According to Arso (2010) in his research states that there are many factors that influence the occurrence of menstrualcycle disorders and the impaired of ovarian follicles maturation process in patients with PCO, these factors include fiber intake, fat intake, age, and BMI levels of the hormone androgen. Observed from BMI, women with status of overweight is 1.77 times higer risk of experiencing menstrualcycle disorders and impaired maturation of ovarian follicles. These result accordance with the research of Rakhmawati (2012) which states that interference menstrualcycle in women who have overweight, 1.89 times greater than women who had normal BMI.
study conducted in Malaysia in 2006 among teenagers, showed that BMI is not one the factors associated with menstrual disorders such as abnormal period of menstrual flow, heavy menstrual flow, irregular menstrualcycle and dysmenorrheal however BMI is associated with premenstrual syndrome, that are more commonly among overweight or obese subjects. Factors that are associated with menstrual disorders are smoking, followed by suicidal behavior, depression, anxiety which may be attributed to increased stress, then menarche within 2 years, age and ethnicity. It also finds that dieting behavior (eating less to lose weight) and those who are physically inactive affect the menstrualcycle as well. 11
Abstract: Factors affecting the menstrualcycle in women are: age, psychological, physical (heredity, nutritional status, and environment) and drugs. So far, the study on the menstrualcycle is only seen from the factors of nutritional status through the upper arm circumference and BMI (Body Mass Index). This situation encouraged researchers to conduct a study on the menstrualcycle length from nutritional factors as seen from body fat thickness.This study aims to analyze the correlation of body fat thickness and menstrualcycle length on the students. The study used an observational analytic with cross sec- tional approach. The population was all of the students in the first level of DIII Midwifery Department of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of UNUSA who had regular menstrual cycles and do not take anti- depressant drugs/contraceptive device. The sample was mostly students using simple random sampling. The total of the sample was 72 people. The test analysis was done by a moment product (alpha 0.05). The result of the study showed that p value is 0,039 < 0,05. There was a correlation between the body fat thickness and menstrualcycle length of the first level students of DIII Midwifery Department of Nursing and Midwifery Faculty of UNUSA. The conclusion of this study was the thicker of the student’s body fat the longer their menstrual cycles. For the health workers, they can provide counseling on female adolescents about reproductive health especially menstruation and the risk of fat in the body.
Introduction Menstrualcycle is ideally regularly every month with a period of 28-35 days each menstrual period. The menstrualcycle itself is influenced by many things, one of which is the stress level. This study aims to determine the relations between adolescent stress level and menstrualcycle. Research Method design was analytic correlation with cross sectional approach. The population were all female students who have experienced menstruation in SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika Jombang with a total of 128 female students. The sampling technique used proportional random sampling with a sample of 56 female students. Independent variable was stress level and dependent variable was menstrualcycle. The research instrument used questionnaires with data management editing, coding, scoring, and. The results of the stress level showed (57.1%) the level of mild stress a number of 32 female students, (30.4%) respondents had a normal stress level a number of 17 female students, and moderate stress levels were 7 female students (12.5%). Menstrualcycle showed results (51.8%) abnormal menstrual cycles totaling 29 students, and (48.2%) normal menstrual cycles totaling 27 students. Spearman rank statistics test results obtained significant numbers or numbers p = 0.000 <α (0.05), so H1 was accepted. The conclusion of this study says there is a relation between adolescent stress level with menstrualcycle in SMK Bakti Indonesia Medika Jombang.
After testing the data analysis using the Spearman Rank's correlation test through computer assistance, it was obtained a value of 0.815 with a significance level of 0,000 where p value <0.05, so Ha was accepted where there was a significant relationship between body mass index and menstrualcycle in class XI at SMAN 8 Denpasar.
4. Speroff L. dan Fritz M.A. The uterus, Neuroendocrinology, Regulation of menstrualcycle, dan Amenorrhea. Dalam: Clinical Gynecology Endocrinology and Infertility, edisi ke 7. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2005. hal.117-124, 149, 151, 156, 187-221, 403-404, 439.
Methods: This cross sectional study was conducted at several senior high schools in Jatinangor from April− June 2013. One hundred and sixty two students were included in this study. The sample size was calculated based on the unpaired−dichotomous variable for the two−sided formula. A self administered questionnaire was distributed to the senior high school girl students who were in their menarche age, menstrualcycle characteristics, presence or absence of dysmenorrhea, severity of pain and presence dysmenorrhea in mothers and in sisters were inquired. Data were analyzed using chi square test.
