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Andy Dufresne`s reaction toward his being unfairly treated as seen in stephen king`s Rita Hayworth and shawshank redemption - USD Repository


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Presented as Partial Fulfilment of the Requirements to Obtain the Sarjana Pendidikan Degree

in English Language Education

By: Daru Kurniawan









First of all, I would like thank Jesus Christ for His blessings, love, and affections. I also thank Him for giving me the strength to finish my thesis. With His companion, I could finish my thesis. To my Father and Mother I just want to say “thank you for praying days and nights for my success and I am so proud to be their son.” I would like to express my gratitude to all who have helped me do this thesis with their love, support, and prayers. My deepest gratitude goes to Drs. Antonius Herujiyanto, M.A., Ph.D, as my major sponsor, who generously devoted his time to guide me, read and improve my thesis.

Moreover, I would like also to thank my friends in PBI ‘02, especially the B class, Adest, Linda, Ajeng, Pao-pao, Arin, Rina, Ayu, Woro, Cipluk, Santi, Wulan, Genjik, Dani, Chies, Rumi, Lisa, for filling my days in class with their smiles, laughs, and cares. I would like to thank my friends in other classes, Micko, Galih, Haryana, Niken, Ruri Mambo, Ila, Ari, Wawan, for the support and happiness.



Last but not least, I thank the lecturers and secretary staffs of PBI and the library staffs who have helped me during my study in Sanata Dharma University.








STATEMENT OF WORK’S ORIGINALITY... iv A. Review of Related to Literature... 7





Redemption... 55 2. Suggestion for Teaching – Learning Activity Using Rita Hayworth

and Shawshank Redemption... 55




APPENDIX 2: Written Works………. 68


APPENDIX 4: Summary of Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption……. 75




APPENDIX 8: Sample of Instructional Material for Reading Class…………... 87




Daru Kurniawan (2007). Andy Dufresnes Reactions toward His Being Unfairly Treated as Seen in Stephen King’s RITA HAYWORTH and SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION. English Language Education Study Program. Faculty of Teachers Training and Education. Yogyakarta: Sanata Dharma University.

This thesis discusses Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, a novella written by Stephen King. This novella describes the life of Andy Dufresne, a thirty – year old man who is the main character in this novella. He is put in jail because he is accused of killing his wife and her lover. In jail he is faced with the unfair situation conducted and created by both the prisoners and the wardens there.

The objective of this study is to show one’s life struggle for being unfairly treated as seen in that of Andy Dufresne, the main character of Stephen King’s Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. In order to achieve it, there are two problems discussed in this study: “How is Andy Dufresne described in the novella?” and “How does Andy Dufresne reaction to his experience of being unfairly treated in the novella?”

I applied library study to get the data and other related sources. I also used additional information, which I gained from the internet. There are two sources I used in this study. The primary source is taken from the novella itself. The secondary sources are taken from several books on literature and psychology and sources on the author from the internet. The approach used in this study is Psychological Approach.

There are two findings of this study. Firstly, Andy Dufresne, the main character in the novella, is characterized as good looking, persuasive, calm, honest, optimistic, persistent, introvert, tough, independent, crafty, and manipulative. Secondly, Andy’s struggle begins when he attends the session in the court. He takes his own defence.

Andy is put in jail because he is accused of killing his wife and her lover. Here, he also experiences being unfairly treated. First, he gets trouble with “the sister”, a gang of homosexual prisoners. They see Andy as their perfect prey. The second is from the guards. In one occasion Andy was almost killed by the wardens because he tried to help one of the wardens using his financial ability. The third is his attempt to escape from Shawshank. Andy’s plan to get free from the jail is not detected by the warden. Finally, he gets free from Shawshank and makes his dream come true.



Daru Kurniawan (2007). Andy Dufresnes Reactions toward His Being Unfairly Treated as Seen in Stephen King’s RITA HAYWORTH and SHAWSHANK REDEMPTION. Pendidikan Bahasa Inggris. Fakultas Keguruan dan Ilmu Pendidikan. Yogyakarta: Universitas Sanata Dharma.

Skripsi ini mengulas tentang Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, sebuah novela yang ditulis oleh Stephen King. Novela ini menceritakan tentang kehidupan Andy Dufresne, seorang pria berusia tiga puluh tahun sebagai tokoh utama dalam novel ini. Dia di penjara karena dituduh membunuh istri dan selingkuhannya. Dalam penjara ia menghadapi situasi tidak adil yang dilakukan dan diperbuat baik oleh para narapidana maupun sipir penjara.

Tujuan dari penulisan ini adalah untuk memperlihatkan perjuangan hidup seseorang yang diperlakukan tidak adil yang nampak pada diri Andy Dufresne, karakter utama pada novel Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption karya Stephen King. Oleh karena itu ada dua masalah yang dibahas dalam skripsi in: “Bagaimanakah Andy Dufresne digambarkan dalam novela tersebut?” dan “Bagaimana reaksi Andy Dufresne terhadap perlakuan tidak adil terhadapnya dalam novela tersebut?”

Saya menggunakan penelitian perpustakaan untuk mendapatkan data-data dan sumber-sumber yang bersangkutan. Saya juga menggunakan informasi tambahan yang saya peroleh melalui internet. Ada dua sumber yang saya gunakan dalam penulisan ini. Sumber utama diambil dari novela itu sendiri. Sumber kedua diambil dari beberapa buku tentang kesusastraan dan psikologi dan sumber-sumber tentang penulis novel tersebut dari internet. Pendekatan yang digunakan dalam penulisan ini adalah Pendekatan Psikologi.

Ada dua temuan dari penulisan ini. Yang pertama adalah Andy Dufresne sebagai tokoh utama dalam novela digambarkan sebagai seseorang yang tampan, berkeyakinan, tenang, jujur, optimis, gigih, tertutup, kuat, mandiri, terampil, dan mampu memanipulasi. Kedua, mengenai reaksi Andy terhadap perlakuan tidak adil terhadapnya. Perjuangannya dimulai ketika dia menjalani peradilan. Dia berjuang sendirian tanpa didampingi pengacara.

