In the present study, a novel long-term training para- digm was used to minimize sources oftask-switchcosts in order to assess the asymptotic flexibility ofswitch- ing between two sets of S–R connections, the coordinate structure ofthe connections formed, the degree to which performance on each task interferes with the other’s pro- ficiency, and the endurance oftask consolidation. Five months of training produced over 280,000 trials in a sim- ple visuomotor task using bivalent stimuli to establish two equally difficult S–R mappings. Two training groups were compared: the unimanual group, who learned both S–R mappings with the right hand, and the intermanual group, who learned each mapping on a different hand. A series of training phases imposed steadily increasing de- mands on response flexibility by accelerating the rate of map switching from one mapping per session (Phase 1) to sessions of randomized map switching (Phase 5). Fol- lowing this extensive training, remarkably modest switchcostsof less than 20 msec remained. The comparison ofthe unimanual and intermanual groups revealed that subjects were able to acquire and maintain equivalent proficiency with both mappings. Between-groups com- parisons demonstrated that the intermanual group was more resistant to interference between mappings than was the unimanual group and was therefore superior. In order to assess the preferred coordinate system ofthe stored task, we compared task transfer (Phase 6) to the untrained hand when we applied internal coordinates with that when we applied external coordinates. With
Flexible, context-dependent linkages between stimulus and response are fundamental to adaptive behavior. In the present article, we evaluate the limits of this flexibility by exploring the asymptotic efficiency of people’s ability to switch between two different sensorimotor mappings. Two stimulus–response (S–R) mappings were learned, either both onthe same hand (unimanual condition) or one mapping per hand (intermanual condi- tion). The S–R mappings presented bivalent stimuli and employed the same response keys. A novel training regimen successfully reduced task-switchcosts to approximately 20 msec, suggesting that residual switchcosts cannot be eliminated. These costs cannot be entirely attributed to the cognitive control process oftask- set reconfiguration, because they are observed over cued switch intervals of several seconds. Two additional issues in motor learning were addressed: the single or dual loci of manual motor control and the coordinate system oftask representation. First, the results favored the notion of independent controllers for each hand in- stead of a single dominant controller, since intermanual performance was superior to unimanual performance. Second, a transfer task tested internal (egocentric) and external (allocentric) coordinate systems. Transfer was more effective using the external coordinate system, suggesting that the S–R mappings reflected the associa- tion between the bivalent stimuli and external goals (i.e., the individual keys) rather than the concrete pattern of muscle contractions (i.e., the finger pressing the key). Finally, retention tests revealed that these learned S–R associations were remarkably durable, since no decrements in fluent task-switching performance were observed after 10 months without practice.
This means that, the first level solution can appear completely different with respect to the standard case, but it does not have any effect onthe satellite usage, and consequently onthe second level routing. Instead, in S5, the distribution is quite uniform among satellites. This behavior coincides on what we would have expected. In fact, because ofthe high cost of central arcs, theminimizationof total cost would avoid to use them, as much as possible. For doing that, each customer is assigned to a satellite located in the same part ofthe city from which it can be reached without crossing the center. This kind of solution can be used with profit in many real applications, where the best solution in term of distance, generally does not correspond to the most advantageous one.
reduced performance on a time-based PM task. Specifically, they showed less correct PM responses than controls. Time-checking data sug- gests that this large group effect might be linked to reduced self-initiated strategy use and task organ- isation in ASD: Participants with ASD checked the time less often and showed a time-monitoring behavior different from controls, who increased their clock checks more steeply as the target times approached. Moreover, we found a significant functional relation between correct PM responses and mean number of clock checks in the last 30 seconds-interval prior to the critical times. Hence, participants that monitored time more frequently showed better performance on time-based PM tasks. An observation that is corroborated by var- ious studies in healthy children and adults (Einstein & McDaniel, 1996; Kerns, 2000). It is assumed that time checking reflects the amount of executive resources actively allocated to the prospective task and helps to self-remind the par- ticipant ofthe intention and thus not to miss the target times (Carlesimo, Casadio, & Caltagirone, 2004; Kliegel et al., 2001). Moreover, controls showed monitoring costs due to performing the PM task which were reflected in slightly longer response latencies for the ongoing task when it had to be performed simultaneously to the PM task relative to the pure ongoing task condition (Einstein et al., 2005). In contrast, this trend was not apparent in ASD, which further supports
The duties of internal auditors are generally determined by the organisation that has set up the internal audit department and employs the internal auditors. Internal auditors normally have a general responsibility to perform their work and their reviews of systems with the possibility of fraud and error in mind.
