Proximate analysis: Table 1 showed the proximate analysis of deep-see fish about moisture composition, ash, fat, protein and carbohydrates. Proximate contents on some type of deep-seafish have different content. The differences caused by environmental differences among others, temperature, salinity, pressure, oxygen availability and more. Deepseafish need fat to keep body temperature because of the environment in the deep ocean has a lower temperature than pelagic environment/surface (Davis, 1991). When compared with tuna, some deep-seafish have higher fat content. It is because deep-seafish movement is less than the pelagic fish (Nybakken, 1988).
The fat contents of flesh and deepseafish escolar are 18,34%±0,905 dan 7,51%±0,049. The results of research Suseno et al. (2006) and Pattaravivat et al. (2008) showed that the fat contents of deepseafish were around 7-22,08%. Based on the results, escolar known as a fish that contain high levels of fat compared to the other deepseafish. Fatty acid content of each species is different. It is because of several factors such as gender, age, species, geographic region of fish caught and size (Osibona 2011).
The Purpose o f this research is to observe 1he content of nutrient and steroid of some deepseafish from west Sumarera ocean. The result o f the research shows that I I kinds of deepseafish such as: Dietmoides pauciradiniin. Bcnihodeimuy tenuis, Beryx splendent, Haplasthethus iraaaipint/Xt Hoplothethtis sp, Ophidiidae, Osimobviyu dotyge, Godamus collt'tfits. Hyteragfype japontca contain protein 23,0-24,8 %, fat 1,9-4,1 %. carbohydrate 0-1,75 %, ash 1,7-2,4 %, water 70.1-72,1 %. In amino acid test, it can be identified 17 amino acid (9 essential amino acid and 8 non essential amino acid) Meanwhile in steroid test using Libermann Burchad, it can be identified 8 kinds of deepseafish containing steroid and the greatest conccntratton is in Dietmoides pauciradiatus, Benthodesmus cenuis, Beryx splendens, Haplusthethus craaaipinus.
gave result, changing extract's color to green. and ergosterol. The of Fish great effect was shown pauciradiatus, The changing extract color to shows the of sterol-stigma organic indicate the existence of two more double of carbon. While extract by using ethyl acetate did not show the changing of color.
Some deepsea fishes species which had been studied had higher taurine levels than pelagic fish, such as Skipjack tuna which had taurine content at 3 mg/100 g. However, taurine content in deepseafish was lower than the Japanese oyster (1178 mg/100 g) (Okuzumi and Fujii, 2000). Gormley et al. (2007) showed the taurine content of some fish commonly sold in supermarkets, such as plaice (146 mg/100 g fresh weight), cod (108 mg/100 g fresh weight), mackerel (78 mg/100 g wet weight) and salmon aquaculture (60 mg/100 g fresh weight). In the general, seafood products, especially invertebrates such as mollusks and crustaceans contain high concentrations of taurine (Spitze et al., 2003).
Parasites are an essential part of each aquatic community. Their presence becomes evident after a massive develop- ment, causing diseases and sometimes even leading to the mass mortality of infested hosts. Such events are often combined with biotic or abiotic changes in the environ- ment (Mo¨ller 1987). There is increasing evidence that parasites are an important element of marine biodiversity (Mariaux 1996; Palm et al. 1999; Klimpel et al. 2001). In fisheries biology, parasitological studies have increasing importance, because parasites may serve as natural markers for the identification of fish stocks (MacKenzie 1983; Williams et al. 1992). Moreover, parasites can help to analyse the diet of fish species, serving as biological indicators of the prey species and their origin (Campbell et al. 1980; Palm et al. 1998). Whereas stomach analyses may provide detailed information on the immediate tro- phic relationship at the time of sampling, parasitological studies make it possible to infer previous trophic inter- actions, thus integrating short-term variability in the food web to make wider relationships more apparent. Helm- inths are particularly useful for such studies, because the different stages in their life cycle are passed through the marine food web until they reach their definitive host (Campbell et al. 1980). Finally, parasites provide infor- mation on habitats and trophic status of the studied fish species within the marine ecosystem.
