Finally, Abadie and Gerdeazabal (2003) use the counterfactual approach to look at thecosts in terms of GDP ofthe conflict in the Basque Region. Their approach is different from previous authors, in the sense that they formalise the foundation of their counterfactual region more rigorously. They argue that the Basque conflict in Spain is limited to only the Basque Region, which they back up with convincing evidence. Following that argument, non.Basque regions in Spain can thus be used as alternative regions in which no conflict takes place. However, as there are obviously many differences between the different regions, in addition to the presence of conflict in the Basque Region, this cannot be done straightforwardly. Instead, Abadie and Gardeazabal match the pre.conflict economic fundamentals ofthe Basque Region with a combination ofthe characteristics of other regions, in order to recreate a synthetic pre.conflict Basque Region. They do so by searching for a combination of other regions that minimises the difference between the weighed average ofthe fundamentals of those other regions and those ofthe Basque Region 1 . This way, the
Service and not-for-profit organizations incur costs that may be considered joint in nature, such as advertising and printing of multipurpose documents. Service organizations are not required to allocate these costs to the items worked on, delivered, or advertised but may choose to do so for a better matching of revenues and expenses. Not-for-profits are required by the AICPA to allocate these costs among the activities of fundraising, accomplishing an organizational program, or conducting an administrative function.
Petty estimated the HC of England as the difference between his estimationof national income (£42 million) and property income (rent of land 8 millions and profit 8 millions) capitalized in perpetuity at a 5% interest rate, arriving at a total HC estimationof £520 million; or a per capita estimationof £80. Although Petty’s approach was a very crude one, it had the merit of raising the issue, giving an answer, and making an economic and social interpretation ofthe result obtained. A rigorous scientific approach, that applies actuarial mathematics to estimate individual human capital, was developed by Farr (1853). He provided the basic approach and the scientific standard to estimate the gross and the net economic value of a human being to offer it as a basis for an equitable taxation of individual physical and human capital stocks. Farr (1853) stated that ‘‘the characteristic of life property in wages, …, is that it is inherent in man, and is the value of his services — ofthe direct product of his skill and industry, …, [which] is not the less on that account property’’.
In this paper, we present a novel linear approach for the initial recovery ofthe exterior orientation parameters (EOPs) of images. Similar to the conventional Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithm, the proposed approach is based on a two-step strategy. In the first step, the relative orientation of all possible image stereo-pairs is estimated. In the second step, a local coordinate frame is established, and an incremental image augmentation process is implemented to reference all the remaining images into a local coordinate frame. Since our approach is based on a linear solution for both the relative orientation estimation as well as the initial recovery ofthe image EOPs, it does not require any initial approximation for the optimization process. Another advantage of our approach is that it does not require any prior knowledge regarding the sequence ofthe image collection procedure, therefore, it can handle a set of randomly collected images in the absence of GNSS/INS information. In order to illustrate the feasibility of our approach, several experimental tests are conducted on real datasets captured in either a block or linear trajectory configuration. The results demonstrate that the initial image EOPs obtained are accurate and can serve as a good initialization for an additional bundle adjustment process.
The incidence of work-related injuries and illnesses in the year 2005 was obtained from the Occupational Health Information System [IMSS, Statistical Memory, [Memoria Estadı´stica], 2005]. This registry includes all injuries recognized as work-related accidents by occupational physicians, after they receive health care at IMSS owned and operated hospitals and clinics. Total temporary disability is paid at 100% ofthe salary since the first day ofthe accident until return to work, 1 year maximum, or a pension for permanent disability is granted. Previous reports have shown that 30% of occupational accidents are not registered [Salinas-Tovar et al., 2004]. Since occupational diseases are not as easily recognized as accidents are, only a few of them are declared and included in the registry. The incidence of occupational diseases (about 5,000 cases per year, basically traditional diseases: hearing loss and pneumoconiosis) obtained from these official reports was so low that this problem deserves special attention. Therefore, we decided not to include occupational illnesses in this report because this would underestimate the care cost of these diseases.
