" I hereby declare that I have read through the report entitle Development and Vibration Analysis of Go-Kart System and found that it has comply the partial fulfillment for a warding the degree of Bachelor of Mechatronics Engineering "
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DEVELOPMENT AND VIBRATION ANALYSIS OF GO-KART SYSTEM
LIM SEONG CHUAN
A Report Is Submitted In Partial Fulfillment Of The Requirements For The Degree Of Bachelor Of Mechatronics Engineering
Faculty of Electrical Engineering
UNIVERSITI TEKNIKAL MALAYSIA MELAKA
I declare that this report entitle Development and Vibration Analysis of Go-Kart System is the result of my own research except as cited in the reference. This report has not been accepted for any degree and is not concurrently submitted in candidature of any other degree.
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In preparing this report, I would like to gratefully and sincerely thank my supervisor, Mr. Zamzuri Bin Ab. Rashid for his guidance during my final year project. His supervision and advices provide a well encouragement motivation for me in completing my final year project. His suggestion and critics are also well appreciated. Without his guidance and support, the project would not have been same as presented here.
Besides that, I would like to express my gratitude towards my faculty which is Faculty of Electrical Engineering of Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka for providing funding to the project as well as providing place and equipments in completing the project. I would like to thank all the lecturers and technicians for their valuable suggestions and opinions in helping to complete the project.
Furthermore, my fellow friends in Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka especially the member in the same team in developing Go-Kart system for providing support and useful information at various occasions in completing my final year project. Their helps and assistance in developing the project is highly appreciated.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ... v
ABSTRACT ... vi
ABSTRAK ... vii
TABLE OF CONTENTS ... viii
LIST OF TABLES ... xii
LIST OF FIGURES ... xiii
LIST OF APPENDICES ... xvi
CHAPTER 1 ... 1
INTRODUCTION ... 1
1.1 Introduction ... 1
1.2 Problem Statement ... 2
1.3 Objective ... 3
1.4 Scope ... 3
1.5 Report Outline ... 4
CHAPTER 2 ... 5
LITERATURE REVIEW ... 5
2.1 Introduction ... 5
2.2 Chassis design ... 5
2.3 Dynamic analysis ... 7
2.4 Static analysis ... 8
2.5 Formula UniMAP 2013 ... 9
2.6 Shell Eco-Marathon ... 10
2.8 Butterworth Low Pass Filter In MATLAB Software ... 11
2.9 Summary ... 12
CHAPTER 3 ... 13
METHODOLOGY ... 13
3.1 Introduction ... 13
3.2 Project Flow Chart ... 13
3.2.1 Final Year Project 1 Flow Chart ... 14
3.2.2 Final Year Project 2 Flow Chart ... 15
3.3 Vibration Test Block Diagram ... 17
3.4 Process Flow Chart ... 19
3.4.1 Static Analysis Flow Chart ... 19
3.4.2 Vibration Analysis Flow Chart ... 20
3.5 House of Quality ... 23
3.6 Component Selection ... 24
3.6.1 Material For Chassis Structure ... 24
3.6.2 Material For Connecting Joint Of Chassis Structure ... 24
3.6.3 Material For Joining With Other Parts ... 24
3.7 Gantt Chart ... 25
3.8 Summary ... 26
CHAPTER 4 ... 27
RESULT AND DISCUSSION ... 27
4.1 Introduction ... 27
4.2 Summary Of Chassis Dimension ... 27
4.3 3D Drawing Of The Basic Chassis Structure ... 28
4.4 Detail Of The Basic Chassis Structure ... 28
4.5 3D Drawing Of The Chassis With Combining Parts ... 32
4.6.1 Fabricated Drivetrain ... 36
4.6.2 Fabricated Arm ... 37
4.7 Static Test Simulation ... 38
4.7.1 Study Properties Of The Chassis In Solidworks Software ... 39
4.7.2 Unit Used In The Static Test ... 40
4.7.3 Load And Fixture Of The Static Test ... 40
4.7.4 Mesh Information Of The Static Test ... 42
4.7.5 Diagram Of Meshed Structure ... 42