A vivid illustration of the schooling imperative may be seen in the marked tendency for small pelagic fish of similar size and body form to school together regardless of species. For example, Radovich (1979) pointed out that as the sardine population in California declined, pure schools became less frequent and sardines were found mixed with anchovy or mackerel. Likewise, off Peru, large sardines have been found in mixed schools with horse mackerel and chub mackerel of similar size, whereas smaller sardines have been observed nearer the coast mixed with anchoveta (e.g. Jorda´n et al., 1978). The predominance of mixed-species schools of similarly sized fish is the most commonly observed situation in the Peru system as well in the Canary system (Fre´on, 1984). Estimates of school composition with respect to the main constituting species (sardine, sardinellas, and anchovy) were derived from fisheries as the ratio of the catch of a given species to the total catch for each set (Fig. 7). In addition, relative population abundance for each species was derived from total biomass estimates derived from acoustic research surveys or catch-per- unit-effort data. The results reveal a clear pattern. When sardine, sardinellas, or anchovy are abundant, they tend to form pure schools, whereas when their relative abun- dance is diminishing they mix with other species. The variations in mean percentages of pelagic species con- tained in sampled schools track remarkably well the overall relative population abundance. These results imply that the urge to become a member of a school of similarly sized fish of similar body form, regardless of species, is a dominating aspect of the schooling impulse (Fre´on and Misund, 1999).
Taiwan is a large island located in the north western Pacific, supporting a high diversity of shallow water and deep-sea habitats. The waters to the south west of Taiwan connect to the South China Sea Basin (depth to 1000 m). Eastern coasts face the Pacific Ocean, linking to the West Philippine Basin (to 4000 m) and north eastern waters open to the Okinawa Trough (Wang, 1991). The biodiversity of the deep-sea barnacles of Taiwan have received scant attention and few deep-sea species have been reported. Previous records in Taiwan were often focused on intertidal and shallow water species (e.g. Hiro, 1939a, b). In recent years, with support from the National Science Council, Taiwan, several cruises were conducted to survey the deep-sea fauna of Taiwanese waters. Sampling by the TAIWAN expeditions was conducted using benthic French beam trawls in depths to 4000 m (Tsai et al., 2009). The present study reports on 18 deep-sea species collected by the recent TAIWAN expeditions plus collections from deep-sea fishing markets. One species had been previously recorded from Taiwanese waters, two were new species and 15 new records for Taiwanese waters.
coast have been working to re-establish fishing liveli- hoods. The Thai govern- ment and numerous donors have provided compensa- tion and replacement of longtail fishing vessels and gear lost during the tsu- nami. Fishers have reported some unusual changes in the fisheries and that they attribute to the tsunami. One of these is the Andaman Sea jelly fishery which is proving to be a serendipitous bonanza for the local fishers, helping them recover from losses incurred over the previous year. Fishers report that this unique fishery has been ongoing in the area for approximately 10 years during the October to February period but that catches this season have been significantly greater than at any time in the past. Almost all fishers with longtail boats replaced after the Indian Ocean Tsunami have taken advantage of the unusually high abundance of jellyfish. One fisher remarked it is more than he has seen in over forty years of fishing. Boats are loaded so full of jellyfish that their hulls ride extremely low on the water. Almost every boat observed entering one landing site in Suk Samran District in January 2006 contained a full hold of jellyfish. Abundant processing tanks have sprung up along the beaches and in the mangroves near every fishing village.
The TS of two green turtle and three species of fish was measure using modified echo sounder. The experimental results show that, there is significant difference between fish and turtles aged 18 years old at all angle. This values obtained are considered important in determining the best method of separating adult turtle from fish. The comparison between 12 years turtle and fish showed that there are overlapped occurs at tail angle. In addition, the finding also demonstrated that carapace and plastron is parts contributed high target strength. In other word, acoustic strength of the target is depends on size, surface and material. Although the study show significant result, but further research must be conduct for different species of fish, in order to ensure there are no overlap TS value between sea turtle and fish. Besides that, this study only focused measurement in the research tank, which is limited space and distance. Therefore, further research suggested conducting in the sea, where has vast area and not limited range.