The process of teaching and learning is the main key for the successful of educational system. The interaction between teacher and students is very essential in the class. National curriculum is the guideline for the teachers in making lesson plan and also the media of teaching. The purposes of this research are 1) to know whether Printed Material Comic Strips can improve the English vocabulary of the Junior High School students in Kudus 2) to know the extent of the effectiveness of teaching and learning in the English class when the teacher use Printed Material Comic Strips. This research belongs to action research which is applied for the students of VII A SMP 2 Bae Kudus consisting 30 students. Before conducting the research, the writers gave pre test to know the vocabulary of the students. The result of pre-test shows that the mean score is 68.27, while the standard score (KKM) is 75. Then, the writers collaborated with the English teacher to do cycle I using Printed Material Comic Strips. The mean score of cycle I is 76.97. So, the writers continued to do cycle II. In cycle II, the writers also gave evaluation to the students. The mean score of cycle II is 85.10. In delivering the materials, the teacher felt easier by using comic. Furthermore, the students were enthusiastic and active in the class. Based on the observation, the English teaching and learning process is more attractive by using comic. In addition, comic can improve the students’ vocabulary.
Tujuan dari inventory adalah untuk menunjukkan pengaruh lingkungan per bagian dari life cycle. LCI baik digunakan dalam pencarian area yang memiliki kesempatan besar untuk melakukan perbaikan kualitas lingkungan melalui konservasi sumber daya dan pengurangan emisi. Pada tahap ini dibuat model yang dapat menggambarkan input dan output sistem melalui fase produksi, transportasi, penggunaan dan disposal. Hasil dari tahapan ini nantinya dapat digambarkan dalam sebuah flow sheet atau process tree. Pada tahapan ini merupakan tahapan yang paling intensif dan membutuhkan waktu lebih karena pengumpulan data. Pengumpulan data dapat memakan waktu yang tidak banyak jika database yang tersedia baik.
For the period before, during, and after the July 1990–March 1991 recession, all models produce a fairly stable pattern of re- cession probabilities from the July 1991 vintage onward. Con- sistent with the results for the July 2007 vintage shown in Figure 4, the signals of the synchronous and the nonsynchro- nous common cycle specifications are less clear than those of the other two specifications, in the sense that no sharp regime switches are seen. It would be particularly difficult to date the trough using the synchronous cycle specification. When using the nonsynchronous cycle specification, we would be unsure about the date of the peak. Based on the asymmetric nonsyn- chronous common cycle specification, we would date the peak at September 1990, two months later than the NBER’s peak date. Our estimate of the trough exactly matches the NBER’s date, however. In terms of the speed of detection of the busi- ness cycle peak, we observe a first string of recession probabil- ities > 0.5 for the data release of December 1990, four months before the NBER’s announcement of the peak. The indepen- dent cycles and the nonsynchronous common cycle specifica- tions detect the recession two months later, in February 1991. As early as June 1991, our model indicates that a trough had occurred in March. The NBER announced the end of this re- cession in December 1992, nearly one and a half years after the model’s time of detection.
PT. XYZ merupakan salah satu perusahaan manufaktur yang tergabung ke dalam perusahaan cooperate yaitu VW Group. Perusahaan ini bergerak dalam bidang industri komponen press kendaraan bermotor roda dua dan roda empat. Pada awal 2015 permintaan barang dari customer mengalami peningkatan sehingga perusahaan berusaha meningkatkan kapasitas produksi tanpa ada penambahan mesin dan Man Power. Departemen Engineering ditugaskan untuk melakukan perbaikan untuk menurunkan Cycle Time untuk memenuhi kenaikan kapasitas tersebut. Sebagai langkah awal perbaikan dilakukan di Line Plate Tail Comp. yang memiliki permintaan barang tertinggi dari part yang lain. Line Plate Tail Comp. yang merupakan line produksi yang berfungsi untuk proses stamping. Pada line ini menggunakan system Flow Process dimana terdapat 5 (lima) proses produksi, dimana setiap proses mendukung proses yang lainya, tahapan perbaikan dimulai dari analisa lapangan, identifikasi improvement, perencanaan, pelaksanaan, evaluasi secara berkala, sampai diperoleh hasil yang maksimal dari proses perbaikan. Landasan teori yang digunakan adalah time study dan coating proses karena sangat erat dengan elemen kerja operator. Pengambilan sample waktu kerja dilakukan langsung menggunakan metode stopwatch selama 10 hari kerja. Dari observasi awal dapat ditentukan perbaikan yang dapat dilakukan adalah menghilangkan elemen kerja transportasi digantikan oleh shutter sebagai transportasi material. Hasil penelitian adalah cycle time turun 26.47% dari standard awal yang artinya dapat menambah kapasitas produksi per hari 288 Pcs/hari.
Menstrual hygiene sering dianggap sebagai sesuatu yang sepele padahal buruknya menstrual hygiene dapat menyebabkan Infeksi Saluran kemih (ISK) dan mungkin juga kanker servik oleh karena virus dan bakteri berkembangbiak pada kondisi yang lembab (Proverawati, 2009). Berdasarkan survei kesehatan 62% perempuan di Indonesia mengalami infeksi vagina seperti flour albus, vaginitis, endometritis, dan servisitis penyakit vulvovaginitis pada masa kanak-kanak (Puspitaningrum, Suryaputro, dan Widagdo, 2012).