Pada akhirnya ia dipenjara karena dituduh membunuh istri dan selingkuhannya. Di dalam pejara ia juga mendapat perlakuan yang tidak baik dari narapidana lainnya. Pertama, dia mendapat masalah dari ’The Sister’ sebuah geng yang beranggotakan narapidana homoseksual. Mereka menganggap Andy sebagai korban yang sempurna untuk dicabuli. Yang kedua dari sipir penjara. Dalam sebuah kesempatan ia hampir dibunuh oleh sipir-sipir penjara karena dia mencoba menolong salah seorang sipir dengan ilmu keuangan yang ia miliki. Yang ketiga adalah percobaannya untuk melarikan diri dari Shawshank. Rencana Andy untuk lolos dari penjara tidak terditeksi oleh sipir-sipir penjara. Pada akhirnya ia berhasil melarikan diri dari Shawshank dan membuat impiannya menjadi nyata






This chapter consists of five sections. The first section is the Background of the Study, which covers reasons of choosing the novel and the topic. The second section talks about the Objectives of the Study to answer the problem formulation. The third one concerns with Problem Formulation, which gives general description of the problem that will be analysed in this study. The fourth one describes the benefits of the study. And the last part, Definition of Term, talks about the terms used in this study.

A. Background of the Study

Fiction is a work that is created by a person called an author. Usually an author or writer writes a fiction based on his or somebody else’s experience. In the process of making the novel, the author is influenced by the intellectual and emotional sides of his life, or his outer world. Koesnosoebroto states that life experiences which influences the writer is anything outside and inside himself which are; people, nature, man-made objects, other people ideas, knowledge and also his feelings and intellectual activities (10).


or protest against something. The message can also teach the readers or people about morality. Most of the literary works bring a story about human life, including its problems. There are some problems typically found in literary works, such as social problems and personal problems.

Readers of a novel may get values after reading the novel since it is a reflection of life. The reader can get such a deeper understanding on the background of the novel, which is the character’s attitude toward any idea that is believed and practised the story. The characters in a novel may not actual human beings; they are created to be close to actual human beings or in other words, they are drawn from life so that these characters are understandable for the readers.

Through this study the researcher is going to discuss a character’s struggle for being unfairly treated by other characters in a novel. A novel is a kind of fiction. A fiction is a story about characters and work of imagination. According to Koesnosoebroto, prose fiction is an imaginative literature that is not meant to be judged by the usual standards of truth and falsity (9).


story begins in 1948 when Andy Dufresne arrives at Shawshank prison. In contrast, he is not a hardened criminal but a soft-spoken banker who is convicted killing his wife and her lover. Like everyone in Shawshank, he claims to be innocent. Red, the narrator of the story, is known as the guy who can get stuff. He also gets unfairly treated by both the guards and the other prisoners. In the Shawshank, Andy gets some troubles that threaten his life. Therefore, he struggles to keep alive and avoid getting more troubles and the more important is to get free from Shawshank. The third is about the main character’s struggle. Here, the readers can see the main character, Andy Dufresne, struggling to live as a result for being unfairly treated by the other characters in the story. First, he has to defend his own in the court session. After that, he also finds other problems that must be solved in his live in prison until he escapes from the prison.

As a result, from those three ways, I am interested to analyze the novella mainly about the main character’s struggle to live, the second way. In order to understand more about the novella I also watch its movie as the secondary sources to analyze the novella.

B. Objectives of the Study


C. Problem Formulation

From the background and objective of the study stated above, some problems appear. The problems of the study are formulated as follows:

1. How is Andy Dufresne described in the novella?

2. How does Andy Dufresne react to his experiences of being unfairly treated in the novella?

D. Benefits of the Study

The study of the Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption hopefully helps readers’ especially English Language Education Study Program students understand one of the Stephen King’s works, Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. Expectantly, this study gives more ideas about the main character’s, Andy Dufresne, life struggle because of the other characters’ behaviour.


This study also enrich my knowledge about the author’s work, especially

Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, and his style on writing a story.

Moreover, I also get the moral lessons from the story which teaches us about

friendship and struggle.

E. Definition of Terms

This section deals with the words and terms used in this study. Therefore,

there will not be any misunderstanding when reading this study. The terms of the

study are described as follows:

1. Character


2. Characterization

Characterization is the way to create imaginary person so that they exist for the readers as life like (Holman and Harmon 81). The use of this characterization is to describe the characters traits.

3. Novella

Novella is a fictional tale in prose, intermediate in length and complexity between a short story and a novel, and usually concentrating on a single event or chain of events, with surprising turning point ( www.answers.com/topic/novella, accessed on 19 November 2007, 01:25 pm). In this study Novella means a narrative work of prose fiction longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. 4. Personality




This chapter discusses the theories that are used to analyze the topic of this study. This chapter is divided into four sections, namely Review of Related to Literature, Theory of Psychology, Criticism, and Context of the Novel.

A. Review of Related to Literature

1. Theory of Character

According to Abrams, in his book A Glossary of Literary Terms, states that character are “the person presented in a narrative or dramatic work, who are interpreted by the reader as being endowed with moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities that are expected in what they say – the dialogue – and by what they do – the action” (23). Thus, characters are the people who appear in the story and who have moral, dispositional, and emotional qualities as seen from what they do and what they say.


Forster states that there are two kinds of character, flat and round character. A flat character is simple and there is not much individualizing detail in this character (74). Forster calls this kind of character flat because the readers see only one side of him. Round character is complex in temperament and motivation and is represented with subtle particularity. Therefore, it is difficult to describe this kind of character. This character is more or less the same with a person in real life and has the capability of surprising us.

From those Forster’s statement in differentiating characters, the main point is that the character can be recognized from their complexity. A flat character usually is not complex in the sense that there is not much traits or individualizing details in him. Therefore, the readers can easily recognize this character. It is different with the round character. A round character is more complex. Sometimes, this character changed into someone that we do not expected before.

Kennedy and Gioia state that “flat characters tend to stay the same throughout the story but round character often change – learn or become enlightened, grow or deteriorate”. Or in other words, flat characters do not change their traits throughout the story. While round characters can develop themselves and change into someone else during the story (61).

Character can also be defined into other terms. There are major or central character and minor character. According to Stanton (17), central character is “the character who is relevant to every event in the story, usually the events


are taking important role in a novel and become the central of the story in a novel. This statements supported by Henkle as he defines major character as the character who appears from the beginning till the end of the story and the readers give all their attention because the character has the key of structural function, toward the character the readers build expectations and desires. In other words, major or central character often makes the readers give their attention to them from the beginning to the end of the story since they become the important figure in every event in the novel or story (87 – 89).