4.7.6 Static Test Result (Von Mises Stress) ... 44
4.7.7 Static Test Result (Resultant Displacement) ... 45
4.7.8 Static Test Result (Equivalent Strain) ... 46
4.7.9 Static Test Result (Deformed Shape) ... 47
4.8 Vibration Test ... 48
4.9 Analysis And Discussion (Static Test) ... 72
4.9.2 Resultant Displacement Result Analysis And Discussion ... 73
4.9.3 Strain Equivalent Result Analysis And Discussion ... 74
4.10 Analysis And Discussion (Vibration Test)... 74
4.10.1 Vibration Analysis In Rear Part Of The Chassis For Free Gear And First Gear ... 76
4.10.2 Vibration Analysis In Middle Part Of The Chassis For Free Gear And First Gear ... 79
4.10.3 Vibration Analysis In Front Part Of The Chassis For Free Gear And First Gear ... 82
4.10.4 Discussion ... 86
4.11 Summary ... 88
CHAPTER 5 ... 89
CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS ... 89
5.1 Introduction ... 89
5.2 Conclusion ... 89
5.3 Recommendation ... 91
5.4 Summary ... 91
REFERENCES ... 92
4.26 (b) Vibration At Point 7 During Free Gear With Filter 61 4.26 (c) Vibration At Point 7 During First Gear Without Filter 61 4.26 (d) Vibration At Point 7 During First Gear With Filter 62 4.27 (a) Vibration At Point 8 During Free Gear Without Filter 62 4.27 (b) Vibration At Point 8 During Free Gear With Filter 63 4.27 (c) Vibration At Point 8 During First Gear Without Filter 63 4.27 (d) Vibration At Point 8 During First Gear With Filter 64 4.28 (a) Vibration At Point 9 During Free Gear Without Filter 64 4.28 (b) Vibration At Point 9 During Free Gear With Filter 65 4.28 (c) Vibration At Point 9 During First Gear Without Filter 65 4.28 (d) Vibration At Point 9 During First Gear With Filter 66 4.29 (a) Vibration At Point 10 During Free Gear Without Filter 66 4.29 (b) Vibration At Point 10 During Free Gear With Filter 67 4.29 (c) Vibration At Point 10 During First Gear Without Filter 67 4.29 (d) Vibration At Point 10 During First Gear With Filter 68 4.30 (a) Vibration At Point 11 During Free Gear Without Filter 68 4.30 (b) Vibration At Point 11 During Free Gear With Filter 69 4.30 (c) Vibration At Point 11 During First Gear Without Filter 69 4.30 (d) Vibration At Point 11 During First Gear With Filter 70 4.31 (a) Vibration At Point 12 During Free Gear Without Filter 70 4.31 (b) Vibration At Point 12 During Free Gear With Filter 71 4.31 (c) Vibration At Point 12 During First Gear Without Filter 71 4.31 (d) Vibration At Point 12 During First Gear With Filter 72
LIST OF APPENDICES
APPENDIX TITLE PAGE
1 Arduino Coding 95
Chassis acts as the main frame of the body structure of the vehicle. It is one of the most important part to be considered when designing a vehicle. Chassis is defined as the lower part of a vehicle which includes the wheels, frame, driveline, engine and suspensions. There are 3 types of chassis structure which is the ladder chassis frame, space frame chassis and monocoque chassis.
Elements that always been considered during the design of the chassis structure is such as the strength and the stiffness of the chassis. Chassis built for vehicle has to be strong because it tends to be subjected to static stress, strain and also vibration due to various dynamic excitation. Static analysis of the chassis structure is important in determining the safety of the chassis structure. Besides that, vibration on the chassis could affect the comfort during ride, the stability of the whole vehicle as well as the safety of the vehicle. Besides that, vibration can also caused high stress concentration at certain part of the structure, fatigue on the structure and loose in the joints of the structure. Therefore, the vibration analysis is vital to be done on the chassis, ensuring the safety and the stability of the vehicle.
thickness welding rod to form the space frame chassis. The fasteners used in connecting other parts such as bearing and absorber are M10 mild steel bolts and nuts with washers.