widely available in the enzymes used in the process of metabolism and helps growth. The highest content of copper (Cu) in the viscera was 5.03 ± 0.02 ppm and the lowest copper value in the skin was 0.25 ± 0.01 ppm. The high mineral content of Cu in the banana puffer fish viscera was supported by Winarno (2008) who said that there was a lot of copper in the liver, kidney, and brain. The low concentration of copper in the skin was because the Cu content in the aquatic environment of Gebang, Cirebon Regency was lower in concentration. Copper (Cu) is needed by humans as Cu complex protein that functions in the formation of hemoglobin, collagen, blood vessels, and brain meylin. However, Cu would be very dangerous when consumed in excess (Palar 1994). The content of Cu in banana puffer if constantly consumed by humans will have a bad effect on the human health. Nurjanah et al. (2005) stated that if the body lacks copper, there will be an increase in lipid peroxides. The content of non-essential heavy metals in banana puffer fish such as lead (Pb) and (Cd) had the highest value of Pb in the viscera and meat, that is, 0.57 ± 0.02 ppm and 0.51 ± 0.01 ppm, while the highest Cd in viscera was 0.19 ± 0.01 ppm. The puffer fish skin samples had the lowest Pb and Cd values. Heavy metals Pb and Cd are toxic and hazardous waste materials, so that when the dose exceeds the normal limit it can lead to poisoning. According to ISO 7387: 2009, the maximum limit of Pb in food is 0.3 ppm, and the maximum limit of Cd contamination in food is 0.1 ppm. The contents of arsenic (As) and Hg (mercury) in all the three samples of banana puffer were not detected. This was probably due to the low contents of As and Hg, making them below the limit of detection equipment (<0.002 ppm). Leung et al. (2001) stated that the low content of heavy metals in organisms was due to several factors, among others, differences in growth rate, metabolic rate, body sensitivity (to the intake levels of certain heavy metals) and physiological needs for the metal. Mercury can exist in all living creatures of the sea, especially those living in polluted water. When the seafood is consumed by humans, the heavy metals will automatically be transferred into the body (Agustina 2010).
Floods is a-must to be faced agenda by the government. However, the development of flood control infrastructure has not overcome floods in Jakarta. This study discusses the concept of policy plans and flood management infra- structure of sea wall and deep tunnels, simulation of decision-making in organizations with public policy theory: The Garbage Can a Model of Organizational Choice. Using comparative study, authors compare both infrastruc- ture in the technical aspects, economic, environmental, social, and political, through qualitative and quantitative approaches to determine the most influential aspects. Analysis processed by the Analytical Hierarchy Process, Expert Choice and SPSS. The results showed difference in the consideration of the decision-making infrastructure. From the simulation of both types of infrastructure elections by using AHP, Expert Choice questionnaire and analysis, selected infrastructure is deep tunnel. In the analysis appears that the political aspect is regarded as the most influential aspect in decision making infrastructure. Which is not appropriate when a solution is needed to solve technical issues but politics was the main consideration and make solution becomes less relevant. This is proved by the simulation model of decision-making with a Garbage Can Theory of Organizational Choice models, where the simulation results show that the obtained solution for their supervision more than the obtained solution for their joint resolution.
However, faced with prolonged overcapacity and losses, the liner shipping companies have sought new collusive solutions in recent years. On the main East-West routes between industrialized areas, almost all shipping companies have taken part in stabilization agree- ments since 1988. Stabilization agreements are new-style, more loosely structured shipping cartels especially aimed at voluntary capacity reduction. The effect has been modest; rates have been further reduced. In addition, the European Community has been unwilling to grant the stabilization agreements anti-trust exemption. Furthermore, the collusive effects have been felt of the so-called mega-alliances which most large container carriers have formed since 1994. These alliances are a more intensive form of cooperation than the vessel-sharing agreements. Nowadays, the social demarcation between old and new ship- ping lines is much less relevant in cooperative issues. Only traditional liner companies took part in the first mega alliances, but in 1995, Sea-Land and Maersk also agreed to form a global alliance. Of the largest carriers, thus far only Evergreen continues to follow an independent policy. Finally, since the new shipping cartels and the mega-alliances have not resulted in the restoration of profit levels, in 1996 several top 20 container shipping firms started to turn to mergers as an alternative cooperative solution.
Abstract: Centrifugation and purification using adsorbents is one example of a fish oil refining techniques applied to reduce impurities of fish oil. The study aimed to determine the sardine oil quality before treatment, to determine yield of fish oil after centrifugation treatment and to determine the influence of centrifugation speed and bentonite concentration on sardine oil quality. Factorial design with two factors was used in this study. Level of free fatty acid and peroxide value before purification was 35.53% and 170 mEq/kg. Yield of fish oil after centrifugation treatment has been ranged from 17.42±3.56 to 76.33±0.21%. The best treatment which could reduce the peroxide value and total oxidation was a treatment with centrifugation speed at 6500 rpm and bentonite concentration at 3%. Peroxide value and total oxidation of its treatment was 25.00±0.00 and 51.43±0.01 mEq/kg. The lowest value of p-anisidine was 1.29±0.05 mEq/kg and its value could be found in a treatment with centrifugation speed at 4500 rpm and bentonite concentration at 5%. The level of free fatty acid after purification process was ranged from 27.35 to 34.69%. Oil clarity tended to increase with the increase of centrifugation speed and adsorbent concentration.