Minor character performs more limited function in the story. They maybe less focused by the reader. Their responses to the experience are less complex and important (Henkle 87 – 89). Minor characters usually do not appear frequently. Therefore, these characters get less attention from the readers.

2. Theory of Characterization

a. Definition of Characterization


author shows and tries to make his characters alive and understandable for the readers as a lifelike.

b. Ways of Characterizing

According to Rohrberger and Woods, Jr. (20), there are two principal ways that can be used by an author to characterize his characters; they are direct means (the author use description of physical appearances, intellectual, and moral attributes, or the degree of character sensitivity) and dramatic means (the author places his character in certain situations to show who they really are by how they behave or speak).

Murphy (161 – 173) provides nine ways of describing characters in a story. Those are described as follows:

1) Personal description

A character described through the details of his physical appearance such as face, skin, body, clothes, and hair cut.

2) Character as seen by another

The author illustrates the person’s character from the point of view of another character or person.

3) Speech


4) Past life

The author gives a clue to events, which happened in the character’s past life, that shape a person’s character through direct comment, the readers thought, or conversation through the medium of another person.

5) Conversation of others

The reader would know the person’s character through the conversation of the people and the things they say about the person.

6) Reaction

Reaction is given by the author to show how the character reacts toward various situation and events as a way to describe the character.

7) Direct comment

The author gives the character’s character directly. 8) Thought

The author gives a clue about a character’s character through what the character thinking about.

9) Mannerism


3. Theory of Approaches

According to Marry Rohrberger and Samuel H. Woods, Jr. (6 -15) there are five approaches that are used in analyzing a literary work. They are the formalist approach, the sociocultural – historical approach, the mythopoeic approach, and the psychological approach. The description of each approach will be stated as follows;

a. The Formalist Approach

This approach tries to examine the literary work about the reference to the fact of the author’s life without reference to the genre of the work or its place in the development of the genre or in literary history, or without reference to its social milieu. The formalist approach concerns demonstrating the harmonious involvement of all the parts to the whole and with the pointing out how meaning derived from structure and how matters of technique determine structure (6 – 7).

b. The Biographical Approach


their life and development of the author and to apply this knowledge in their attempt to understand his writing (8).

c. The Sociocultural – Historical Approach

The sociocultural – historical approach leads the readers to analyze a novel in reference to the civilization that produces the novel. Civilization is defined as the attitudes and actions of a specific group of people. Meanwhile, it is necessary to investigate the social milieu, the cultural and the historical background in which a novel is created (9)

d. The Mythopoeic Approach

Using the mythopoeic approach, the readers analyze the novel by trying to discover certain universally recurrent patterns or a human thought. The universally recurrent patterns are those that found first expression in ancient myth or folk rites and are also basic to human thought that they have meaning for all man (11). e. The Psychological Approach


and content of the dreams, he was led to believe that there exists a set of symbols which are common to all men and which can be interpreted in light of the individual’s experience (13).

B. Theory of Psychology

This part discusses the psychological sides of the main character, particularly which are related to the theory of motivation and behaviour. This is the significant thing that I need to make the analysis of the novel.

1. Theory of Motivation and Behaviour

People do something that they consider as a good way in order to survive in this life. However, they conduct the behaviour, whether is good or not, for them. They will keep on struggling. In doing a certain thing, there must be motivations under laying their actions.

There are many definitions of motivation given by different psychologists. According to Bootzin, et. al, (367) motive is “the dynamic property of behaviour that gives it organization ever time and that defines its end states”. The “corresponding” process of the motive is called “motivation” (367). Bootzin, et. al also add that a person behaviour is

“organized”. Therefore, we can say that the behaviour is conducted by


Motivation can be stimulated either from external condition which is called “incentives” or from internal condition which is called “drives” (368). It is also stated that motivation which is caused by external rewards is called “extrinsic” motivation. While the one which is caused by the individual’s established preference is called “intrinsic” motivation (383).

According to John Jung, in his book Understanding Human Motivation, the basic serial nature of the human condition is well captured in the immortal lines of John Donne: “No man is an island, entire of itself; every man is a piece of the piece of the continent”. It means that every human being are highly dependent on the protection and nurturance of other human in order to survive physically. Throughout life, one finds oneself in one association or another with other people (190).

Based on those statements above, the tendency to associate is inherent in the nature of human needs. Human being can not survive without any assistance from others. Human being’s early experience teaches them that affiliation with other human is a positive situation. Therefore, the negative early social interactions may lead to a basic mistrust of others in later years.


companionship, our self – concepts may suffer depression. People enjoy being popular and being liked by others.

Human’s behaviour is heavily influenced by the approval or disapproval of others. Indeed, many actions are deliberately selected to enhance the receipt of social approval. Although the search for social is not identical with the needs of affiliation, a close relationship may exist. In fact, one consequence of the need for social approval may be affiliation, and it is possible that the continuation of an affiliation depends on whether or not social approval comes (190 – 193).

Handoko in his book Motivasi Daya Penggerak Tingkah Laku states another definition of motivation. He says “motivasi adalah suatu tenaga atau faktor yang terdapat di dalam diri manusia, yang menimbulkan, mengarahkan, dan mengorganisasikan tingkah lakunya”. (A motivation is a power or factor inside the human’s trait, which is able to arouse, to lead, and to organize human behaviour itself. Handoko also states the word “motive” suggest to “drive”). He says “suatu alasan/dorongan yang menyebabkan seseorang berbuat sesuatu/melakukan tindakan/bersikap tertentu” (9) (motive is a reason or drive which causes human to conduct or do something or act out certain behaviour).


needs are interrelated. It means that “if a person who thinks he is hungry may actually feel lack of love or security of some other need”. On the other hand, a person satisfies, or tries to satisfy hunger needs by other activities such as smoking or drinking water. According to Maslow, human being is “wanting animal”. People always require and desire something. People seldom gain “a state of complete satisfaction except for a short time. As one desire is satisfied, another will pop up to take its place” (39). There are seven needs arranged in the form of a pyramid, with the most basic or primary needs at the bottom.

