THE DISCURSIVE IDENTITY OF THE JAKARTA POST ON THE FUEL ISSUE OF INDONESIA 2012 IN THE SELECTED EDITORIALS.

Teks penuh

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THE DISCURSIVE IDENTITY OF

THE JAKARTA POST

ON THE FUEL

ISSUE OF INDONESIA 2012 IN THE SELECTED EDITORIALS

A Research Paper

Submitted to the English Education Department as a Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for SarjanaSastra Degree

MEIKE TRI YURINDA

0807534

ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT

FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ART EDUCATION

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The Discursive Identity of The Jakarta

Post on The Fuel Issue of Indonesia

2012 in the Selected Editorials

Oleh Meike Tri Yurinda

Sebuah skripsi yang diajukan untuk memenuhi salah satu syarat memperoleh gelar Sarjana pada Fakultas Pendidikan Bahasa dan Seni

© Meike Tri Yurinda 2013 Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

April 2013

Hak Cipta dilindungi undang-undang.

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PAGE OF APPROVAL

THE DISCURSIVE IDENTITY OF THE JAKARTA POST ON THE FUEL ISSUE OF INDONESIA 2012 IN THE SELECTED EDITORIALS

By

MEIKE TRI YURINDA

0807534

Approved by:

Main Supervisor

Dra. Sri Setyarini, M.A NIP. 196312291990022001

Co-Supervisor

Muhammad Handi Gunawan, SPd., M.Pd NIP. 197301132009121002

The Head of English Education Department Faculty of Language and Art Education

Indonesia University of Education

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ABSTRACT

The research paper is entitled The Discursive Identity of The Jakarta Post on the

Fuel Issue of Indonesia 2012 in the Selected Editorials. It is aimed at investigating

how the discursive identity of The Jakarta Post on the fuel issue of the first semester of Indonesian government 2012 is constructed in the selected editorials and discovering its ideological message on that issue. Two data sources of editorials, Editorial : Huffing and puffing over fuel and Editorial : Only an

ad-hoc fuel measure, were taken from on-line version of The Jakarta Post related to

the chosen issue. The Fairclough’s approach to Critical Discourse Analysis (1995) was employed as the basic framework to analyze the tools of modality and evaluation (Halliday, 1994; Martin, 1995; Martin, Matthiessen, & Painter, 1997; Fairclough, 2003; Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004) in the area of Systemic Functional Grammar (Halliday, 1994) in examining the identity of The

Jakarta Post on the chosen issue discursively. The results of the study show that The Jakarta Post tends to construct its identity on the fuel issue by showing

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.4. Significance of the Study ... 4

1.5. Scope of the Study ... 5

1.6. Methodology ... 6

1.7. Key Terms... 7

1.8. Organization of the Paper ... 7

1.9. Concluding Remark ... 8

CHAPTER II 2.1. Discourse, Discourse Analysis and Critical Discourse Analysis ... 9

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2.4. The Discursive Construction of Identity... 14

2.5. The Concepts of Polarity and Modality ... 16

2.6. The Concept of Evaluation ... 22

2.7. The Meaning of Ideology ... 24

2.8. Previous Research ... 24

4.1.1.1.1. High Epistemic Modality ... 36

4.1.1.1.2. Median Epistemic Modality ... 39

4.1.1.1.3. Low Epistemic Modality ... 41

4.1.1.2. Deontic Modality ... 42

4.1.1.2.1. High Deontic Modality ... 43

4.1.1.2.2. Median Deontic Modality... 44

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4.1.2. Evaluation ... 53

4.1.2.1. Evaluative ... 54

4.1.2.2. Deontic Modality ... 57

4.1.2.3. Assumed Values ... 59

4.1.2.4. The Occurrences of Evaluation in Two Selected Editorials ... 60

4.2. Discussions ... 66

4.2.1. The Discursive Construction of Identity of The Jakarta Post ... 69

4.2.2. Ideological Message of The Jakarta Post on the Fuel Issue ... 72

4.3. Concluding Remark ... 74

CHAPTER V 5.1. Conclusions ... 75

5.2. Suggestions... 76

BIBLIOGRAPHY ... 77

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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

This chapter provides several aspects of introducing this study briefly. It contains

the background, research questions, aims of the study, significance of the study,

and scope of the study. Besides, it presents how the study is conducted, the list of

key terms and organization of the paper.