Educational institutions are moving towards more emphasis on students’ preferences in learning. Research shows that if teachers can give students instructions relevant to their learning styles, the performances are usually better (Dunn and Price, 1979; O'Brien, 1989; Oxford and Ehrman, 1993) . When the learners’ lea rning styles are matched congenial with the instructional styles, their motivation, performances, and attainments will be enhanced (Brown, 1994). This notion is similar to what Felder and Henriques (1995) propose, i.e. that learning style deal with the ways in which an individual characteristically acquires, retains and retrieves information. These preferred ways are individual differences that may be attributed to cognitive, emotional and sensory factors (Willing, 1988).
Game theory has grown to some importance in biology, but the style is diﬀerent than in economics. The goal is not to explain how players would rationally pick actions in a given situation, but to explain how behavior evolves or persists over time under exogenous shocks. Both approaches end up de ﬁ ning equilibria to be strategy pro ﬁ les that are best responses in some sense, but biologists care much more about the stability ofthe equilibrium and how strategies interact over time. In section 3.5, we touched brieﬂy onthe stability ofthe Cournot equilibrium, but economists view stability as a pleasing by-product ofthe equilibrium rather than its justi ﬁ cation. For biologists, stability is the point ofthe analysis. Consider a game with identical players who engage in pairwise contests. In this special context, it is useful to think of an equilibrium as a strategy pro ﬁ le such that no player with a new strategy can enter the environment (invade) and receive a higher expected payoﬀ than the old players. Moreover, the invading strategy should continue to do well even if it plays itself with ﬁ nite probability, or its invasion could never grow to signi ﬁ cance. In the commonest model in biology, all the players adopt the same strategy in equilibrium, called an evolutionarily stable strategy. John Maynard Smith originated this idea, which is somewhat confusing because it really aims at an equilibrium concept, which involves a strategy pro ﬁ le, not just one player’s strategy. For games with pairwise interactions and identical players, however, the evolutionarily stable strategy can be used to deﬁne an equilibrium concept.
Filter is the most significant passive component used in microwave subsystem which is also the narrowest bandwidth components in the system. Thus, filter usually is the component which limits such system parameters as gain and group delay flatness over frequency . The development of microwave filter had commenced since 1937, during the period of World War II, where the microwave filter had been widely developed . A lot of researches demonstrated on variety of filter structures to realize both filter compactness and selectivity improvement. The most popular band pass and band stop filter configurations are parallel coupled line, combline, interdigital and hairpin line.
The aim ofthe framework is to provide a tool for estimating the life cycle cost of various product families, which have various types of structure, by using available high level information at the early stage of product development. The inputs ofthe framework are a product family structure and its sub functions. The sub function is represented by the use ofthe function taxonomy of Hirtz . The information related to the sub function consists of its type, market segment, input, and output. The type classifies each sub function into a base or variant sub function. The market segment explains its product segment, performance, and production volume. The input and output describe input and output material, energy, motion, and signal of each sub function. Based onthe input, the framework will generate life cycle cost information of a product family as its output that consists of all costs at each product family level and thecostsof each product life cycle stage (research and development, production, logistic, usage and end of life).
For decades, studies of organisational commitment have often centered on job satisfaction, job characteristics and participative decision-making (Pearson & Duffy, 1999; Tjosvold, 1998; Jones, 1997). It has been found that employees with stronger commitment to their company would work harder, perform better, miss less scheduled work days and generally exhibit increased-citizenship behaviours (Donoghue & Castle, 2009). Researchers have also demonstrated that commitment (attachment) is one ofthe defining experiences of being human; whereas, the opposite, alienation, has consistently been associated with unhealthy conditions and behaviours (Gifford, Zammuto, & Goodman, 2002). It is clear therefore, organisations have placed great
Since all the benefits accrue over time, the flows need to be con- verted to present (discounted) values using a discount rate. We have used a 5% rate along with an 8% rate as a sensitivity analysis variant, provided because views vary concerning the most appro- priate rate. It can be argued that there should be more weight placed onthe 5% rate because the housing context is one of “social” invest- ment, as the remediation of injury hazards yields a mixture of safety and esthetic benefits over time. The New Zealand Treasury until recently used a rate of 10%, but now suggests a “standard” rate of 8% and a rate for building investments of 6% (Chapman et al., 2009). Put simply, the discount rate indicates the way that an injury pre- vented in one year in the future is regarded less importantly today. If a discount rate of 8% is used and the lifespan of an improvement is 15 years, then the present value of all benefits accrued is about 8.56 times the benefit per year. If the present value of benefits is greater than the cost of a particular housing improvement, then the improvement is regarded as cost beneficial.