The explanation of each is as follows: a. The Psychological Needs

These needs are the most basic level of all the needs and this also the most important needs for physical survival. Those are biological needs such as food, water, oxygen, sex, sleep (38). These needs must be fulfilled before fulfilling the next higher needs.

b. The Safety Needs


c. The Belongings and Love Needs

When the psychological needs and the safety needs are satisfied, the needs for love, affection, and belongings also emerge. In fact, people require both receiving love from another and giving love to another. According to Maslow, “love involves a healthy, loving relationship between two people, which includes mutual trust” (41).

d. The Esteem Needs

According to Maslow there are two kinds of esteem needs. They are self respect and esteem from other people. A person who has self – esteem is more productive. “When self esteem is absence, the individual has feelings of inferiority and helplessness, which may result in discouragement and possible neurotic behaviour” (42). This statement supported by Petri, in his book, Motivation: Theory and Research, states that the first needs motivates a person “to strive for achievement, strength, confidence, independence, and

freedom. While the needs of esteem from others “involves a desire for reputation, status, recognition, appreciation by others of one’s abilities, and feeling importance” (304).

e. Self Actualization Needs


become everything that one is capable of becoming. This need emerges after reasonable satisfaction of the love and the esteem needs” (42).

f. The Desire to Know and to Understand

“A character of mental health is curiosity”. Maslow also says that,

“this process has been phrased by some as the search for meaning.

We shall postulate a desire to understand, to systematize, to organize, to analyze, to looks for relations and meanings, to construct a system values” (43).

g. The Aesthetic Needs

The aesthetic needs are related to one’s self image. Maslow says, “People have an instinctual, or instinctoid, need for beauty’s

beauty helps one to be healthier” (44).

2. Theory of Psychoanalysis

Rohrberger and Woods say that, “the modern psychological movement received its greatest impetus from Freud” (13 – 14). They state Freud’s theory about psychoanalysis. Freud explores that, “the unconscious area of human mind is the area of man’s rich imagination, his capacity for creation, the complexity of his thought and behaviour” (13).


major systems, the id, the ego, and the superego” (22 – 26). The explanation of each system is as follows:

a. The Id

The Id is the original system of personality. It is the matrix which differentiates the ego and the superego. The Id consists of everything psychological that is present of birth. If the Id experiences the increases of energy or uncomfortable states of tension, it will discharge the tension immediately and return the organism’s low energy level. The Id is considered as the unconscious part of the person’s personality.

b. The Ego

The ego is formed as the results of the organism needs for appropriate transactions with the objective world of reality and known as the conscious part of a person’s personality. It distinguishes between things in the mind and things in the external world. The ego itself the organized portion of the Id and it exists to forward the aims of the Id.


c. The Superego

The superego is the moral part of personality, which represents the ideal which strives for perfection rather than the real. It is interpreted to the child by his parents which is enforced by means of a system of rewards and punishment which final purpose is to meet the ideals of society.

The three main functions of the superego are to inhibit the impulses of the Id, to persuade the ego to substitute moralistic goals for realistic ones and to strive for perfection.

The personality normally functions as a whole rather than as three separate segments. The readers may consider the Id as the biological component of personality, the ego as the psychological component and the superego as the social component.

3. Theory of Social Influence on One’s Behaviour


behaviour is shaped by a seemingly endless list variables. They give some numbers of specific factors influencing one’s behaviour at large.

These are the five major categories:

a. The Behaviour and Characteristics of Other Persons

The observable characteristics of other persons strongly affect one’s feeling, thought, and behaviour. A person often reacts differently to highly attractive person than to unattractive ones.

b. Social Cognition

Thought, beliefs, attitudes, and memories about other persons are important factors in communicating with other people.

c. Ecological Variables

The factors that come from the environment, both direct or indirect. For example, condition of a city, house, air, water system, etc.

d. The Socio – cultural Context in which the Social Behaviour Occurs


e. Aspects of One’s Biological Nature Relevant to Social Behaviour

Inherited aspects of one’s physical appearance can limit one’s capacity to process social information.

4. Criticism

The criticism about Stephen King and his works comes from many sources such as daily news, magazines, and also from the readers. The criticism is used for helping the reader to understand the author’s work. Mr. Stephen King is a great American writer especially in horror and mystery. But not all of his works explore the field of horror and mystery, such as Different Seasons.

Ms. Harriet Klausner in www.bookreview.com (accessed on January 12, 2007 12.25 pm) states that aside from the personal side of what created the man, the novelist, Stephen King does give lessons on the basic tools of the art. She also states that each tale is dark and demonstrates Stephen King’s writing abilities while proving that he remains one of the stronger short story tellers today. The theme running through the tale is encountered with the dead spicing up the ordinary lives of the living or those who accelerate the passage of death.


hardships and misfortunes throughout his life. However, instead of letting them get him down, King uses his experiences for the better. From those experiences come great influence. Stephen King’s writing is influenced by his life experiences, historical events throughout his lifetime, and also share King is one of today’s most popular and best selling writers. King puts the elements of psychological thrillers, science fiction, the paranormal, and detective themes into his stories. While he might be best known for his novels The Stand and It, some of his best works that have been published are his short stories such as The Body and Quitters, King’s works are so powerful because he uses his experience and everyday life and places them into his unique stories.


Ms Marry Leondhart in her book Parents Who Love Reading and Kids Who Don’t (209) states that readers who do not have good ability in reading loves Different Seasons and also helps kids who have a problem in reading, eager to read. She also states that Stephen King assists many teenagers to manage with their reading materials at school. Through his Different Seasons, he encourages teenagers who did not love to read a novel willing to read his novel.

Ms. Christiana Mirabella in the book Many Facets of Stephen King states that Different Seasons has good influence for his constant readers such as putting together different genres and making them compromise in one feeling and point of view (16). This statement supported by Mr. Tim Wick in the same book saying that Shawshank Redemption is a novel about hope, faith and friendship that happens in a prison. There are some of usual ensnaring of a prison story such as sadistic guard, corrupt warden, violent fellow inmates (20). The story, also, has good impact for the reader. They can imagine a beautiful friendship taking place in the prison life.


of Mr. King’s book. Shawshank Redemption novel reveals hope and friendship through the season. Stephen King draws the season clearly, touching the heart of the readers. This is one of the characteristics which Stephen King has to make the readers follow the atmosphere created in the novel and admire the colour of the season which is built the nuisance of the novel.