1.1Background

Mass media has a strategic position in one country. It is considered as the fourth

pillar of modern democratic country besides legislature, executive and judiciary

(Joshi, 2000). It has a function as a bridge between people and policy makers by

providing information of, for instance social and political issues.

According to Van Dijk (1995) media has symbolic and persuasive power.

It has an influence to control to some extent the minds of readers or viewers,

but not directly their actions. It leads the idea that mass media generates and

mediates public text and talk to deliver certain ideology for influencing their

minds. It addition to that, Eriyanto (2001) notes that in critical paradigm, media is

not free and neutral. It is owned by certain group and used to dominate other

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What becomes the concern is what is written in mass media especially in

an editorial. The editorial, as explained by Lagonikos (2005), has potency to

shape opinion, create reality and convey ideology. It is in line with what has been

delivered previously that media mediates public text and talk to deliver certain

ideology (Van Dijk, 1995).

The purpose of the editorial is to stimulate readers into action that is

implicitly expressed (Hulteng, 1973 & Stonecipher, 1979 in Lagonikos, 2005).

Expert voice is used in the editorial to interpret the news and at the same time to

construct reality implicitly from a particular worldview for the reader (Jaworski &

Galasinski, 2002: 643 in Lagonikos, 2005). Hutleng (1973: 13 as cited in

Lagonikos, 2005) argues that another function of the editorial is to provide

benchmarks for readers to test thinking against and shape conclusions about

events and their meanings. In other words, editorial in mass media can be

categorized as a discourse since it produces others such as notion, concept, and

effect (Foucault in Eriyanto, 2001).

Furthermore, editorial board in mass media decides what its stance will be

on certain issues (Hutleng, 1973 in Lagonikos, 2005). It leads the idea that

editorial in mass media becomes the identity of that media on certain issue. It is in

line with Fairclough (2003, 160) who says “Identity is often said to be an effect of

discourse, constructed in discourse”. In other words, editorial treated as discourse

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Some studies have been conducted related to identity constructed in

discourse, specifically to subject position, such as Eduardo Godeo (2006)

investigating subject position on a certain magazine. However, those studies

investigated the identity of relevant participants in those discourses, not the

authors of the discourses themselves. Meanwhile, a study investigating the author

himself has been done by Rahmat (2010) in relation to discursive identity of the

author of ‘Malaikat Juga Tahu’.

To make this paper different from previous studies, the paper examines

the identity of media institution as the author discursively. In addition, it uses

some selected editorials as the sources of data since editorial is the reflection of

the author’s voice representing media institution. Although the research in relation

to ideology in editorials has been conducted, such as Lagonikos (2005) regarding

to a comparison selected editorials after September 11, the present study sees the

discursive identity of the media institution in the selected editorials before it

reveals ideological message contained in the selected editorials.

Furthermore, the raised issue that the present study uses is different. The

present study uses the fuel issue in the first semester of Indonesian government

2012. It deals with Indonesian government’s plan to raise fuel price in April 2012.

Whereas, referring to Domino theory, fuel price has big impact on other economic

sectors. Consequently, there was big demonstration of, either support or refusal,

for the plan. However, by the end of March 2012, the House of Representatives

and government decided not to raise fuel price in next six months (Detikfinance,

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By considering that there were pros and cons of the plan of raising fuel

price and fuel price has big impact on other economic sectors, it can be inferred

that fuel problem can influence social life in community. Therefore, this problem

can be concluded into a social issue.

1.2Research Questions

1. How is the identity of The Jakarta Post constructed discursively on the

fuel issue in the first semester of Indonesian government 2012 in the

selected editorials?

2. What is the ideological message of The Jakarta Post contained in the

selected editorials toward the chosen issue?

