Top PDF On the minimization of task switch costs

On the minimization of task switch costs

On the minimization of task switch costs

In the present study, a novel long-term training para- digm was used to minimize sources of task-switch costs in order to assess the asymptotic flexibility of switch- ing between two sets of S–R connections, the coordinate structure of the connections formed, the degree to which performance on each task interferes with the other’s pro- ficiency, and the endurance of task consolidation. Five months of training produced over 280,000 trials in a sim- ple visuomotor task using bivalent stimuli to establish two equally difficult S–R mappings. Two training groups were compared: the unimanual group, who learned both S–R mappings with the right hand, and the intermanual group, who learned each mapping on a different hand. A series of training phases imposed steadily increasing de- mands on response flexibility by accelerating the rate of map switching from one mapping per session (Phase 1) to sessions of randomized map switching (Phase 5). Fol- lowing this extensive training, remarkably modest switch costs of less than 20 msec remained. The comparison of the unimanual and intermanual groups revealed that subjects were able to acquire and maintain equivalent proficiency with both mappings. Between-groups com- parisons demonstrated that the intermanual group was more resistant to interference between mappings than was the unimanual group and was therefore superior. In order to assess the preferred coordinate system of the stored task, we compared task transfer (Phase 6) to the untrained hand when we applied internal coordinates with that when we applied external coordinates. With
Baca lebih lanjut

12 Baca lebih lajut

On the minimization of task switch costs (1)

On the minimization of task switch costs (1)

Flexible, context-dependent linkages between stimulus and response are fundamental to adaptive behavior. In the present article, we evaluate the limits of this flexibility by exploring the asymptotic efficiency of people’s ability to switch between two different sensorimotor mappings. Two stimulus–response (S–R) mappings were learned, either both on the same hand (unimanual condition) or one mapping per hand (intermanual condi- tion). The S–R mappings presented bivalent stimuli and employed the same response keys. A novel training regimen successfully reduced task-switch costs to approximately 20 msec, suggesting that residual switch costs cannot be eliminated. These costs cannot be entirely attributed to the cognitive control process of task- set reconfiguration, because they are observed over cued switch intervals of several seconds. Two additional issues in motor learning were addressed: the single or dual loci of manual motor control and the coordinate system of task representation. First, the results favored the notion of independent controllers for each hand in- stead of a single dominant controller, since intermanual performance was superior to unimanual performance. Second, a transfer task tested internal (egocentric) and external (allocentric) coordinate systems. Transfer was more effective using the external coordinate system, suggesting that the S–R mappings reflected the associa- tion between the bivalent stimuli and external goals (i.e., the individual keys) rather than the concrete pattern of muscle contractions (i.e., the finger pressing the key). Finally, retention tests revealed that these learned S–R associations were remarkably durable, since no decrements in fluent task-switching performance were observed after 10 months without practice.
Baca lebih lanjut

12 Baca lebih lajut

Impact of generalized travel costs on sa

Impact of generalized travel costs on sa

This means that, the first level solution can appear completely different with respect to the standard case, but it does not have any effect on the satellite usage, and consequently on the second level routing. Instead, in S5, the distribution is quite uniform among satellites. This behavior coincides on what we would have expected. In fact, because of the high cost of central arcs, the minimization of total cost would avoid to use them, as much as possible. For doing that, each customer is assigned to a satellite located in the same part of the city from which it can be reached without crossing the center. This kind of solution can be used with profit in many real applications, where the best solution in term of distance, generally does not correspond to the most advantageous one.
Baca lebih lanjut

10 Baca lebih lajut

Time Based Prospective Memory in Childre

Time Based Prospective Memory in Childre

reduced performance on a time-based PM task. Specifically, they showed less correct PM responses than controls. Time-checking data sug- gests that this large group effect might be linked to reduced self-initiated strategy use and task organ- isation in ASD: Participants with ASD checked the time less often and showed a time-monitoring behavior different from controls, who increased their clock checks more steeply as the target times approached. Moreover, we found a significant functional relation between correct PM responses and mean number of clock checks in the last 30 seconds-interval prior to the critical times. Hence, participants that monitored time more frequently showed better performance on time-based PM tasks. An observation that is corroborated by var- ious studies in healthy children and adults (Einstein & McDaniel, 1996; Kerns, 2000). It is assumed that time checking reflects the amount of executive resources actively allocated to the prospective task and helps to self-remind the par- ticipant of the intention and thus not to miss the target times (Carlesimo, Casadio, & Caltagirone, 2004; Kliegel et al., 2001). Moreover, controls showed monitoring costs due to performing the PM task which were reflected in slightly longer response latencies for the ongoing task when it had to be performed simultaneously to the PM task relative to the pure ongoing task condition (Einstein et al., 2005). In contrast, this trend was not apparent in ASD, which further supports
Baca lebih lanjut