Allesia Starace in An Introduction to Film Criticism (54) said that Stephen King has a great talent because he can write horror stories and fantastic stories about friendship and love in the usual style of a “Maine writer” without any elicitation. She also states that she is hard to imagine how each new book of Stephen King looks a like. It is always expected by his constant readers to terrified them and put them into nightmares. Moreover, his new book that contains love, hope, and friendship has different with others. All his novels are very far from terror, monsters and ghosts. Stephen King’s Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption is not long enough as a novel but each and every of the novella has the elements of a novel such as feelings, art, and technical and creative efficient forms.


The researcher uses two kinds of source to gather data for the study. They are primary source and secondary source. The explanation each sources as follows:

a. Primary source

I use Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption by Stephen King as the primary source. Most information used to answer the two problems stated in the first chapter is gathered from this source.

b. Secondary source

I also use internet, books related to the theories and movies as the secondary sources in this study. The internet covers various websites related to this study. The books cover of theory of character, theory of characterization, theory of approach, literature and psychology, and society behaviour. I also use its movie as my secondary sources in.

5. Context of the Novel


The allied bombing raids on Germany increased to unprecedented levels after the D-Day invasion, with over 70% of all bombs dropped on Germany occurring after this date. Germany was flattened, the country was physically and emotionally rubble. On 30 April 1945, with Berlin completely overrun with Russian forces and his country in tatters, Adolf Hitler committed suicide. On 8 May 1945 the war with Germany was over, following its unconditional surrender to the Allied forces.


The pacific war became the largest naval conflict in history. The American Navy emerged victorious after at one point being stretched to almost breaking point with almost complete destruction of the Japanese Navy in this period. The American forces were now poised for an invasion of the Japanese mainland itself, in order to force the Japanese into unconditional surrender. In the event, the first bomb dropped on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945, and the Japanese were completely shocked. The second bomb dropped on Nagasaki on August 9, along with a bluff that there was plenty more where that came from. On August 15, 1945, the Japanese surrendered unconditionally and the war was over. The end came about without a bloody invasion, and it occurred as swiftly as the

Americans had hoped.

(http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States#World_War_I I_.281940.E2.80.931945.29)

Stephen King wrote this novella in 1982. In this year the Cold War was ended. In the 1984 election, Ronald Reagan won 49 states in one of the largest ever election victories.

Ronald Reagan produced a major realignment with his 1980 and 1984 landslides. In 1980, the Reagan coalition was possible because of Democratic losses in most social-economic groups.


In foreign affairs, bipartisanship was not in evidence. The Democrats doggedly opposed the president's efforts to support the Contras of Nicaragua. He took a hard line against the Soviet Union, alarming Democrats who wanted a nuclear freeze, but he succeeded in growing the military budget and launching a costly and complicatd missile defense system (dubbed "Star Wars") hoping to intimidate the Soviets. Though it was never fully developed or deployed, the research and technologies of SDI paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today. When Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in Moscow, many conservative Republicans were dubious of the friendship between him and Reagan. Gorbachev tried to save Communism in Russia first by ending the expensive arms race with America, then in 1989 by shedding the East European empire. Communism finally collapsed in Russia in 1991, ending

the US-Soviet Cold War. (taken from:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_United_States#World_War_II _.281940.E2.80.931945.29)

From those explanations above I can draw a brief conclusion that the setting of the novel is in 1942 where the World War II taking place. The World War II has infected the people’s mind about freedom and peace. Stephen King wrote this novel in 1982. The Cold War has ended. People’s hope of freedom and peace finally comes true. This creates the situation in the novel.




This chapter is divided into three sections. The first section is Subject Matter which describes the content of Stephen King’s Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption. The second is Approach which explains the approach used in this study. The third is Procedures. This deals with the steps in conducting this study.

A. Subject Matter

For this study, I used the novel Different Seasons by Stephen King. This novel is divided into four novellas. The whole novellas are bound together in 552 pages. The first novella is 113 pages, which tells about hope and friendship. The second novella is 201 pages, which talks about the bad side of human being. The third novella is 119 pages, which notifies about human adventure and friendship. The fourth novella is 119 pages, which tells about love and companionship. The novel is first published in 1982 by Macdonald & Co.


Red has a great role toward Andy’s life. Andy also teaches Red about the meaning of hope. Red teaches Andy about the meaning of friendship. It is seen when Red has to go to the parole board to get free from the prison life. Red cannot convince the parole board so that the parole board rejects him. Red begins losing his hope, but then Andy helps and reminds Red about the meaning of hope. It happens again when Red comes to his real world and begins to lose his hope. Andy changes Red to be a person who believes in hope. The same situation also happens to Andy when he loses his hope to be a freeman when Warden Norton, the prison leader, decided to make Andy stay forever in the prison. Norton uses Andy as his tool to “wash” dirty money.

Besides the meaning of hope and friendship, this study also concerns with Andy’s life struggle. From the beginning of the story, the readers can see Andy’s life struggle before he was imprisoned until he finally escapes from the prison.

In this novella, the author, Stephen King, is concerned with hope and friendship. Throughout the novella, the main character is described as a lonely person. From the beginning of the story, the main character gets trouble from the other characters. But the main character, Andy Dufresne, faces all the problems on his own. Eventhough in the story it is described that Andy and Red are two good friends, Andy always struggles by himself.

B. Approach


for being unfairly treated. The related theories to the approach are theory of motivation and theory of character.

C. Procedures

The procedure of this study concerns with the steps in analyzing Stephen King’s Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption.

First of all, I read the novella several times to get the best understanding about its content. The next reading was to focus on the character’s description, and his life’s struggle.

The next step is to gather the information on Andy Dufresne’s characteristics from his direct comment, his character as seen by others, his past life, thoughts, speech, conversation of others, and from his reactions toward some situations. In analyzing Andy Dufresne’s life struggle, theory of motivation and behaviour is used.

In order to understand the novella better, reading secondary source is a must. This includes watching its movie version, and criticism, of the novella found in the internet.

Finally, after analyzing the novella, criticism, suggestion, and recommendation are put forward.




The purpose of analyzing the character is to understand what kind of person the character is and how he is described in the novella. This chapter will be divided in two parts. The first is the character analysis of Andy Dufresne and the second is the Andy’s life struggle for being unfairly treated.