1.3Aims of the Study

1. To reveal how the discursive identity of The Jakarta Post on the fuel issue

in the first semester of Indonesian government 2012 is constructed in the

selected editorials.

2. To discover its ideological message contained in the selected editorials

toward the chosen issue.

1.4Significance of the Study

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a. Knowledge in the area

In this point of view, this study can enrich the literature on discursive

identity and ideological message in mass media analyzed from the concepts of

Critical Discourse Analysis and Systemic Functional Grammar.

b. Practical Guidance

It is expected to provide a good practical guidance in analyzing text by

using Critical Discourse Analysis and Systemic Functional Grammar to reveal

discursive identity, especially the identity of certain mass media and to find out its

ideological message.

c. Professional Significance

Mass media has big power over the people. The journalists have an

important role in delivering news and ideology, especially concerning to social

issue. They should have no bias on certain issues, in order to keep balance in

journalism area.

1.5Scope of the Study

The focus of the study is on finding how the identity of The Jakarta Post on the

fuel issue of Indonesia 2012 in the selected editorials is constructed discursively.

It is applied in the perspectives of modality and evaluation with the employment

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Systemic Functional Grammar by M.A.K Halliday (1994). Then this study is

expected to reveal The Jakarta Post’s ideological message contained in the

selected editorials toward the chosen issue.

1.6Methodology

The present study employs a descriptive qualitative method. To support the

method used, it uses Critical Discourse Analysis (Fairclough, 1995) as the basic

framework of the study. It applies the tools of modality and evaluation (Halliday,

1994; Martin, 1995; Martin, Matthiessen, & Painter, 1997; Fairclough, 2003;

Halliday & Matthiessen, 2004; Eggins, 2004) included in the area of Systemic

Functional Grammar to examine the identity of The Jakarta Post on the fuel issue

of Indonesia 2012 discursively. By relating the tools of modality and evaluation to

Critical Discourse Analysis, it is expected to reveal the ideological message of

The Jakarta Post toward the chosen issue contained in the selected editorials.

In conducting the research, the paper followed several steps such as data

collection and analysis. In terms of data collection, it took several editorials

related to the chosen issue from the on-line version of The Jakarta Post. They

were Editorial : Huffing and puffing over fuel (dated on March, 2nd 2012) and

Editorial : Only an ad-hoc fuel measure (dated on March, 31st 2012). Afterwards,

these editorials were analyzed by using the tools of modality and evaluation in the

framework of Critical Discourse Analysis to achieve the aims of the study. The

more elaborative and detail explanation about the methodology of the study is

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1.7Key Terms

- Discourse is viewed as a form of social practice framed by particular

discursive event and the situation, institution and social structure.

(Fairclough & Wodak, 1997, cited in Wodak & Meyer, 2009)

- Mass media is largely seen as the fourth pillar of a modern democratic

country. (Joshi : 2000)

- Editorials are public, mass communicated

types of opinion discourse par excellence. (Van Dijk : 1996)

- Discursive identity is a way of being of

an author or involved participant constructed in the discourse and text. It

can be identified by the analysis of modality and evaluation presented in

the text and discourse.

- Ideology is representation of aspects of the world which can be shown to

contribute to establishing, maintaining and changing social relations of

power, domination and exploitation. (Fairclough : 2003)

- Fuel issue is related to the plan of raising fuel price in April 2012 by

Indonesian government, but the House and government decided not to

raise fuel price in six months. There were pros and cons of the plan, as

well as, of the decision. The present study identifies this phenomenon as a

social issue.

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The paper is organized into five chapters. Chapter I (Introduction) focuses on

presenting general introduction of presented study. It consists of the background,

research questions, and aims of the study, significance of the study and scope of

the study. It also provides how the study is conducted, the list of key terms and

organization of the paper.

Chapter II (Theoretical Foundations) discusses the concepts of discourse,

Discourse Analysis, Critical Discourse Analysis, Fairclough’s approach to CDA,

media discourse and editorial, the discursive construction of identity, polarity and

modality, evaluation, ideology, and the previous research related to the study.