7 Baca lebih lajut

ACCA Paper F8 Auditiing and Assurance F8AA(Int)MT2A As j08

ACCA Paper F8 Auditiing and Assurance F8AA(Int)MT2A As j08

„ The duties of internal auditors are generally determined by the organisation that has set up the internal audit department and employs the internal auditors. Internal auditors normally have a general responsibility to perform their work and their reviews of systems with the possibility of fraud and error in mind.

9 Baca lebih lajut

Analysis of Language Learning Styles and Language Achievements of Higher Education Institution Students in Lampung

Analysis of Language Learning Styles and Language Achievements of Higher Education Institution Students in Lampung

Educational institutions are moving towards more emphasis on students’ preferences in learning. Research shows that if teachers can give students instructions relevant to their learning styles, the performances are usually better (Dunn and Price, 1979; O'Brien, 1989; Oxford and Ehrman, 1993) . When the learners’ lea rning styles are matched congenial with the instructional styles, their motivation, performances, and attainments will be enhanced (Brown, 1994). This notion is similar to what Felder and Henriques (1995) propose, i.e. that learning style deal with the ways in which an individual characteristically acquires, retains and retrieves information. These preferred ways are individual differences that may be attributed to cognitive, emotional and sensory factors (Willing, 1988).
Baca lebih lanjut

7 Baca lebih lajut

Wiley Games And Information An Introduction To Game Theory 4th Edition Dec 2006 ISBN 1405136669 pdf

Wiley Games And Information An Introduction To Game Theory 4th Edition Dec 2006 ISBN 1405136669 pdf

Game theory has grown to some importance in biology, but the style is different than in economics. The goal is not to explain how players would rationally pick actions in a given situation, but to explain how behavior evolves or persists over time under exogenous shocks. Both approaches end up de fi ning equilibria to be strategy pro fi les that are best responses in some sense, but biologists care much more about the stability of the equilibrium and how strategies interact over time. In section 3.5, we touched briefly on the stability of the Cournot equilibrium, but economists view stability as a pleasing by-product of the equilibrium rather than its justi fi cation. For biologists, stability is the point of the analysis. Consider a game with identical players who engage in pairwise contests. In this special context, it is useful to think of an equilibrium as a strategy pro fi le such that no player with a new strategy can enter the environment (invade) and receive a higher expected payoff than the old players. Moreover, the invading strategy should continue to do well even if it plays itself with fi nite probability, or its invasion could never grow to signi fi cance. In the commonest model in biology, all the players adopt the same strategy in equilibrium, called an evolutionarily stable strategy. John Maynard Smith originated this idea, which is somewhat confusing because it really aims at an equilibrium concept, which involves a strategy pro fi le, not just one player’s strategy. For games with pairwise interactions and identical players, however, the evolutionarily stable strategy can be used to define an equilibrium concept.
Baca lebih lanjut

577 Baca lebih lajut

The Minimization Of 5.75GHz Chebyshev Band Pass Filter.

The Minimization Of 5.75GHz Chebyshev Band Pass Filter.

Filter is the most significant passive component used in microwave subsystem which is also the narrowest bandwidth components in the system. Thus, filter usually is the component which limits such system parameters as gain and group delay flatness over frequency [2]. The development of microwave filter had commenced since 1937, during the period of World War II, where the microwave filter had been widely developed [3]. A lot of researches demonstrated on variety of filter structures to realize both filter compactness and selectivity improvement. The most popular band pass and band stop filter configurations are parallel coupled line, combline, interdigital and hairpin line.
Baca lebih lanjut

24 Baca lebih lajut

A Framework for Life Cycle Cost Estimation of a Product Family at the Early Stage of Product Development - Ubaya Repository