A. Andy Dufresnes Characterizations

In the novel, Andy is thirty years old when he comes to Shawshank in 1948. Andy is described as a short neat little man with sandy hair and small, clever hands. From this description, Andy does not look like a criminal. He is described as business person at the time. Andy is described as a smart person with high social class. This can be seen from Andy appearance. Andy wears gold-rimmed spectacles. In 1948, a man who wears something made from gold means that he is a rich or belongs to high social class. Andy is a clean person.

When Andy came to Shawshank in 1948, he was thirty years old. He was a short neat little man with sandy hair and small, clever hands.

He wore gold-rimmed spectacles. His fingernails were always clipped, and they were always clean. (14)

From the quotation above we can see that Andy is a good looking person. He always appears neatly.


banks were growing up rapidly. The competition between the banks is tight. Therefore, the banks’ employee and employer had to work hard.

On the outside he had been a vice-president in the trust department of a large Portland bank. Good work for a man as young as he was, especially when you consider how conservative most banks are…… and you have to multiply that conservatism when you get up in to New England, where folks don’t like to trust a man with their money unless he’s bald, limping, and constantly plucking at his pants to get his trust around straight. (14)

From the quotation above we can see that Andy is a persuasive person. This can be seen from he becomes the vice – president in the trust department of Portland bank.

Andy is a married person. His wife is Linda Collins Dufresne. Andy’s wife affair begins when she has expressed an interest in the learning the game of golf at the Falmouth Hills Country Club.

The facts of the prosecution’s case that Andy never contested were these: That he had a wife, Linda Collins Dufresne; that in June 1947 she had expressed an interest in learning the game of golf at the Falmouth Hills Country Club; ….. (15)

Andy is a calm, cool, and dispassionate person. Andy does not look nervous when he is answering the questions in the courts. His casual manner in the courts impresses the judge. In front of the jury, Andy is described as a businessman, and a self-possessed young man. They do not believe that Andy is a criminal who is charged for killing his wife and her lover, Glenn Quentin.


Andy Dufresne took the stand in his own defence and told his story calmy, coolly, and dispassionately. ………. ‘That’s when I knew for sure,‘ Andy told the breathless spectators. He spoke in calm, remote voice in which he delivered almost all of his testimony. (16 – 17).

From the quotation above we can see that Andy is very calm person. In the court, he takes his own defence in front of the jury and tells his story calmly and clearly.

Andy is an introvert person. This can be seen in the story that Andy is not a social person. Andy always loves to be alone.

I knew him for close to thirty years, and I can tell you he was the most self – possessed man I’ve ever known. What was right with him he’d only give you a little at a time. What was wrong with him he kept bottled up inside. If he ever had a dark night of the soul, as some writer or other has called it, you would never know. He was the type of man who, if he has decided to commit suicide, would do it without leaving a note but not until his affairs had been put neatly in order. (17)

Andy is an honest person. In the court, he tries to tell the truth in front of the judge. He always tells the fact about the story. He has never made up a story about the crime he commited.

‘Since I am innocent of this crime, sir, and since I am telling the truth about throwing my gun into the river the day before the crime took place, then it seems to me decidedly inconvenient that the gun was never found’. (21)


cellmate. He just likes to be alone. In the prison, he is known as the lonely guy. Andy has the status for being alone and independent.

he had a reputation for being a snob and a cold fish. People were saying he was marked for trouble already. One of the people saying so was Bogs Diamond, a bad man to have on your case. Andy had no cellmate, and I’d heard that was just the way he wanted it,

He nodded and walked away. Three days later he walked up beside me in the exercise yard during the laundry’s morning break. He didn’t speak or even look my way, but pressed a picture of the Hon. Alexander Hamilton into my hand as neatly as a good magician does a card trick. He was a man who adapt fast. (28)

Andy is a tough and courageous person. He always looks calm even though he has big problems. He always tries to solve his own problems with his own power and bravery.

I watched him curiously. He walked a few steps, saw something in the dirt, bent over, and picked it up. It was a small rock. Prison fatigues, except for those worn by mechanics when they’re on the job, have no pockets. But there are ways to get around that. The little pebble disappeared up Andy’s sleeve and didn’t come down. I admired that … and I admired him. (29)


him to be stronger than before. Although he has Red who is always ready to help him, Andy always tries to solve his problem by himself.

There are thousands who don’t or won’t or can’t, and plenty of them aren’t in prison, either. And I noticed that, although his face still looked as if a twister had happened to it, his hands were still neat and clean, the nails well – kept. (29)

Andy has a weak looking person. This can be seen that Andy becomes the victim of “the sisters” sexual-harasm. The sister’s prays are those who are weak, young, and inexperienced. In the “the sister’s point of view, Andy is the perfect target.

They are to prison society what rapist is to the society outside the walls. They’re usually long-timers, doing hard bullets for brutal crimes. Their prey is they young, the weak, and the inexperienced…… or, as in this case of Andy Dufresne, the weak-looking. (30)

Andy is a kind of a person who prefers to fight than to give up. Andy can handle the biggest problem in his prison life. He always fights back and never gives up easily.

Andy went through that alone, the way he went through everything alone in those days. He must have come to the conclusion that others before him had come to, namely, that there are only two ways to deal with the sisters: fight them and get taken, or just get taken. (31)

Andy is a crafty and manipulative person. He knows how to use the power of the money in the prison life. He used to be a banker in one of the largest banks in Portland.


in the straight world – a man who understands better than the rest of us the ways in which money can become power. (33)

Andy is a persistent person. This can be seen in the way he changes the rock into a beautiful sculpture. He makes the sculpture step by step. First, he chips and shapes, and then he polishes the rock and finally he finishes it with the rock – blanket.

How much work went into creating those two pieces? Hours and hours after the lights out, I knew that. First the chipping and shaping, and then the most endless polishing and finishing with those rock – blankets. Looking at them, I felt the warmth that any man or woman feels when he or she is looking at something pretty, something that has been worked and made – that’s the thing that really separates us from the animals, I think – and I left something else, too. A sense of awe for the man’s brute persistence. But I never knew just how persistent Andy Dufresne could be until much later. (38)

Andy has the ability to manage the prison library and expand it. He becomes the assistant of the head of the library, Brooks Hatlen. He uses his ability to make the prison library bigger than before and has more books collection. The library, finally, becomes the best prison library in the New England.