Before the process of developing the chassis been started, a three dimensional modeling of the chassis is drawn using Solidworks software in order to perform finite element analysis on the designed chassis structure. Materials used in constructing the whole chassis structure is also been identified and assigned in the software to increase the accuracy of the result. Static analysis is done on the modeling of the chassis using the simulation functions in Solidworks software to determine the distribution of static stress on the structure and the displacement of the structure after the load force is added into the simulation. The safety factor for the chassis can also be calculated after the analysis.
After the fabrication of the chassis is completed, the vibration test will be done physically using 5 degrees of freedom Inertia Measurement Unit (IMU) sensor and aided with programming codes. The accelerometers in the IMU sensor are the main components that been used to detect the vibration along the three axes which are x-axis, y-axis and z-axis. The aided programming code is uploaded to an Arduino Uno board in order to extract the data obtained from the accelerometer of the IMU sensor. The data obtained from the vibration test is analyzed and graph is plotted in MATLAB software in order to illustrated the vibration of the chassis structure at different point on the chassis.
1.2 Problem Statement
Secondly, the project focuses on how to perform vibration test on the chassis designed using IMU sensor with aided programming code uploaded to Arduino Uno board to determine the vibration because vibration is hard to measure using hand held equipment such as vibration meter due to human error. With the aided of the IMU sensor, data can be obtained easily as well as be able to transfer the data into computer, The data obtained can also be analyzed and recorded easily. Furthermore, human errors can be eliminated and the accuracy of the data obtained can be increased.
Thirdly, determining the static stress and strain concentrated at certain point on the chassis structure and determining the displacement of the structure of the chassis could increase the performance of the go-kart and increase the safety of the driver of that particular vehicle. In the end of the project, the chassis designed will be a chassis structure that able to withstand the load with a satisfactory safety factor.
The objectives of this final year project are stated as follows: 1. To develop a chassis structure according to specifications.
2. To identify and analyze the static stress, strain and vibration on the chassis designed.
The scope of the project are stated as follows:
1. Design the chassis of a go-kart using Solidworks software that suitable for competitions.
2. Develop the chassis design using suitable materials that fulfill the requirements in the competitions.
3. Undergone stimulation using Solidworks software to perform static test on the chassis design.
1.5 Report Outline
The main body of the project is arranged according to consecutive chapters. The report consists of 5 chapters such as:
i. Chapter 1: Introduction
The first chapter identifies the problem statement of the project, defines the objectives of the project and limits the scope for the project.
ii. Chapter 2: Literature Review
This chapter discusses about the studies done by other researchers that related to the project. The background of the theory and method used in conducting experiments are included in this chapter.
iii. Chapter 3: Methodology
This chapter describes all the techniques used in performing experiments. The flowcharts and block diagrams of the project is also included in this chapter to illustrate the methodology of the project.
iv. Chapter 4: Result And Discussion
This chapter explains about the outcomes of the project. Visual representation such as figure, table, graph and chart are shown in this chapter. The interpretation of the data obtained during experiments is also included. Furthermore, the analysis and discussion regarding the outcome of the project are also provided in this chapter.
v. Conclusion And Recommendation
The previous chapter explained about the introduction of the project and stated the problem statement of the project. Besides that, the objectives and scope of the project are also defined in order to set the project at the correct path. In this chapter, the literature and past studies related to the chassis design and analysis is studied and the knowledge related to the chassis design is summarized.
2.2 Chassis design
Chassis of the vehicles is the frame work that are used to support the body and all the parts of a vehicle. Chassis played a vital role in vehicles for example cars, trucks, SUV, sports car and also racing car. The design of the chassis of the vehicle has different kind of structure. For instance, the honeycomb sandwich panel monocoque chassis, the ladder chassis frame and the tube space frame structure. In this project. A chassis structure chosen is the tube space frame structure and it is needed to be produced to have a stable and strong structure.
vehicle design could reduce the weight of the vehicle while maintaining the performance and safety of the vehicle. Hirsch  pointed out the full usage of aluminium on the car centre of gravity. The distance of vehicle centre of gravity and the distance of body centre of gravity from the front or rear axle as well as the height above the ground are crucial for:
i. Braking and acceleration capability ii. Determining climbing ability iii. Designing brake system
iv. Designing body centre of gravity and aspects of vibration stability v. Driving stability
vi. Determining mass moment of inertia
They also stated that low centre of gravity could also contributed in fewer driving dynamic problems and increased the performance of the vehicle [3, pp. 386-388].
