Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda). Adalah phrase yang digunakan / berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda).

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Phrase adalah jaringan kata yang sudah mengandung suatu pengertian atau satu kesatuan makna, tetapi tidak memiliki subject dan predicate dan merupakan bagian dari suatu kalimat. Apabila kata-kata dalam phrase tersebut kita pisah, maka mempunyai makna yang berbeda apabila kata-kata tersebut disatukan. Bila kata-kata dalam frase tersebut kita pisah, maka memiliki makna yang berbeda bila kata-kata tersebut disatukan. Contoh: Contoh:

• The girl at the door is my sister. The girl at the door is my sister. • The book on the table is mine. The book on the table is mine.

• The man with the red hat is my teacher. The man with the red hat is my teacher. • The boys in the street are students. The boys in the street are students.

Berdasarkan penggunaannya Phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 3 macam, yaitu: Berdasarkan penggunaannya Phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 3 macam, yaitu:

1. Noun Phrase. Noun Phrase.

2. Adjective Phrase. Adjective Phrase. 3. Adverbial Phrase. Adverbial Phrase. 1. 1. Noun Phrase Noun Phrase

Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda). Adalah phrase yang digunakan / berfungsi sebagai noun (kata benda).

Contoh: Contoh:

• Ali went to the store for some books. Ali went to the store for some books. • My new car near the tree is old enough. My new car near the tree is old enough. • The desk in this room is small. The desk in this room is small.

2. 2. Adjective Phrase Adjective Phrase

Adalah phrase yang digunakan/berfungsi sebagai adjective, memberi sifat kepada noun atau pronoun. Adalah phrase yang digunakan / berfungsi sebagai adjective, memberi sifat kepada noun atau pronoun.

Contoh: Contoh:

• Books in black and red were the clerk's delight. Books in black and red were the clerk's Delight.

• The girl with long hair is my friend. The girl with long hair is my friend. 3. 3. Adverbial Phrase Adverbial Phrase

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Adalah phrase yang digunakan / berfungsi sebagai adverb, yakni menerangkan kata kerja.

Contoh: Contoh:

• He shouted on house top. He shouted on house top. • Henry fishes in the big lake. Henry fishes in the big lake.

• He put the money into his pocket. He put the money into his pocket.

Adverbial Phrase dapat juga digunakan untuk menyatakan (mengekspresikan) beberapa hubungan; seperti mengekspresikan hubungan waktu (expressing a relation of time), place (tempat), manner (cara), degree (tingkat/derajat), cause (sebab akibat), purpose (tujuan/maksud), condition (syarat), atau concession or contrast (pertentangan).

Adverbial Phrase dapat juga digunakan untuk menyatakan (mengekspresikan) beberapa hubungan; seperti mengekspresikan hubungan waktu (Expressing a relation of time), place (tempat), manner (cara), degree (tingkat / derajat), cause (sebab akibat), purpose ( tujuan / maksud), condition (kondisi), atau concession or contrast (pertentangan). Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut ini: Perhatikan contoh-contoh kalimat berikut ini:

1. 1. Menunjukkan Hubungan Waktu. Menunjukkan Hubungan Waktu.

• She has been ill since two days ago, She has been ill since two days ago,

• We have been studying English for three years. We have been studying English for three years.

2. 2. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tempat. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tempat. • I live near the school. I live near the school.

• He hurried into the classroom. He hurried into the classroom.

• The children's toys were all over the room. The children's toys were all over the room.

3. 3. Menunjukkan Hubungan Cara. Menunjukkan Hubungan Cara. • He cut it with a knife. He cut it with a knife.

• She writes an angry letter in red ink. She writes an angry letter in red ink. 4. 4. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tingkat. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tingkat.

• I love her very much. I love her very much.

• You must study English more diligently. You must study English more diligently. 5. 5. Menunjukkan Hubungan Sebab Akibat. Menunjukkan Hubungan Sebab Akibat.

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• She was injured because of the bus accident. She was injured because of the bus accident.

• I was late because of the rain. I was late because of the rain.

• Your father is very angry with you for staying out so late. Your father is very angry with you for Staying out so late.

6. 6. Menunjukkan Hubungan Tujuan. Menunjukkan Kontak Tujuan.

• She has come to tell you the latest news. She has come to tell you the latest news. • I leave for Jakarta to buy some books. I leave for Jakarta untuk buy some books. 7. 7. Menunjukkan Hubungan Pertentangan. Menunjukkan Kontak Pertentangan.

• In spite of the rain he went out. In spite of the rain he went out.

• Regardless of the weather she always brings an umbrella. Terlepas dari weather she always membawa an umbrella.

8. 8. Menunjukkan Hubungan Syarat. Menunjukkan Kontak Syarat. • We'll go if necessary. We'll go if necessary.

Berdasarkan kata-kata pendahuluannya (introductory words or pivot word) phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu: Berdasarkan kata-kata pendahuluannya

(introductory words or pivot word) phrase dapat diklasifikasikan menjadi 4 macam, yaitu: 1. Prepositional Phrase. Prepositional Phrase.