Triggers: The Philippines has set legal and technical thresholds for adjustment, starting 6- month after the effective date ofthe contract (10). The technical thresholds are either two standard deviations from the 30-month mean ofthe applicable price index or greater than 10% increase in the index (if historical data are not available). Upward and downward adjustments are permitted at a rate ofthe adjustment percentage plus or minus 5% for each period corresponding to the approved schedule and critical path. United States Department of Transportation suggests between 25% and 100% as the range for the ceiling (upper bound) for change in the index in which adjustments will be provided (5). It also suggests providing a contract cancellation clause if escalation exceeds 125% or 200%. Oklahoma DOT has opted to allow adjustments if the price increases by more than 3% in any period (6). Threshold-based adjustments are not common in aid- financed contracts. The donors’ guidelines make no reference to this option although it can be easily provided under FIDIC MDB. It can avoid the need for defining start dates and corresponding base dates, and indirectly show the level of risk that the owner is willing to take.
The prime scope ofthe project is to decrease the size ofthe conventional Chebyshev 9th order band pass filter while retaining the specifications. The design specifications remained the same where the center frequency of filter is 5.75GHz. The bandwidth ofthe filter is 100MHz and the insertion loss, S 21 is less than 10dB.
The standard assessment arrangements may present unnecessary barriers for candidates with disabilities or learning dificulties. We can put arrangements in place for these candidates to enable them to access the assessments and receive recognition of their attainment. We do not agree access arrangements if they give candidates an unfair advantage over others or if they compromise the standards being assessed.
a) Static Load Balancing Algorithm: Priori information oftask is used to allocate all tasks to processors before their execution. In static load balancing algorithm, thetask is allocated to the processor based on either the load at the time nodes are allocated to some task, or based on an average load of system. When estimation are made about resource requirements, at compile time decisions are made about load balancing. Static load balancing algorithm is mainly adopted because of its simplicity in terms of both implementation as well as overhead. There is no need to monitor workstation constantly for performance statistics in static load balancing scheme.
Sorting represents a heretofore unexamined source of delay in the settlement of legal disputes. This paper has combined the standard asymmetric information model of litigation and settlement with techniques from the self-selection literature to derive the conditions under which an uninformed defendant who is able to commit to a menu of offers will use delay as a sorting device to lower his overall costsof litigation. The fact that this strategy can be effective in lowering a defendant’s private litigation costs, however, does not ensure that it will also lower social costs. Indeed, we saw that sorting may or may not lower social costs, depending on whether the defendant would have gone to trial or settled immediately with those cases that he settles after delay. From a policy perspective, this implies that observed delays in settlement are not necessarily undesirable from a social perspective, as conventional wisdom might suggest.
Finally, a comment onthe overall indicator of an insurer’s incentives for selection that we applied in this paper. We assumed that an insurer distinguishes (non)-preferred risks by comparing its own cost predictions for its members with the cost predictions that are made by the regulator. Subsequently, we looked at the profits and losses for preferred risks and non-preferred risks, respectively. The division into (non)-preferred risks was independent ofthe forms and variant of risk sharing. Under proportional risk sharing as well as risk sharing for high-costs this seems reasonable. Under risk sharing for high risks as well as outlier risk sharing, this may lead to an overestimation ofthe reduction of an insurer’s incentives for selection. Given a certain variant of these forms of risk sharing, an insurer may redefine its (non)-preferred risks. Following this procedure yielded the results of Table 9. It suggests that we may have (slightly) overestimated the reduction of an insurer’s incentives for selection under risk sharing for high risks, but not under outlier risk sharing. Moreover, these (slightly) different results under risk sharing for high risks would not alter the conclusions as presented in this paper.
Service and not-for-profit organizations incur costs that may be considered joint in nature, such as advertising and printing of multipurpose documents. Service organizations are not required to allocate these costs to the items worked on, delivered, or advertised but may choose to do so for a better matching of revenues and expenses. Not-for-profits are required by the AICPA to allocate these costs among the activities of fundraising, accomplishing an organizational program, or conducting an administrative function.