Research Methodology is presented in chapter III explaining how the

study is conducted. It describes the focus of the study realized by the formulation

of problem. In addition, it presents the explanation of research design, data

collection and data analysis employed in this study.

Then, Findings and Discussions will be provided in chapter IV. It provides

the data obtained from the study, as well as the analysis of the data.

The last chapter presents the conclusions from the present study. It also

offers the writer’s suggestions for further research.

1.9Concluding Remark

Brief explanation of this study has been highlighted in this chapter. It has

presented the background, research questions, and aims of the study, significance

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CHAPTER III

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

This chapter presents how this study is conducted. It elaborates the focus of the

study by elaborating the formulation of the problem. Besides, it provides several

parts of finding the answers of formulation of the problem. They are included in

the explanation of research design, data collection and data analysis employed in

this research.

3.1 Research Design

The study is largely qualitative but some descriptive quantification is also

employed. Bogdan & Biklen (1992) state that qualitative research is concerned to

‘meaning’ in the ways different people make sense out of their lives. It is relevant

to the study that goes to meaning-making in discovering how The Jakarta Post

constructs its identity discursively and its ideological message on the chosen

issue.

The research employs Critical Discourse Analysis as the analytical

framework proposed by Fairclough (1995). Fairclough (1995, cited from

Paltridge, 2006: 184) suggests that the focus of Critical Discourse Analysis

(CDA) is the uniting of texts with the discourse and socio-cultural practices that

the text reflects, reinforces and produces. This ‘three-dimensional’ framework can

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Figure 3.1 Fairclough s three-di e sio al fra ework (Fairclough, 1995: 98)

With regard to the present study, the selected editorials of The Jakarta Post are in

the first dimension of text. Text is described linguistically by considering the

features of language that are owned by the selected editorials. Then, the process of

interpretation of the text in the second dimension interprets text by considering

discourse practice where text is seen as a product of production process and a

resource of interpretation process. And the last, the process of explanation in the

third dimension explains what is interpreted in the second stage by considering

social context to reveal the discursive identity of The Jakarta Post and its

ideological message on the chosen issue.

3.2 Data Collection

In terms of data collection, the paper uses purposive sampling. Maxwell (1996,

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settings, persons or events are selected intentionally to provide information that

cannot be obtained as well from other choices.

In connection with the research, the data were collected from the on-line

version of The Jakarta Post website. The Jakarta Post has been chosen since it is

considered as one of famous English mass media in Indonesia. The selected

editorials were Editorial: Huffing and Puffing over Fuel (dated on March, 2nd

2012) and Editorial: Only an Ad-hoc Fuel Measure (dated on March, 31st 2012).

The first editorial was published when the plan of raising fuel price got pros and

cons; meanwhile the second one was published after reaching decision not to

raise fuel price. These editorials are analyzed to reveal the discursive identity of

The Jakarta Post, as well as, its ideological message on the chosen issue.

3.3 Data Analysis

The present study investigates the discursive identity by relating it to style. It is in

line with what Fairclough (2003) states that style is the discoursal aspect of

identity. It means that discursive identity can be revealed through style’s analysis.

The selected editorials of The Jakarta Post become the sources of data.

The data are analyzed by investigating the modality and evaluation that occur in

the editorials. The analysis of modality and evaluation can investigate The Jakarta

Post’s commitment so its discursive identity and ideological message on the

chosen issue can be revealed.

It draws upon three stages of text analysis proposed by Fairclough (1995).

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descriptively. The discursive identity can be examined by considering the level of

commitment of the author. In this stage, the level of commitment of The Jakarta

Post can be examined by the analysis of modality and evaluation.

Analysis of modality is applied to examine The Jakarta Post’s tendency,

judgment, and attitude on the chosen issue. It begins with the identification of

modality that occurs in the selected editorials. Then, it goes to the classification of

the type of modality and the level of commitment.

In addition, the stage of description is concerned with the analysis of

evaluation. It is applied to examine how The Jakarta Post commits itself to the

values in the selected editorials towards the chosen issue. It is realized by the

identification of evaluation that exists in the selected editorials and the

classification of evaluation’s type.