Observing eigen values as result of factor analysis, found that there are four eigenvalues are more than 1. This indicates, there may be four factors that can contribute a large proportion ofthe total variance that can be explained. However, these four factors are not necessarily significant when included as a factor that is contained in the mathematics test. By Chi-square test, can be obtained that the factor analysis model which contains two factors better than the load factor analysis model 1 factor. Similarly, 3-factor model, which is a better model than the model contains two factors, but the model includes four factors are not better than the models with 3-factor analysis. Based on these results, we can conclude that there are three factors contained in the mathematics test of national examination in 2006.
function of providing fishery products.The influence ofthe ecosystem’s natural beauty on visitation rates was also assessed. In addition to questions related to the visit (reason, expenses and length of stay), tourists also answered questions onthe cost of travel. The existence value ofthe mangroves for visitors was determined using the Contingent Valuation Survey. Potential alternative uses were the conver- sion ofthe mangrove area to clear cutting for charcoal, use as pasture or for real-estate enterprises.The specific objective ofthe contingent valuation survey was to estimate theeconomic net benefits to society from preserving the mangroves.We hypothesize that individuals would be worse off if this specific mangrove area was lost to another use.This economic loss would take the form of a reduction in personal welfare to visitors who were assumed to be willing to pay an amount to prevent the area from being converted to another use.
Government expenditure and tax revenue are the variable of fiscal policy equally give important meaning to stability ofthe economy. In Keynesian macroeconomic theory has generally assumed that increased government expenditure tends to lead to high aggregate demand and in turn rapid economic growth, and if the lower of government expenditure will affect the slow economy, because government expenditure illustrate the progress of government activity. tax revenue become the major source ofthe largest government revenue in recent years, if compared from oil and non oil sector of revenue. Can be said that taxes are a source of domestic revenue and strategic potential that must be managed properly in order to increase the total of government revenue. In other hand, the important is the government efforts to increase the tax revenue side. An increase in tax revenue will increase the allocation for government spending, because the tax revenue used to fund the government expenditure ( Mwafaq M.Dandan, 2011 )
The results showed elements of cost include the cost of raw materials, labor, and BOP. Costs that is spent by the craftsmen are not listed so that it only based onthe determination of cost estimations, whereas prices are determined based onthecosts incurred and the price that will be paid by the consumers. The biggest cost item is raw material especially in timber. Based on calculation of craftsmen, the average amount of profit is 13% ofthe production’s estimation cost. Meanwhile, according to the calculation of job order costing method average income is 20% ofthe production cost.
The econometric analysis ofthe two-equation model has usually been based onthe maximum likelihood (ML) estimation or a two-step estimationof Heckman (1979), assuming the bivariate normality onthe distribution ofthe error terms. However, if the assumption is violated, the estimators are inconsistent. The test, explained in Section 4, can reject the hypothesis of bivariate normality at the 1% level. Thus, the assumption required to use the parametric method is too strong to be satisfied. Although the assumption can be relaxed through the use of different distributional assumptions, it is more appealing to consider a method requiring fewer parametric assumptions.
This paper examines the use of sorting by defendants as a strategy for lowering their overall costsof litigation. The effectiveness of this strategy relies onthe defendant’s ability to bundle settlement offers with some other variable that is valued differently by plaintiffs. The example I examine in this paper is settlement delay. For example, if plaintiffs have different time costsof pursuing a case, then the defendant can induce those plaintiffs with higher time costs to accept lower settlement offers now, while promising higher offers at a later date. The analysis thus extends the basic asymmetric information model of settlement by allowing the defendant to dictate not only the dollar amount ofthe settlement offer, but also the time at which it will be paid, where the latter can range anywhere from the time the dispute arises up to the (fixed) date ofthe trial. The model uses standard self-selection techniques 1 to derive the conditions
Since the eorts of Robin Cooper in the late 1980s, many industries have suc- cessfully employed ABC to improve operational performance. ABC has continued to provide relevant and accurate information about cost management. In addition, because the ABC system focuses on activities rather than products, it helps prevent distorted product cost information that can arise from the use of traditional costing systems (Gunasekaran and Singh, 1999; Cooper and Kaplan, 1991). The basic assignments ofthe ABC model are to identify the activities of an organization, cal- culate the cost of each activity, and then cost the product based on activity con- sumption (Gunasekaran and Singh, 1999). Moreover, the ABC approach can be used to allocate various activities to related resources. Costs are appropriately allo- cated to selected cost objects by using the cost driver 1 of each activity. Therefore,
