effectiveness of the different strategies

CHAPTER 5

SUMMARY, FINDING, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS

This chapter presents clear and brief views of the entire study

Summary

This study sought to determine the level of effectiveness of teaching strategies to

enhance reading skills of Grade II pupils as perceived by selected teachers of Gumaca West

District during the School Year 2015 – 2016. Specifically, it answered the following

question:

1. What is the demographic profile of the respondents in terms of :

a. age b. sex

c. highest education attainment d. years in service ?

2. What are the common teaching strategies used to enhance reading skills of the

pupils?

3. What is the level of effectiveness of common teaching strategies to enhance reading

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The descriptive method of research is used in this study using the researcher

self-made questionnaire as the main tool for data gathering. This study covered thirty (30) grade

two teachers.

Findings

Based on the data from the respondents, the following findings were derived:

1. The study revealed the majority of the respondents were female with the frequency

of 27 or 90% of the respondents. The remaining 10% were male respondents. This

implied that most of the Grade 2 teachers in Gumaca West Central School were

females.

2. Moreover, it showed that majority of the respondents belong to the age bracket of

36-40 with ten (10) or 33% of the teachers. This is followed by the age bracket of

41-45 where there are seven (7) respondents representing 23% of the total

respondents. There are five (5) respondents who belong to age bracket 31-35. There

are three (3) respondents who belong to age bracket of 46-50, two (2) in age bracket

of 56-60 and age bracket of 21-25, 26-30 and 51-55 years old got one (1)

respondent respectively.

3. Additionally, this showed the percentage distribution of respondents according to

their highest educational attainment. Majority of the respondents finished

Bachelor’s Degree with a percentage of 83% while minority finished Masteral

Degree with a percentage of 17%.

4. It also showed that the number of respondents according to the number of years in

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and twenty (20) respondents who rendered their service for 12-22 years. Among the

respondents, there were three (3) who rendered their service for 23-33 years.

5. The study showed the perception of the respondents on the common teaching

strategies to enhance reading skills of the pupils. They strongly agree that using

inferences and question- answer relationship are the common strategies to enhance

reading skills with the highest total weighted mean of 4.97. It was followed by

using picture clues and sounding out the word with the mean of 4.90 and 4.87

correspondingly. It was interpreted as strongly agree by the Likert scale. The

average weighted mean of 4.74 tells that the 10 teaching strategies were very

effective in teaching reading to grade II pupils.

6. Finally, it revealed that the teachers used activating prior knowledge and questions

before, during and after reading with the mean of 4.93. It was interpreted as

strongly agree by the Likert scale. It was followed by indicators 7 (inferences) and 8

(Question/Answer Relationship) with the mean of 4.90 (strongly agree). Next were

indicators 4, 6, and 10 with the mean of 4.87 and were interpreted as strongly agree.

Teacher also used picture clues and literacy center having the means of 4.80 and

4.77 respectively. The average mean of 4.88 tells that the 10 teaching strategies in

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Conclusions

Based on the findings presented, the following conclusions were drawn:

1. Most of the respondents were females, belonged to age bracket 36-40, finished

master’s degree, and had 12-22 years in service

2. The common teaching strategies used to enhance the reading skills of the pupils

are inferences, question-answer relationship, using picture clues and sounding

of the word. These are visible in everyday performance of teachers.

3. In terms of effectiveness of teaching strategies, question before, during and after

reading, directed reading-thinking activity, question-answer relationship, using

picture clues and sounding out word are most effective to enhance reading skills

of the pupils.

Recommendations

Based on the conclusions, the following recommendations are hereby offered:

1. Regarding the common teaching strategies to enhance the reading skills of the

pupils, literacy center must be included to develop more comfortable ambiance for

the pupils. Conducive place is a big factor in learning effectively. Activating the

prior knowledge must also be given emphasis for the continuous learning of the

pupils. This will sharpen their memory.