A Framework for Life Cycle Cost Estimation of a Product Family at the Early Stage of Product Development - Ubaya Repository

The aim of the framework is to provide a tool for estimating the life cycle cost of various product families, which have various types of structure, by using available high level information at the early stage of product development. The inputs of the framework are a product family structure and its sub functions. The sub function is represented by the use of the function taxonomy of Hirtz [19]. The information related to the sub function consists of its type, market segment, input, and output. The type classifies each sub function into a base or variant sub function. The market segment explains its product segment, performance, and production volume. The input and output describe input and output material, energy, motion, and signal of each sub function. Based on the input, the framework will generate life cycle cost information of a product family as its output that consists of all costs at each product family level and the costs of each product life cycle stage (research and development, production, logistic, usage and end of life).
Baca lebih lanjut

38 Baca lebih lajut

Antecedents Of Organisational Commitment Among Engineers At Tenaga Nasional Berhad.

Antecedents Of Organisational Commitment Among Engineers At Tenaga Nasional Berhad.

For decades, studies of organisational commitment have often centered on job satisfaction, job characteristics and participative decision-making (Pearson & Duffy, 1999; Tjosvold, 1998; Jones, 1997). It has been found that employees with stronger commitment to their company would work harder, perform better, miss less scheduled work days and generally exhibit increased-citizenship behaviours (Donoghue & Castle, 2009). Researchers have also demonstrated that commitment (attachment) is one of the defining experiences of being human; whereas, the opposite, alienation, has consistently been associated with unhealthy conditions and behaviours (Gifford, Zammuto, & Goodman, 2002). It is clear therefore, organisations have placed great
Baca lebih lanjut

24 Baca lebih lajut

Estimation of the social costs of home i

Estimation of the social costs of home i

Since all the benefits accrue over time, the flows need to be con- verted to present (discounted) values using a discount rate. We have used a 5% rate along with an 8% rate as a sensitivity analysis variant, provided because views vary concerning the most appro- priate rate. It can be argued that there should be more weight placed on the 5% rate because the housing context is one of “social” invest- ment, as the remediation of injury hazards yields a mixture of safety and esthetic benefits over time. The New Zealand Treasury until recently used a rate of 10%, but now suggests a “standard” rate of 8% and a rate for building investments of 6% (Chapman et al., 2009). Put simply, the discount rate indicates the way that an injury pre- vented in one year in the future is regarded less importantly today. If a discount rate of 8% is used and the lifespan of an improvement is 15 years, then the present value of all benefits accrued is about 8.56 times the benefit per year. If the present value of benefits is greater than the cost of a particular housing improvement, then the improvement is regarded as cost beneficial.
Baca lebih lanjut

6 Baca lebih lajut

Costs and Benefits of the Price Adjustme

Costs and Benefits of the Price Adjustme

Triggers: The Philippines has set legal and technical thresholds for adjustment, starting 6- month after the effective date of the contract (10). The technical thresholds are either two standard deviations from the 30-month mean of the applicable price index or greater than 10% increase in the index (if historical data are not available). Upward and downward adjustments are permitted at a rate of the adjustment percentage plus or minus 5% for each period corresponding to the approved schedule and critical path. United States Department of Transportation suggests between 25% and 100% as the range for the ceiling (upper bound) for change in the index in which adjustments will be provided (5). It also suggests providing a contract cancellation clause if escalation exceeds 125% or 200%. Oklahoma DOT has opted to allow adjustments if the price increases by more than 3% in any period (6). Threshold-based adjustments are not common in aid- financed contracts. The donors’ guidelines make no reference to this option although it can be easily provided under FIDIC MDB. It can avoid the need for defining start dates and corresponding base dates, and indirectly show the level of risk that the owner is willing to take.
Baca lebih lanjut

20 Baca lebih lajut

The Minimization Of 57.5 GHZ Chebyshev Band Pass Filter.

The Minimization Of 57.5 GHZ Chebyshev Band Pass Filter.

The prime scope of the project is to decrease the size of the conventional Chebyshev 9th order band pass filter while retaining the specifications. The design specifications remained the same where the center frequency of filter is 5.75GHz. The bandwidth of the filter is 100MHz and the insertion loss, S 21 is less than 10dB.