Interpretation is the second stage of analysis after the stage of description.

In this stage, linguistic features gained in the previous stage are interpreted on the

basis of discourse practice where the relationship between text and interaction is

examined. And the last stage, explanation, has a purpose to explain what is gained

in the second stage by considering the interaction and social context. In this stage,

ideological message is revealed by considering the linguistic features obtained and

the interpretation towards the features. Therefore, these three stages of analysis

are used to reveal not only the discursive identity of The Jakarta Post but also its

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3.4 Data Presentation

The analyzed data in the first stage are in the forms of words, group of words and

clauses. It means that the markers of modality and evaluation in the clauses are in

the forms words, group of words and clauses. They are underlined and bold. Each

text is divided in order of clause since Systemic Functional Grammar talks about

clause, not sentence (see Gerot & Wignell, 1994).

The markers of modality and evaluation are presented by using coding in

terms of clause. The coding consists of two variables, in which the second

variable shows whether the clause is involved in the first editorial (a) or the

second editorial (b).

The example of data presentation in the category of modality is:

- Median Deontic Modality

[2.a] (a government coalition) that is supposed to control more than 75 percent of seats in the House of Representatives

It also applies the same way to present the data concerning to the analysis

of evaluation by using coding in terms of clause, such as following example:

- Evaluative

[3.b] The lame-duck government surrendered to the populist fury against the proposed fuel-price rise by increasing fuel and electricity subsidies.

Then, the occurrence of modality and evaluation is summarized in the table, such

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The Occurrences of Deontic Modality in the First Editorial

No Contents High Median Low

1 The representation of government

- controlling seats in DPR 1 (+)

- making decision quickly on fuel problem 1 (+)

Sub Total - 2 -

Furthermore, the information and levels of commitments, either in terms

of evaluation and modality, are presented in quantification to discover the

percentage of each information and level. It applies the formula:

P = x 100%

Notes: f : Frequency (of the information or a level of commitment)

N : Total (of the information or level of commitment in each category) P : Percentage (of the information or a level of commitment)

3.5 Concluding Remark

This whole chapter has presented how this study in conducted. It has discussed the

formulation of the problem and several parts of finding the answers of formulation

of the problem. The next chapter will present the findings and discussions of the

study. It will consist of the presentation of data followed by the interpretation and

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CHAPTER V

CONCLUSIONS AND SUGGESTIONS

This chapter provides the answers of research questions and conclusions of the

present study. In addition, it presents some suggestions for further research.

5.1 Conclusions

The present study is an analysis of two selected editorials of The Jakarta Post

toward the fuel issue of Indonesia 2012. By using Fairclough’s approach to

Critical Discourse Analysis (1995), it is aimed at investigating how The Jakarta

Post constructs its discursive identity on the fuel issue of Indonesia 2012 and its

ideological message on that issue.

It is revealed that to deliver the message of opposing fuel subsidies to its

readers, The Jakarta Post constructs its identity on the chosen issue by showing

its three commitments, namely: 1) to several good possibilities if the option of

raising subsidized fuel price is chosen; 2) to the policy of maintaining fuel

subsidies labeled negative things and impacts on Indonesia’s economy, energy

industry and people’s negative perception of government; and 3) to the

importance of the role of relevant parties, especially the representation of

government to realize medium-term program of phasing out fuel subsidies, to take

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5.2 Suggestions

The present study would like to recommend some suggestions for further

research. It is recommended to investigate editorial by coupling verbal grammar

with visual grammar (i.e. the editorial with anecdote or cartoon visual) to reveal

how media convinces its readers by providing the picture. It is also recommended

to use other tools of evaluation, such as core evaluative and peripheral evaluative

parameters (see more Bednarek, 2006) to avoid some overlaps in evaluating

between what is good and what is important, comprehensible or expected. Last, it

is suggested that the further research can consider the structure of editorial

proposed by Bolivar (1994) to make the analysis toward editorial deeper and more

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