2. The use of KWL, (what I know, what I want to know, what I learned) must be given

emphasis because it is in great relation with discovery learning. This encourages

pupils to use prior knowledge and one of the most effective ways of learning. This

strategy must be included among the highest ranks.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

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Broto . A,S. (2006) . Statistics made simple . Mandaluyong city : National Book Store .

Orence , R. and Mendoza , M. (2013) , E-MATH 7. Manila : Rex book Store.

Togesen , M.L.; Mosenthal , P.B.; Pearson , P.D., eds . (2007) . Handbook of reading research,vol. 3 . Hillsdale, NJ : Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Durkin, D . (2004). Teaching them to Read (6th Edition) . Boston : Pearson.

Miller, D . (2002). Reading with Meaning. Portlang, ME : Stemhouse .

Willhelm, J.D. (2001) . Improving Reading Comprehesion with think-Aloud Strategies. A Teacher ‘ s Practical guide . Newton , MA : Allyn and Bacon .

Kiefer , B.Z. (1995). The Potential of Picture Books : From Visual Literacy to Aesthetic Understanding, Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Merrill.

B. Journals and magazines

Stanovich, J.P (2000). Reading as situated language: a sociocognitive perspective . Journal of adolescent & adult Literacy (Newark, DE), vol. 44, no 8, p. 714 – 25

Davis, J. 2002. How is reading in a second language related to reading in a first language? AILA review (Milton Keynes, UK ) vol. 8, p. 5 – 15 .

Davis , J. 2002 . How is reading in a second language related to reading in a first language? AILA review (Milton Keynes . UK ) vol . 8 , p, 5 – 15 Hillsdale , NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates .

Flojo, D.M 2007 . K-W-L.: A teaching moder that develops active reading of expository text Reading teacher ( Newark, DE ) . vol 39, no . 6 . p. 564 – 70

Alonzo , GS,S.,a (2005). Listening to children read aloud . Washington , DC ; Office of Educational Reasearch and IMprovenment , U.S. Department of Education.

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c. Electronic Website

Oliver , T. P (2014) Teaching children to read : an evidence based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction. Rockville . MD ; National Institute of Child Health and Human Development .

http://www.nichd.nih.gov/publications/nrp/report.htm

APPENDIX A LETTER

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Dear Madam :

The Undersigned is currently conducting her Undergraduate study entitled “Level of Effectiveness of Teaching Strategies to Enhance Reading Skills of Grade II Pupils as perceived by the Teachers of Gumaca West District , SY 2013 – 2014 “ With the Grade II Teachers as the respondents. In relation to this, may she request from your good office to administer her questionnaire to all Grade II teacher in your institution. Rest assured that the data gathered shall be used with confidentiality and for academic purpose only. Thank you very much in anticipation of you favorable consideration on this request

Very sincerely yours,

MICHELLE ANNE MARIE A. ARENAL Researcher

Noted by:

RODONES S. TRIMILLOS, Ph. D. RENATO O.LORICA, Ph.D. Researcher Adviser Dean of College

Approved by:

RAQUEL A. ARENAL District Supervisor

APPENDIX B

Questionnaire

I. Demographic Information

Please check the appropriate line

1. Age :

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__ 26 – 30 years old __ 51 – 55 years old

Part II Common Teaching Strategies to Enhance the Reading skills of Grade II Pupils

Direction : Kindly put a check (/) mark on the corresponding answer of your choice.

(45)

5.Questions Before .

Part III The Level of Effectiveness of common Teaching Strategies to Enhance the Reading Skill of Grade II Pupils

Directions : Kindly Put a check (/) mark on the corresponding answer of your choice .

(46)

6.Directed

Reading/Thinking Activity

7.Inferences

8.Question/ Answer Relationship

Gambar

Table 1 revealed that majority of the respondents were female with the frequency
Table 2 showed that 33% of the respondents belongs to the age bracket of 36-40
Figure 3 Percentage Distribution of Respondents according to Their Years in Service
Table  3  showed  the  perception  of  the  respondents  on  the  common  teaching
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