24 Baca lebih lajut

Cambridge IGCSE Enterprise (0454)

Cambridge IGCSE Enterprise (0454)

The standard assessment arrangements may present unnecessary barriers for candidates with disabilities or learning dificulties. We can put arrangements in place for these candidates to enable them to access the assessments and receive recognition of their attainment. We do not agree access arrangements if they give candidates an unfair advantage over others or if they compromise the standards being assessed.

38 Baca lebih lajut

Load Balancing With Genetic Algorithm

Load Balancing With Genetic Algorithm

a) Static Load Balancing Algorithm: Priori information of task is used to allocate all tasks to processors before their execution. In static load balancing algorithm, the task is allocated to the processor based on either the load at the time nodes are allocated to some task, or based on an average load of system. When estimation are made about resource requirements, at compile time decisions are made about load balancing. Static load balancing algorithm is mainly adopted because of its simplicity in terms of both implementation as well as overhead. There is no need to monitor workstation constantly for performance statistics in static load balancing scheme.
Baca lebih lanjut

4 Baca lebih lajut

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Review of Law and Economics:Vol19.Issue2.Jun1999:

Directory UMM :Data Elmu:jurnal:I:International Review of Law and Economics:Vol19.Issue2.Jun1999:

Sorting represents a heretofore unexamined source of delay in the settlement of legal disputes. This paper has combined the standard asymmetric information model of litigation and settlement with techniques from the self-selection literature to derive the conditions under which an uninformed defendant who is able to commit to a menu of offers will use delay as a sorting device to lower his overall costs of litigation. The fact that this strategy can be effective in lowering a defendant’s private litigation costs, however, does not ensure that it will also lower social costs. Indeed, we saw that sorting may or may not lower social costs, depending on whether the defendant would have gone to trial or settled immediately with those cases that he settles after delay. From a policy perspective, this implies that observed delays in settlement are not necessarily undesirable from a social perspective, as conventional wisdom might suggest.
Baca lebih lanjut

10 Baca lebih lajut

Directory UMM :Journals:Journal of Health Economics:Vol20.Issue2.Mar2001:

Directory UMM :Journals:Journal of Health Economics:Vol20.Issue2.Mar2001:

Finally, a comment on the overall indicator of an insurer’s incentives for selection that we applied in this paper. We assumed that an insurer distinguishes (non)-preferred risks by comparing its own cost predictions for its members with the cost predictions that are made by the regulator. Subsequently, we looked at the profits and losses for preferred risks and non-preferred risks, respectively. The division into (non)-preferred risks was independent of the forms and variant of risk sharing. Under proportional risk sharing as well as risk sharing for high-costs this seems reasonable. Under risk sharing for high risks as well as outlier risk sharing, this may lead to an overestimation of the reduction of an insurer’s incentives for selection. Given a certain variant of these forms of risk sharing, an insurer may redefine its (non)-preferred risks. Following this procedure yielded the results of Table 9. It suggests that we may have (slightly) overestimated the reduction of an insurer’s incentives for selection under risk sharing for high risks, but not under outlier risk sharing. Moreover, these (slightly) different results under risk sharing for high risks would not alter the conclusions as presented in this paper.
Baca lebih lanjut

22 Baca lebih lajut

Test bank Cost Accouting 6e by Rainborn Chapter 11

Test bank Cost Accouting 6e by Rainborn Chapter 11

Service and not-for-profit organizations incur costs that may be considered joint in nature, such as advertising and printing of multipurpose documents. Service organizations are not required to allocate these costs to the items worked on, delivered, or advertised but may choose to do so for a better matching of revenues and expenses. Not-for-profits are required by the AICPA to allocate these costs among the activities of fundraising, accomplishing an organizational program, or conducting an administrative function.

41 Baca lebih lajut

Directory UMM :Slide_Kuliah:PPT:MP_Kotler_10:

Directory UMM :Slide_Kuliah:PPT:MP_Kotler_10:

Types of Costs Types of Costs Total Costs Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given Level of Production Total Costs Sum of the Fixed and Variable Costs for a Given Level of [r]

13 Baca lebih lajut

The Costs of Production

The Costs of Production

© 2007 Thomson South-Western Figure 5 Cost Curves for a Typical Firm Quantity of Output Costs Marginal Cost declines at first and then increases due to diminishing marginal product.[r]

45 Baca lebih lajut

Show all 10000 documents...