Andy succeeded in the Brooksie’s job, and he was head librarian for twenty – three years. He used the same force of will I’d seen him use on Bryon Hadley to get what he wanted for the library, and saw him gradually turn one small room (which still smelled of turpentine because it had because it had been a paint closet until 1922 and had never been properly aired) lined with Reader’s Digest Condensed Books and National Geographics into the best prison library in New England. (49)


‘No,’ Andy said. ‘I don’t like the pills either. Never have. But I’m not much of a one for cigarettes or booze, either. But I don’t push the pills. I don’t bring them in, and I don’t sell them once they are in. Mostly it’s the screws who do that.’

‘But –‘

‘Yeah, I know. There’s a fine line there. What it comes down to, Red, is some people refuse to get their hands dirty at all. (52)

Andy is an optimistic person. He always keeps calm whatever happens to him. Andy is the type of a person who never feels hopeless; therefore he seems to be a tough person and never gives up even though he gets the heaviest problem in the prison. He never asks for help to solve his problem, except some things that he asks Red to get it. He always thinks forward and is prepared for any obstacles which maybe heavier than the previous ones.

A terrible thing happened to Andy in late March or early April of 1963. I have told you that he had something that most of other prisoners, myself included, seemed to lack. Call it a sense of equanimity, or a feeling of inner peace, maybe even a constant and unwavering faith that someday the long nightmare would end. Whatever you want to call it, Andy Dufresne always seemed to have this act together. There was none of that sullen desperation about him that seems to afflict most lifers after a while; you could never smell hopelessness on him. (56 – 57)

Andy is a person who has a good self management. He does not easily get angry eventhough he gets ridicule from other characters. Andy always tries not to get involved in to trouble. He always perceives other’s mock with smile a and changes the topic of the conversation without making the other characters offended.


in a place like this?’ But Andy wasn’t the type to tell him; he would only smile and turn the conversation into some other channel. (60)

Andy is a type of a person who believes in hope. When Andy first comes in Shawshank, he believes that he is not guilty of murdering his wife and Glenn Quentin. He always dreams of freedom.

He said it was as if Tommy has produced a key which fitted a cage in the back of his mind, a cage like his own cell. Only instead of holding a man, that cage held a tiger, and that’s tiger name was hope. Williams had produced the key that unlocked the cage and the tiger was out, willy – nilly, to roam his brain. (62)

Andy never feels hopeless. He enjoys every moment in his life. He always looks comfortable eventhough he has hard day in the prison. His eyes have never given the impression of being suppressed or distressed.

It goes back to what I said about Andy wearing his freedom like an invisible coat, about how he never really developed a prison mentality. His eyes never got that dull look. He never developed the walk that man get when the day is over and they are going back to their cells for another endless night – that flat – footed, hump – shouldered walk. Andy walked with his shoulders squared and his step was always light, as if he was heading home to a good home – cocked meal and a good woman instead of to a tasteless mess of soggy vegetables. (75)

From all the quotations above I can be concluded that Andy is good looking, persuasive, calm, honest, optimistic, persistent, introvert, tough, independent, crafty, and manipulative.


B. The Analysis on How Andy’s Reaction to His Experience of Being Unfairly Treated

Andy, as the main character in Rita Hayworth and Shawshank Redemption, faces some problems in his prison life.

1. In the Court

From the beginning of the story, it has been described that Andy has already faced with problems. In the court, Andy is charged for a murderer. The victims are his wife, Linda Collins Dufresne, and her lover, Glenn Quentin, the Fallmouth Hills golf pro. “Andy was in for murdering his wife and her lover.” (14)

In the court the DA (Attorney) makes a statement that Andy is a cool – blooded murderer. The DA tells the story about the assassination toward

Linda Collins Dufresne and Glenn Quentin from the beginning until the end clearly.

In the living room of Quentin’s bungalow, four dishtowels had been found lying on the sofa. There were bullet – holes through them and powder – burns on them. The detective theorized (over the agonized objection’s Andy lawyer) that the murderer had wrapped the towels around the muzzle of the murder – weapon to muffle the sound of the gunshots. (16)


rumor. At last, he finds that the rumor is true. Then, Andy becomes distressed, deciding to buy a gun to commit suicide.

Andy Dufresne took the stand in his own defence and told his story calmly, coolly, and dispassionately. …. ‘That’s when I knew for sure,’ Andy told the breathless spectators. He spoke in the same calm, remote voice in which he delivered almost all of his testimony.

…. and had even gone so far as to purchase a gun in Lewingstone on 8 September. (17)

In the court the DA does not seem to believe with Andy’s testimony. He always has questions to put him into the corner. But Andy is able to answer the questions calmly and clearly.

‘At that time, as I drove home, I was beginning to think that the wisest course would be to simply let her go to Reno and get her divorce.’

‘Thank you, Mr. Dufresne.’ The DA popped up.

‘You divorced her in the quickest way you could think of, didn’t you?’ You divorced her with a .38 revolver wrapped in dishtowels, didn’t you?’

‘No sir, I did not,’ Andy said calmly. ‘And then you shot her lover.’ ………

‘It’s neither convenient nor inconvenient. Only the truth.’

‘I believe you heard Lieutenant Mincher’s testimony?’(20)

From the quotation above we can see that the DA tries to trap Andy with his questions. Eventhough Andy is able to answer all of those questions; the DA seems do not believe with Andy’s testimony.


area where Andy has thrown his gun. Andy said that he has thrown his gun in the Royal near Pond Bridge. After the searching the police cannot find the gun. They believe that the gun is dragged by the river current. Hence, the police are unable to compare between the rifling on the bullets found in the corpses and rifling on the barrel. In this chance Andy becomes ‘the winner’ in the battle against the DA. The court session is postponed to make further decision.

Mincher had been in charge of the party which had dragged the stretch of the Royal near Pond Bridge, from which Andy had testified he had thrown the gun. The police ha not found it.

At last Andy is charged guilty. He cannot answer one key question in front of the judges. They asked what Andy think had happened since there had been no signs of robbery. Andy seems confused by the jury’s question. Andy looks little worry and acts not as he answers the previous questions. If Andy can answer this question correctly, maybe he is not given two life sentences and gets free. But Andy cannot answer it. Finally, he gets dead penalty.

Then what did he think had happened, since there had been no signs of robbery?

‘I have no way knowing that, sir,’ Andy said quietly.


the airdance before that spring’s crocuses poked their heads out of the dirt. (22)

2. In the Prison

In the summer of 1948 Andy came in to Shawshank. Like other prisoner in Shawshank, Andy always gets in trouble with “the sister”, a gang with sexual disorder, the warden, and the like.