2. Principal Phrase. Principal Phrase. 3. Infinitive Phrase. Infinitive Phrase. 4. Gerund Phrase. Gerund Phrase.

1.1.Prepositional PhrasePrepositional Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung prepos'isi (kata depan); dan biasanya dapat dipakai/berfungsi sebagai Noun, Adjective atau. Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung prepos'isi (kata depan); dan biasanya dapat dipakai / berfungsi sebagai noun, Adjective atau. Adverb. Adverb. Contoh: Contoh:

• The report will be sent in a few days. The report will be sent in a few days. • He is sometimes angry with his wife. He is sometimes angry with his wife. • I'm sorry for having come late. I'm sorry for having come late.

• The traffic sign points to the left. The traffic sign points to the left.

2.2.Principial PhrasePrincipial Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung participle yang biasanya berfungsi sebagai adjective. Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung participle yang biasanya berfungsi sebagai adjective.

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• Not knowing anyone in town he felt very lonesome. Not Knowing anyone in town he felt very lonesome.

• Having finished his assignment, he went home. Having finished his assignment, he went home.

• Having lost all my money, I went home. Having lost all my money, I went home. • Student arriving late will not be permitted to enter the lecture hall. Student

arriving late will not be permitted to enter the lecture hall. (Arriving late menjelaskan student.) (Arriving late menjelaskan student.)

• We heard the children crying. We heard the children crying.

Arti atau pengertian dari kalimat yang mengandung Participial Phrase dapat

menunjukkan: Arti atau pengertian dari kalimat yang mengandung Participial Phrase dapat menunjukkan:

1. 1. Waktu Waktu

a. a. After (sesudah) After (sesudah)

• Having finished all the work, she went home. Having finished all the work, she went home. (Setelah dia menyelesaikan semua pekerjaan, dia pulang.) (Setelah dia menyelesaikan semua pekerjaan, dia pulang.)

b. b. While or When ( = ketika) While or When (= ketika)

• Walking along the street, I met a friend whom I had not seen for along time. Walking along the street, I met a friend whom I had not seen for along time. (Ketika saya berjalan sepanjang jalan, saya bertemu teman yang telah lama saya tidak berjumpa.) (Ketika saya berjalan sepanjang jalan, saya bertemu teman yang telah lama saya tidak bertemu.)

2. 2. Sebab Akibat Sebab Akibat

• Having worked hard all his life, he decided to take a long vacation. Having bekerja hard all his life, he decided to take a long vacation. (Karena dia telah bekerja keras sepanjang hidupnya, maka dia memutuskan untuk mengambil liburan panjang) (Karena dia telah bekerja keras sepanjang hidupnya, maka dia memutuskan untuk mengambil liburan panjang)

Tetapi kadang-kadang dapat juga menunjukkan pengertian waktu dan sebab

bersamasama. Tetapi kadang-kadang dapat juga menunjukkan pengertian waktu dan sebab bersamasama.

• Having eaten too much, he became sleepy. Having eaten too much, he menjadi sleepy. (Karena dia makan terlalu banyak, dia jadi mengantuk) (Karena dia makan terlalu banyak, dia jadi mengantuk)

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Perhatikan beberapa contoh berikut: Perhatikan beberapa contoh berikut:

• Needing some money to buy a book, Ali cashed a check. Rintisan bertopik some money to buy a book, Ali cashed a check. (= Because he needed some money to buy a book, Ali chased a check.)Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. (= Because he needed some money to buy a book, Ali chased a check.) Being unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. Unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle. (= Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.) (= Because she was unable to afford a car, she bought a bicycle.)

3.3.Infinitive PhraseInfinitive Phrase

Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung infinitive dan infinitive phrase dapat

digunakan/berfungsi sebagai Noun, Adjective atau Adverb. Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung infinitive dan infinitive phrase dapat digunakan / berfungsi sebagai noun, Adjective atau Adverb.

a. a. Infinitive phrase sebagai Noun Infinitive phrase sebagai noun

• To read books means to enlarge one's horizons. To read books means to enlarge one's Horizons.

• To see his children again will make him happy. To see his children again will make him happy.

• To learn English, you must practice everyday. To learn English, you must practice everyday.

• To ask more money would be wrong. To ask more money would be wrong. • To do that is difficult for me. To do that is difficult for me.

b. b. Infinitive phrase sebagai Adjective Infinitive phrase sebagai Adjective • He wanted books to juggle acrobatically. He wanted books to juggle

acrobatically.

• The poison was strong enough to have killed ten people. The poison was strong enough to have menewaskan ten people.

• He is a good man for you to know. He is a good man for you to know. c. c. Infinitive phrase sebagai Adverb Infinitive phrase sebagai Adverb

• He read to enlarge his horizons. He read to enlarge his Horizons.

• He has been warned not to do that again. He has been juga memperingati not to do that again.

• I had hoped to see her soon. I had hoped to see her soon.

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Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung gerund, dan biasanya hanya berfungsi sebagai Noun. Adalah ungkapan yang mengandung gerund, dan biasanya hanya berfungsi sebagai noun.