Data sources included mortality and overnight hospital admis- sion data from the New Zealand Health Information Service (NZHIS), and Accident Compensation Corporation (ACC) data for minor injuries. The hospitalisation counts excluded readmission for the same accident (multiple admissions for a person with the same accident date), and also excluded self-harm, assaults and trans- port accidents. The location ofthe accident was missing for 21% ofthe non-transport hospitalisations and 13% ofthe non-transport deaths. Injuries and deaths without a location specified were not used in the analysis. A detailed study of ACC-reported injuries classified as occurring at home showed that about 17% had been misclassified as occurring in the home setting (Keall et al., 2009). We did not adjust injury counts accordingly as other settings to which ACC-reported injuries were coded may well have included a similar proportion of home injuries. Injuries in the home setting are likely to include a small proportion of occupational injuries where the workplace was also the injured person’s home. “Serious” injuries in this analysis are considered equivalent to overnight or longer hospitalisations. The “minor” injuries were counts of injuries requiring medical treatment, but not hospitalisation, as recorded by the state universal no-fault injury insurer (ACC). ACC data included both serious and minor injuries. These data also contained a small proportion of intentional injuries, which are not separately coded in the ACC system and can only sometimes be discriminated from unintentional injuries by an examination ofthe text description ofthe injury event. In contrast, hospitalisation and mortality data have codes to indicate assault or self-harm and these injuries could therefore be excluded from the analysis. Because ofthe social and legal unacceptability of intentional injury, the hospitalisation and mortality data will also include a small proportion of injuries that were not unintentional, even when data with assault and self harm codes are excluded.
One explanation for the durability of switch costs is that they are due to an indelible degree of top-down interfer- ence. It has been shown that well-trained primates exhibit negligible switch costs, whereas humans performing the same task demonstrate greater switch costs (Stoet & Sny- der, 2003). In recent studies, Dreisbach and colleagues (Dreisbach, Goschke, & Haider, 2007; Dreisbach & Haider, 2008) investigated whether the underlying cause of this dissociation between species was due to differences in the cognitive representations ofthe two task sets. To test this hypothesis, Dreisbach et al. taught human subjects eight S–R pairings that could also be conceptualized as two tasks with four possible responses each. Surprisingly, no switch costs were observed until the unnoticed task- set structure was revealed (Dreisbach et al., 2007). In a subsequent study, Dreisbach and Haider suggested that this interference may reflect a beneficial process in which external S–R pairings are suppressed in order to optimize performance onthe current task. Their data indicate that representing the S–R mappings as distinct sets is suffi- cient to introduce switch costs. This cognitive limitation may be rendered beneficial by confining responses to rel- evant options when performing a task. Such a telescop- ing process might serve to limit errors and to promote the creation of context dependence—hallmarks of executive function (Miyake et al., 2000).
- FOR1 : The year 2000 and upward CO2 uptake is increase by 5 % than BAU scenario - FOR2 : The year 2000 and upward CO2 uptake is increase by 10 % than BAU scenario - FOR3 : The year 2000 and upward CO2 uptake is increase by 20 % than BAU scenario - FOR4 : The year 2000 and upward CO2 uptake is increase by 30 % than BAU scenario Energy sector analysis is based on result ofthe “Environmental Impacts of Energy Strategies for Indonesia”, 1993 study, as a joint study between BPPT, Indonesia and KFA, Juelich, Germany. However, recently several data and calculations have been updated, for examples cost estimation, economics growth rate etc. While the forest data and mitigation options in forestry sector were established trough an comprehensive study on Java and Jambi forest situation by Centre for Forest Research, Dept. of Forestry, and Development and Centre for Environmental Studies - Agricultural Institute of Bogor.
A previous New Zealand study looked at associations between structural home injury hazards that were systematically enumer- ated in a sample of homes and the rate of injuries occurring in homes with different numbers of hazards (Keall et al., 2008). For each additional home injury hazard enumerated, it was estimated that there was an associated increase in the odds ratio of a home injury occurrence of 22% (with 95% CI: 6–41%). This result suggests that addressing structural injury hazards in the home may be effec- tive in reducing home injury, but has the limitation that it is just a measure of association. In fact, to date there have been no studies of adequate size and quality to provide evidence ofthe effectiveness of structural home hazards remediation (Lyons et al., 2006). If the lower confidence limit from the previously cited NZ study (6%) is used as a lower bound for an estimated reduction in home injury rates per additional injury hazard, then the cost–benefit equation illustrated in Fig. 2 indicates that the expenditure of more than $2000 per house would be justified.