It is mentioned in the novella that most of the days there are lots of buggery going inside the prison. The victims are not women. All the victims are men, namely, the other prisoners. Homosexuality comes in many types in a prison. As we know that there are male or men who cannot stand to be without sex in their life. As the result, they turn to the same gender. However, they usually become normal again when they are out from the prison.

Related to the fact above Andy becomes the victim of sexual harasm done by “the sister”, the homosexual gang. Andy becomes the victim because in the novel it is mentioned that Andy included in to the criteria to be the victim of “the sisters” sexual harasm. Andy looks weak and inexperienced from “the sisters” point of view.

And then there are the sisters.


“The sisters” have after Andy from the beginning he arrived at the

prison. Andy becomes the target because of his physical appearances. One day Andy won the fight to defend his “virginity.” However, in other occasion, when Andy took a bath, it was the first time Andy lost the battle. However, “the sisters” did not continue their action right away. They just figured out him before they move further.

The first time for him was in the shower less than three days after hi joined our happy Shawshank family. Just a lot of slap and tickle that time, I understand. They like to size you up before they make their real move, like jackals finding out if the prey is as weak and hamstrung as it looks. (30)

In another occasion, Andy successfully fights back and makes his opponent, Bogs Diamond, one of “the sisters”, hurts. One day, however, Andy was cornered with one of his hand full of hexlite ready to throw to the sisters’ eyes. However, he could not defeat the sister.

Bogs wasn’t there that day, but Henry Backus, who had been wash room foreman down there since 1922, told me that four of his friend were. Andy held them at bay for a while with a scope of hexlite, threatening to throw it in their eyes is they come any closer, but he tripped trying to back around one of the big Washex four-pockets. That was all it took. They were on him. (31)


warden in Shawshank. There are also George Dunahy and Greg Stammas. The latter is Bryon’s best friend. Hadley also had a quarrel with Andy.

Tim Youngbold, drag his hand down to where his pistol was holstered. One of the fellows in the sentry tower struck his partner on the arm and they both turned, too. For one moment I thought Andy was going to get shot, or clubbed, or both. warden about his financial ability to solve Hadley’s problem. This makes Hadley reach his boiling point. He and the other wardens try to throw Andy from the roof and get him in the infirmary. In this situation the wardens are really angry toward Andy. They would kill Andy for any reason. They all surround Andy and ready to throw him aside of the building without any mercy.

At last, Andy was able to solve the problems. This is due to Andy’s ability to control his emotion.

It was man against man, and Andy simply forced him, the way a strong man can force a weaker man’s wrist to the table in game of Indian wrestling. There was no reason, you see, why Hadley couldn’t‘ve given Mert the nod at that very minute, pitched Andy overside onto his head, and still taken Andy’s advice. (46)


and many more. Andy is one of those prisoners who have felt the solitary room.

Then there was a sound of thrashing as the guards grabbed him and started to drag him out.

‘Solitary,’ Warden Norton said dryly. He was probably fingering his thirty – year pin as he said it. ‘Bread and water.’

And so they dragged Andy away …

Twenty days on the grain and drain train for Andy… (69) From the quotation above Andy gets to the solitary room because he tries to request his reduction on his punishment. Andy believes that he deserved to get the reduction because he is not guilty on the murder. But Norton, the Shawshank’s chief, does not want to give him the reduction, so Andy keeps struggle to get the reduction that end up in the solitary for twenty days.

In one occasion he gets thrown into the solitary room because he always fights back when ‘the sister’ tries to harm him. But Andy does not think that solitary room is a nightmare. Andy keeps strong eventhough he has to spend in the solitary for a long time.

He always fought back, and as a result, he did his time in solitary. But I don’t think solitary was the hardship for Andy that it was for some men. He got along with himself. (34)


case, Andy ‘wins’ the battle against his loneliness. This case can be connected with his character, he loves to be alone. For ordinary people it would be very tortured to live alone, moreover if they get in the solitary. But Andy does not feel tortured even though he gets in the solitary repeatedly.

You had bunk bolted to the wall and a can with no toilet sit. You had three ways to spend you time: sitting, shitting, or sleeping. Big choice. Twenty days could get to seem like a year. ………….

Andy had twenty days in which to think while he enjoyed his grain and drain, when he got out requested another meeting with the warden. (70)

At last, Andy successfully escaped from Shawshank in 1975. After the jailbreak, Andy has never been found and it is impossible to find him. Andy has change his ID and he becomes Peter Stevens. He lives in Zihuatanejo, Mexico and runs a hotel. This is Andy’s dream that he once told Red. The dream is about his desire to live joyfully in a place called Zihuatanejo in Mexico. He wanted to run a hotel.

In 1975, Andy Dufresne escaped from Shawshank. He hasn’t been recaptured, and I don’t think he ever will be. In fact, I don’t think Andy Dufresne even exists anymore. But I think there’s a man down in Zihuatanejo, Mexico named Peter Stevens. Probably running a very new small hotel in this year of Lord 1977. (88)


Andy has planned his jailbreak carefully and neatly. Therefore the wardens cannot smell Andy’s attempt to escape from Shawshank.

Andy Dufresne heading south in his own car, dressed in a nice suit, and I’d just have to laugh. I did that fifteen days in solitary practically standing on my head. Maybe because half of me was with Andy Dufresne, Andy Dufresne who had waded in shit and came out clean on the other side, Andy Dufresne headed for the Pacific. (94)

Andy makes the whole in his cell using the rock – hammer. Before the escape, Andy has planned this neatly. Andy studies the way for his escape form a master sewer – pipe which served the toilets in Cellblock 5. Andy breaks one of those pipes, crawls in the pipe and comes appear in the other side of the pipe. Inside the pipe there must be thousand of disgusting creatures and rats which are big enough to fight against man rather than running. One special thing in this case is Andy makes the hole using the rock – hammer. This tool is not as big as the ordinary hammer. The size is smaller than an ordinary hammer. Andy digs the hole patiently so that the wardens are unable to detect it.

Beside the jagged hole in the pipe, Tremont found Andy’s rock – hammer.

Andy had gotten free, but it hadn’t been easy.

The pipe was even narrower the shaft Tremont had


table in game of Indian wrestling. There was no reason, you


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