• Reading books enlarge one's horizons. Reading books enlarge one's Horizons. • Playing with guns is dangerous. Playing with guns is dangerous.

• Taking a long walk every day is good exercise. Taking a long walk every day is good exercise.

• Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary. Her cleaning the house every day is not necessary.

• The broadcasting by that station comes from the top of a skyscraper. The broadcasting by that station berasal dari the top of a Skyscraper.

Appositive PhraseAppositive Phrase

Sebagai pelengkap pembahasan tentang Phrases, berikut ini diuraikan jenis phrases lain yaitu: Appositive Phrases, yang sangat besar peranannya dalam penyusunan kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris. Sebagai pelengkap pembahasan tentang Phrases, berikut ini diuraikan jenis phrases lain yaitu: Appositive Phrases, yang sangat besar perannya dalam penyusunan kalimat dalam bahasa Inggris.

Appositive Phrases yaitu sekelompok kata yang berfungsi memberi keterangan tambahan kepada subjek atau objek. Appositive Phrases yaitu sekelompok kata yang berfungsi memberi keterangan tambahan kepada subjek atau objek.

Appositive Phrases dapat berupa noun, adjective, adverb, atau prepositional phrases. Appositive Phrases dapat berupa noun, adjective, adverb, atau prepositional phrases.

Noun : He had asked Mr. Noun: He had asked Mr. Wilson, a prominent lawyer, to represent him in court. Wilson, a prominent lawyer, to represent him in court. • Adjective : The professor, unaware that many of his students were asleep, went

right on lecturing. Adjective: The professor, unaware that many of his students were asleep, went right on lecturing.

Adverb : The gentleman over there by the door is our accountant. Adverb: The gentleman over there by the door is our Akuntan.

Prepositional phrase : Mr. Prepositional phrase: Mr. Harris, in a hurry to get home, a took a taxi from the airport. Harris, in a hurry to get home, a took a taxi from the airport.

Susunan Kalimat dengan Appositive Phrases Susunan Kalimat dengan Appositive Phrases

1.1.Perubahan Adjective Clause menjadi Appositive PhrasePerubahan Adjective clause menjadi Appositive Phrase

Adjective clauses yang mengandung bentuk Be dapat disingkat menjadi Appositive Phrase dengan hanya mempertahankan pelengkap (complement) sesudah Be (noun,

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adjective, adverb atau preposition at phrases). Adjective clauses yang mengandung bentuk Be dapat disingkat menjadi Appositive Phrase dengan hanya mempertahankan pelengkap (complement) sesudah Be (noun, adjective, adverb atau preposition at phrases).

• The young man, who is now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost much of his old ambition. Menjadi : The young man, now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost mush of his old ambition. The young man, who is now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost much of his old ambition. Menjadi: The young man, now a lawyer in a large firm, has lost mush of his old ambition.

• The person who is responsible for the damage will have to pay for it. Menjadi : The person responsible for the damage will have to pay for it. The person who is responsible for the damage will have to pay for it. Menjadi: The person

responsible for the damage will have to pay for it.

2.2.Letak Appositive Phrase dalam KalimatLetak Appositive Phrase dalam Kalimat

Letak Appositive Phrase yang paling umum adalah sesudah noun yang diterangkan olehnya, dan terletak di antara dua tanda koma. Letak Appositive Phrase yang paling umum adalah sesudah noun yang dijelaskan olehnya, dan terletak di antara dua tanda koma.

• His uncle, a proud and unbending man, refused all help that was offered him. His uncle, a proud and unbending man, refused all help that was ditawarkan him. • Ahmad, eager to get ahead in his career, worked hard day and night. Ahmad,

eager to get ahead in karirnya, bekerja hard day and night.

• The man, aware that he had mad a mistake, tried to correct it. The man, aware that he had mad a mistake, tried to correct it.

• The high-powered computer machine, the most powerful of its type, was finally readied for use. The kualitas-powered computer machine, paling powerful of its type, was finally readied for use.

Namun Appositive Phrase yang mengacu (menerangkan) subjek dari main verb dapat pula diletakkan di awal kalimat atau di akhir kalimat. Namun Appositive Phrase yang mengacu (menerangkan) subjek dari main verb dapat pula diletakkan di awal kalimat atau di akhir kalimat.

Di Awal KalimatDi Awal Kalimat

• A proud and unbending man, his uncle refused all help that was offered him. A proud and unbending man, his uncle refused all help that was ditawarkan him. • Eager to get ahead in his career, Charles worked hard day and night. Eager to get

ahead in karirnya, Charles bekerja hard day and night. (Pada posisi seperti ini, appositive phrase sering mengekspresikan sebab akibat, kadang-kadang

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kelonggaran.) (Pada posisi seperti ini, appositive phrase sering mengekspresikan sebab akibat, kadang kelonggaran.)

Di Akhir KalimatDi Akhir Kalimat

• His uncle refused all help that was offered him, a proud and unbending man. His uncle refused all help that was ditawarkan him, a proud and unbending man. • Charles worked hard day and night, eager to get ahead in his career. Charles

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