Moreover, the torsional stiffness of a vehicle is an important element in producing a safe vehicle. When the vehicle is in motion and steering force is exerted on the chassis, the chassis will experience twist stress. Therefore, the studies on vehicle torsional stiffness has to be done to ensure the vehicle handling performance. In , it is stated that chassis of a vehicle has 2 roll degree of freedoms, roll angle and roll angular velocity of sprung mass centre. The torsional stiffness of the vehicle could affect the roll angle of the vehicle after a analysis on the chassis to determine the influence of torsional stiffness on the roll angle at the suspension of the vehicle.
2.3 Dynamic analysis
For every chassis designed, several tests will be done on the chassis in order to justify the functionality of the chassis. For example, dynamic analysis is the one of the common test done on the chassis design. Nowadays, there is simulation function in the CAD software that enables the users to test their chassis design using the software after the modeling process. In this project, the chassis designed need to be analyzed dynamically to determine the stability of the structure using simulation function in CAD software.
Next, in , the authors stated that when a vehicle travels along the road, the chassis of the vehicle is excited by the dynamic force caused by external issue such as the road condition and also internal issue such as engine and transmission. Based on the analysis done by , the result is based on the first 30 frequency modes. The chassis maximum displacement in x, y and z direction is determined as well as the natural frequencies from the modal analysis. There are groups of researchers performed analysis on their designed chassis using Modal Analysis in ANSYS software after modeling of the 3 dimensional chassis design is completed [5, 6, 7]. The dynamic analysis is done to determine whether the natural frequency of the chassis is in the suitable range.
Furthermore,  performed vibration analysis on a vehicle frame and stated that the natural frequency of the structure coincides with the frequency from forced vibration can caused resonance which could leads to failure to the structure. Besides that, the analysis done by  is to determine the frequency in different mode. During the analysis, a few assumptions had to be made such as damping is ignored and any applied load is ignored. In the result, the natural frequency in each mode is determined. From an analysis done in China, the experimental modal was the chassis of a Land-wind X6. During the analysis, the system is supported by 2 plat tires, a 16-channel data acquisition system, a data analysis system, 16 accelerometer that act as sensors and a input hammer. 48 different points at the chassis are determined as the test points of the analysis and the points are selected mostly at the front or rear of the chassis. The analysis successfully outcome the frequency response of the chassis .
installing suitable suspension to the chassis structure which could absorb the shock from external factor such as bumpy road. In this project, dynamic analysis on the chassis will be done is the vibration analysis software. Before the analysis is done, the modeling of the 3 dimensional chassis design will be prepared in Solidworks software. Furthermore, finite element analysis (FEA) will be conducted to find the stable chassis structure and the vibration analysis will be done physically using sensors and the data obtained will be transferred to computer to be further analyzed and compared.
2.4 Static analysis
Static analysis is an analysis on chassis which determine the static stress and strain that acts on the structure and determine the forces distribution all over the structure of the chassis. Besides that, it is also includes the determination of static displacement of the structure after load is added to the structure. Static analysis can be done using CAD software where for Solidworks software, static test could aid us in finding the Von Mises Stress, strain and maximum displacement of the structure when load is applied to the structure. This also could help us in determining the safety factor on the chassis structure designed.
A group of researchers performed static test on the chassis created by using the ALGOR Fempro software to determine the Stress Von Misses of the chassis. Simulation in the software showed the distribution of the stress clearly on the three dimensional modeling of the chassis structure when forces or load was added to the model . Not only that, the bending of the structure can be easily seen in the software. Besides that, simulation is also can be done using ANSYS software after obtaining the 3 dimensional modeling of the chassis. Based on the structural analysis using ANSYS performed by  found that the loading and boundary condition of were set before element and nodes is determined and set. A finer meshing was applied in order to obtain a more accurate result especially at the region having the highest stress.